Monday 27 May 2024

Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham: Tamil text, transliteration and translation

In continuation of my translations of other works of Bhagavan, such as Nāṉ Ār?, Upadēśa Undiyār, Upadēśa Sāraḥ, Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā, Appaḷa Pāṭṭu and Āṉma-Viddai, this is my translation of உள்ளது நாற்பது அனுபந்தம் (Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham), and in the coming months or years I hope to be able to revise and post here my translations of all his other original writings.

    Pāyiram verse 1: introductory verse adapted by Sadhu Om from a prāstāvika ślōka composed by Bhagavan
    Pāyiram verse 2: introductory verse composed by Muruganar
    Maṅgalam (benedictory verse): Let us hold in our heart that svarūpa, the existing substance in which, of which, from which, for which and by which all this arises, and which is itself all this
  1. Verse 1: Cherish satsaṇga, by which attachment will leave, movement will cease and liberation will be attained
  2. Verse 2: The exalted state is achieved by clear vicāra, which arises in the heart when one takes refuge in sādhu-association
  3. Verse 3: If one adheres to living with sādhus, for what are all these niyamas?
  4. Verse 4: Heat, poverty and sin will depart just by the great sight of peerless sādhus
  5. Verse 5: Sādhus give rise to purity as soon as they see by eye
  6. Verse 6: You, who know the mind, are actually God
  7. Verse 7: I am the light to all lights
  8. Verse 8: In the centre of the heart-cave brahman alone shines as ‘I am I’
  9. Verse 9: Only that awareness that is the blemishless, motionless ‘I’-form in the heart is what will give liberation by removing ‘I’
  10. Verse 10: The body (dēham) is not I (nāham). Who am I (kōham)? He is I (sōham)
  11. Verse 11: He who has been born is only he who, carefully investigating where I was born, has been born in his source, brahman
  12. Verse 12: Investigate yourself, who are ever-unceasing happiness, and thereby cease considering the wretched body ‘I’
  13. Verse 13: Destroying the awareness ‘I am this body’ is all virtues, good deeds and worthy achievements
  14. Verse 14: Investigating for whom are all defects is karma, bhakti, yōga and jñāna
  15. Verse 15: The buffoonery of lunatics who strive to acquire all siddhis, not knowing that they move by divine power
  16. Verse 16: Since cessation of mind alone is liberation, how will those whose mind is yoked on siddhis immerse in the bliss of liberation?
  17. Verse 17: When God bears the burden of the world, the spurious soul bearing it is mockery
  18. Verse 18: The seeming location of the heart in the body
  19. Verse 19: A metaphorical description of the heart
  20. Verse 20: By meditating ‘The Lord who shines in my heart as I alone is I’, if one remains firmly as ‘I’, the ignorance ‘I am this body’ will perish
  21. Verse 21: The two kinds of heart, in one of which all these phenomena appear as a reflection
  22. Verse 22: The organ called ‘heart’ inside the chest is to be rejected, and the heart in the form of the one omnipresent awareness is to be accepted
  23. Verse 23: In this principal heart the entire universe resides, so it is not a small portion in the perishable and insentient body
  24. Verse 24: By fixing the mind in this pure heart composed of awareness, complete dissolution of breath and vāsanās will be achieved
  25. Verse 25: By constant meditation ‘Awareness devoid of all adjuncts is I’, dispel every attachment
  26. Verse 26: Firmly holding the supreme state devoid of falsity, having known what exists in the heart as the reality for all appearances, without ever abandoning that view, play in the world, hero, as if desirous
  27. Verse 27: Having seeming rising, delight, agitation, aversion and effortful initiative, but being devoid of defects, freed from delusion and steadily equanimous in all circumstances, doing actions on the outside to suit your disguise, play in the world as required, hero
  28. Verse 28: One who has destroyed the senses by knowledge, and who is fixed firmly as existence-awareness, is a self-knower
  29. Verse 29: Brightness and strength of intellect automatically increase for those who have seen the reality
  30. Verse 30: The mind in which vāsanās have been erased is actually not doing even though doing, whereas the mind that vāsanās soak is actually doing even though not doing
  31. Verse 31: The knower of reality is asleep to the body’s activity, niṣṭhā and sleep
  32. Verse 32: For those who experience waking, dream and sleep, waking-sleep is called ‘turya’, but since that turya alone exists, it is turīyātīta
  33. Verse 33: Saying ‘sañcita and āgāmya do not adhere to the jñāni; prārabdha does remain’ is a reply said to the questions of others
  34. Verse 34: In the heart of the learned, many book-families exist as obstacles to yōga
  35. Verse 35: The learned who do not intend to erase the writing of fate by investigating where they were born have acquired the nature of a sound-recording machine
  36. Verse 36: Rather than those who have not subsided though learned, those who are not learned are saved
  37. Verse 37: Those who have come under the sway of the wicked whore who is praise, escaping slavery to her is difficult
  38. Verse 38: When one always stands in one’s real state, who is there besides oneself? Whoever says whatever about oneself, so what?
  39. Verse 39: Always experience advaita in the heart, but never perform it in action, particularly not with guru
  40. Verse 40: The essence of the final conclusion of all vēdānta: if I dies and I become that, that I, which is awareness, alone remains
Introduction

Sri Muruganar had collected twenty-one verses that Bhagavan had composed on various occasions, and on 21st July 1928 he asked Bhagavan to compose some more verses in order to form a work of forty verses on the nature of reality and the means to attain it, so Bhagavan began to compose more verses on this subject. In order to arrange them into a logical order and to form them into coherent text, each day for the next two and a half weeks he and Muruganar would discuss in detail the progress of the work, where gaps needed to be filled, and which of the original twenty-one verses should be retained and which discarded.

On 11th August 1928 உள்ளது நாற்பது (Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu) was complete in its present form, but only three of the original twenty-one verses were retained in it, namely verses 16, 37 and 40, and of these three the original verse that became verse 16 (which is now included in Upadēśa Taṉippākkaḷ as verse 13) was modified by Bhagavan to form the present verse. The other eighteen of the original verses, along with three new verses that he composed while compiling Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, were not retained because they were not sufficiently germane to the subject, so these twenty-one discarded verses were formed into a separate work called உள்ளது நாற்பது அனுபந்தம் (Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham), the ‘appendix’ or ‘supplement’ to Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu.

The twenty-one verses included in the 1928 edition of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham were the maṅgalam and verses 1, 3-10, 12, 18-20, 25, 34-38 and 40. In 1931 the first edition of ஸ்ரீ ரமண நூற்றிரட்டு (Śrī Ramaṇa Nūṯṟiraṭṭu), the Tamil ‘Collected Works of Sri Ramana’, was published, and in it Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham contained thirty verses, namely the above twenty-one plus verses 2, 11, 13, 15, 17, 28 and 30-32. The other eleven verses, namely 14, 16, 21-24, 26-27, 29, 33 and 39, were composed by Bhagavan on various occasions during the 1930s, so by 1938 Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham contained thirty-seven verses, and by 1940 it contained all the present forty-one verses, namely maṅgalam and verses 1 to 40.

Whereas all of the verses of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu are original verses composed by Bhagavan, most of the verses of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham are ones that he translated or adapted from Sanskrit or Malayalam. Eleven of these verses, namely 13-17, 31-33, 35-36 and 38, are original Tamil verses composed by Bhagavan. Verses 8 and 10 are verses that he originally composed in Sanskrit and later translated in Tamil. Verse 11 is an idea that he first expressed orally, and Lakshmana Sarma then recorded what he said in a Sanskrit verse, which Bhagavan then translated as this Tamil verse. The first two lines of verse 12 are an original composition by Bhagavan, and the last two lines are a translation by him of verse 84 of Vivēkacūḍāmaṇi. Therefore these fifteen verses, namely 8, 10-17, 31-33, 35-36 and 38, are all wholly or partly original verses by Bhagavan, whereas the other 26 were all translated or adapted by him from other sources.

At least nine of these verses, namely the maṅgalam and verses 21-24, 26-27 and 29-30, are Tamil translations of verses from Yōga Vāsiṣṭham, and three others, namely 2, 3 and 28, are Tamil translations of verses that are also said to be from Yōga Vāsiṣṭham, though I have not been able to verify this. In addition to the last two lines of verse 12, which are (as mentioned above) a translation of verse 84 of Vivēkacūḍāmaṇi, three other verses are likewise translations of verses by Adi Sankara, namely verses 1, 7 and 39, which are respectively translations of verse 9 of Mōha Mudgara, Ēkaślōki and verse 87 of Tattvōpadēśa. Verse 5 is a translation of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 10.48.31. Verses 9 and 25 are respectively translations of verses 46 and 47 of Dēvikālōttara – Jñāṉācāra-Vicāra-Paṭalam, and these two verses were originally composed by Bhagavan together with verse 40, which is a translation of the final verse of the Kaṭharudra Upaniṣad, as a separate three-verse poem.

Verses 18 and 19 are translations of verses from a Malayalam version of Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdayam, one of the principle Sanskrit texts on the medical science of Ayurveda. Verse 20 is an adaptation of two verses (chapter 19, verses 59 and 62) from Prabhuliṇga Līlai, which is a Tamil translation by Turaimangalam Sivaprakasa Swamigal of an earlier work composed by Chamarasa in Kannada on the life of a Virasaiva saint called Allama Prabhu.

The other seven verses, namely 2, 3, 4, 6, 28, 34 and 37, are translations of Sanskrit verses, the sources of which are unknown, but as mentioned above, the Sanskrit originals of three of these, namely verses 2, 3 and 28, are perhaps verses from Yōga Vāsiṣṭham, and verse 37 is a translation of a Sanskrit verse that was quoted or perhaps composed by Sadasiva Brahmendra. Verses 4 and 34 are said to be included in a work called Subhāṣitaratna or Subhāṣita Ratna Bhaṇḍār, but there are many works whose name begins with the word subhāṣita, which means ‘well spoken’, and all such works are anthologies of verses from known or unknown sources expressing wise or wholesome ideas, so such works cannot be said to be the original source of any verse.

Twelve verses of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham were originally composed by Bhagavan as part of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, namely verses 12-17, 28, 30-32, 33 (last two lines) and 39. Of these, only verse 12 was among the twenty-one verses included in the 1928 edition of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham; another seven of them were among the nine verses added in the 1931 edition, namely verses 13, 15, 17, 28 and 30-32; and the other four, namely verses 14, 16, 33 and 39, were added between 1931 and 1940. Of these twelve verses composed as part of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, verses 28, 30, 39 and the last two lines of verse 12 are translations of Sanskrit verses, and the others are all Bhagavan’s own original Tamil compositions, so of the eleven verses of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham that are original Tamil verses composed by him, namely 13-17, 31-33, 35-36 and 38, eight of them, namely 13-17 and 31-33, were originally composed by him as part of Guru Vācaka Kōvai.

பாயிரம் (pāyiram): Introductory Verses

(வெண்பா: veṇbā)

Pāyiram verse 1:

ஆன்றோர் மொழியி னனுவாதத் தாலுந்தன்
பூன்றமொழி யாலும் பொலியுமீ — தேன்றபேர்
சூத்திசுதா வாமுதத் தூமொழிநூல் சீரமணன்
யாத்தருளித் தந்த தறி.

āṉḏṟōr moṙiyi ṉaṉuvādat tāluntaṉ
pūṉḏṟamoṙi yālum poliyumī — dēṉḏṟapēr
sūttisudhā vāmudat tūmoṙinūl śīramaṇaṉ
yāttaruḷit tanda daṟi.


பதச்சேதம்: ஆன்றோர் மொழியின் அனுவாதத்தாலும் தன் பூன்ற மொழியாலும் பொலியும், ஈது ஏன்ற பேர் ‘சூத்தி சுதா’ ஆம் அமுத தூமொழி நூல் சீ ரமணன் யாத்து அருளி தந்தது அறி.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): āṉḏṟōr moṙiyiṉ aṉuvādattālum taṉ pūṉḏṟa moṙiyālum poliyum, īdu ēṉḏṟa pēr ‘sūtti sudhā’ ām amuda tūmoṙi nūl śī ramaṇaṉ yāttu aruḷi tandadu aṟi.

அன்வயம்: ஆன்றோர் மொழியின் அனுவாதத்தாலும் தன் பூன்ற மொழியாலும் பொலியும், அமுதத் தூமொழி ஆம் ‘சூத்தி சுதா’ ஏன்ற பேர் நூல் ஈது சீ ரமணன் யாத்து அருளி தந்தது அறி.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): āṉḏṟōr moṙiyiṉ aṉuvādattālum taṉ pūṉḏṟa moṙiyālum poliyum, amuda tūmoṙi ām ‘sūtti sudhā’ ēṉḏṟa pēr nūl īdu śī ramaṇaṉ yāttu aruḷi tandadu aṟi.

English translation: Know that this, the treatise of ambrosial pure sayings that is the suitable name Sūkti Sudhā, which shines by explanatory translations of sayings of wise people and by his own perfect sayings, is what Sri Ramana composing graciously gave.

Explanatory paraphrase: Know that this, the treatise of ambrosial pure sayings that is [given] the suitable name Sūkti Sudhā [the Ambrosia of Wise Sayings], which shines [as a compilation formed] by explanatory translations [or adaptations] of sayings of wise [noble, excellent or humbly subsided] people and by his own perfect [full or wholesome] sayings, is what Sri Ramana composed and graciously gave.

Padavurai (word-explanation): ஆன்றோர் (āṉḏṟōr): wise people, noble people, excellent people, those who have humbly subsided through wisdom | மொழியின் (moṙiyiṉ): of words, of sayings {an inflectional base and genitive (sixth case) form of moṙi, which means ‘word’, ‘saying’, ‘speech’ or ‘language’ (or in some cases ‘meaning’)} | அனுவாதத்தாலும் (aṉuvādattālum): by [or with] translation, explanatory adaptation {aṉuvādattāl is an instrumental (third case) form of aṉuvādam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit anuvāda, which means ‘saying after’, ‘saying again’, ‘repeating for explanation’, ‘explanatory repetition’, or in this case ‘translation’ or ‘explanatory adaptation’; and the suffix um in this case serves in conjunction with the um in moṙiyālum to mean ‘and’ or ‘both … and’} | தன் (taṉ): his, his own {the inflectional base and genitive (sixth case) form of tāṉ, a Tamil generic pronoun that according to the context may mean ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’ or ‘oneself’ (and that can also serve as an intensifier meaning ‘myself’, ‘yourself’, ‘himself’, ‘herself’ or ‘itself’)} | பூன்ற (pūṉḏṟa): full, whole, wholesome, perfect {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit pūrṇa} | மொழியாலும் (moṙiyālum): by [or with] words {moṙiyāl is an instrumental (third case) form of moṙi, ‘word’ or ‘saying’, and the suffix um in this case serves in conjunction with the um in aṉuvādattālum to mean ‘and’ or ‘both … and’} | பொலியும் (poliyum): which shines, blooms, flourishes {adjectival participle} | ஈது (īdu): this {a singular proximal demonstrative pronoun} | ஏன்ற (ēṉḏṟa): fitting, suitable, appropriate {an adjectival participle of the verb ēl} | பேர் (pēr): name | சூத்தி (sūtti): wise sayings {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit sūkti} | சுதா (sudhā): ambrosia | ஆம் (ām): which is, that is {adjectival participle} | அமுத (amuda): ambrosia, the nectar of immortality {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit amṛta, which means ‘non-dead’, ‘deathless’, ‘immortal’ or ‘ambrosia’} | தூமொழி (tūmoṙi): pure words, pure sayings {a compound of , ‘pure’, ‘immaculate’ or ‘bright’, and moṙi, ‘word’ or ‘saying’} | நூல் (nūl): text, treatise | சீ (śī): Sri {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit śrī} | ரமணன் (ramaṇaṉ): Ramana | யாத்து (yāttu): tying, binding, composing {adverbial participle} | அருளி (aruḷi): bestowing grace, being gracious, graciously {adverbial participle} | தந்தது (tandadu): what [he] gave {neuter third person singular participial noun} | அறி (aṟi): know {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: When all the Sanskrit verses that Bhagavan translated as twenty-seven of the verses that came to be included in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham, including his own Sanskrit originals of verses 8 and 10, were compiled as a work named Sūkti Sudhā, which means ‘Ambrosia of Wise Sayings’, he composed the following prāstāvika ślōka (introductory verse) for it:
आप्तोक्तेरनुवादैश्च स्ववाक्यैश्च सुशोभितः ।
ग्रन्थः सूक्तिसुधाभिख्यो रमणेनानुबध्यते ॥

āptōktēranuvādaiśca svavākyaiśca suśōbhitaḥ |
granthaḥ sūktisudhābhikhyō ramaṇēnānubadhyatē ||
Sadhu Om later adapted this ślōka into Tamil as the above first pāyiram verse, and the second pāyiram verse below was composed by Muruganar.

Pāyiram verse 2:

தனவும் பிறமொழிக டந்தனவுங் கூட்டி
யனுபந்த மாக வளித்த — பனுவலோ
டுள்ளது நாற்பதை யோதி யுணர்ந்தொழுகுந்
தெள்ளியோர் சேர்ந்தார் சிறப்பு.

taṉavum piṟamoṙiga ṭandaṉavuṅ kūṭṭi
yaṉubandha māha vaḷitta — paṉuvalō
ḍuḷḷadu nāṟpadai yōdi yuṇarndoṙugun
teḷḷiyōr cērntār ciṟappu.


பதச்சேதம்: தனவும் பிற மொழிகள் தந்தனவும் கூட்டி அனுபந்தமாக அளித்த பனுவலோடு உள்ளது நாற்பதை ஓதி, உணர்ந்து, ஒழுகும் தெள்ளியோர் சேர்ந்தார் சிறப்பு.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): taṉavum piṟa moṙigaḷ tandaṉavum kūṭṭi aṉubandhamāha aḷitta paṉuvalōḍu uḷḷadu nāṟpadai ōdi, uṇarndu, oṙugum teḷḷiyōr sērndār siṟappu.

அன்வயம்: தனவும் பிற மொழிகள் தந்தனவும் கூட்டி அனுபந்தமாக அளித்த பனுவலோடு உள்ளது நாற்பதை ஓதி, உணர்ந்து, ஒழுகும் தெள்ளியோர் சிறப்பு சேர்ந்தார்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): taṉavum piṟa moṙigaḷ tandaṉavum kūṭṭi aṉubandhamāha aḷitta paṉuvalōḍu uḷḷadu nāṟpadai ōdi, uṇarndu, oṙugum teḷḷiyōr siṟappu sērndār.

English translation: Those having clarity who, studying and understanding, follow Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu together with the treatise given as anubandham, combining both his own and what were given in other languages, have attained excellence.

Explanatory paraphrase: Those having clarity [of heart and mind] who study, understand and follow [or conduct themselves and practise in accordance with the principles taught in] Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu together with [this] treatise given [by Bhagavan Ramana] as anubandham [a supplement or appendix], combining both his own [original compositions] and [verses that he translated from] what were given in other languages, have [thereby] attained excellence [namely the infinite happiness of liberation, which is what alone remains when ego is eradicated].

Padavurai (word-explanation): தனவும் (taṉavum): both his own | பிற (piṟa): other | மொழிகள் (moṙigaḷ): languages {the nominative (first case) form and inflectional base of the plural of moṙi, used here in a locative (seventh case) sense, ‘in [other] languages’} | தந்தனவும் (tandaṉavum): and what were given {the two occurrences of the suffix um, first in taṉavum and then in tandaṉavum, imply ‘both … and …’ or just ‘and’} | கூட்டி (kūṭṭi): gathering, joining, combining {adverbial participle} | அனுபந்தமாக (aṉubandham-āha): as a supplement {aṉubandham is a Tamil form of the Sanskrit anubandha, which means ‘supplement’ or ‘appendix’ (as something bound or attached after another thing), and āha is the infinitive of āhu, ‘be’ or ‘become’, but is often used as an adverb or adverbial suffix that means ‘being’ or ‘as’} | அளித்த (aḷitta): given, bestowed, created {adjectival participle} | பனுவலோடு (paṉuvalōḍu): with, together with [this] treatise {a sociative (third case) form of paṉuval, ‘text’ or ‘treatise’} | உள்ளது நாற்பதை (uḷḷadu nāṟpadai): Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu (Forty Verses on What Is) {uḷḷadu means ‘what is’ or ‘what exists’ (in the sense of what actually exists as opposed to what merely seems to exist), and nāṟpadai is the accusative (second case) form of nāṟpadu, which means ‘forty’ and in this context implies ‘forty verses’} | ஓதி (ōdi): reading, reciting, studying, learning {adverbial participle} | உணர்ந்து (uṇarndu): knowing, understanding {adverbial participle} | ஒழுகும் (oṙugum): who flow, who act in accordance with, who follow, who practise {adjectival participle} | தெள்ளியோர் (teḷḷiyōr): those who are clear, those having clarity, those of clear understanding, the wise | சேர்ந்தார் (sērndār): [they] have joined, reached, attained | சிறப்பு (siṟappu): excellence, eminence, greatness, distinction, happiness.

மங்கலம் (maṅgalam): Benedictory Verse

(விருத்தம்: viruttam)

எதன்கண்ணே நிலையாகி யிருந்திடுமிவ் வுலகமெலா
     மெதன தெல்லா
மெதனின்றிவ் வனைத்துலகு மெழுமோமற் றிவையாவு
     மெதன்பொ ருட்டா
மெதனாலிவ் வையமெலா மெழுந்திடுமிவ் வெல்லாமு
     மெதுவே யாகு
மதுதானே யுளபொருளாஞ் சத்தியமா மச்சொருப
     மகத்தில் வைப்பாம்

edaṉkaṇṇē nilaiyāhi yirundiḍumiv vulahamelā
     medaṉa dellā
medaṉiṉḏṟiv vaṉaittulahu meṙumōmaṯ ṟivaiyāvu
     medaṉpo ruṭṭā
medaṉāliv vaiyamelā meṙundiḍumiv vellāmu
     meduvē yāhu
madudāṉē yuḷaporuḷāñ sattiyamā maccorupa
     mahattil vaippām.


பதச்சேதம்: எதன்கண்ணே நிலையாகி இருந்திடும் இவ் உலகம் எலாம், எதனது எல்லாம், எதனின்று இவ் அனைத்து உலகும் எழுமோ, மற்று இவை யாவும் எதன்பொருட்டு ஆம், எதனால் இவ் வையம் எலாம் எழுந்திடும், இவ் எல்லாமும் எதுவோ ஆகும், அது தானே உள பொருள் ஆம். சத்தியம் ஆம் அச் சொருபம் அகத்தில் வைப்பாம் [அல்லது: வைப்பு ஆம்].

Padacchēdam (word-separation): edaṉkaṇṇē nilaiyāhi irundiḍum i-vv-ulaham elām, edaṉadu ellām, edaṉiṉḏṟu i-vv-aṉaittu ulahum eṙumō, maṯṟu ivai yāvum edaṉ poruṭṭu ām, edaṉāl i-v-vaiyam elām eṙundiḍum, i-vv-ellāmum eduvō āhum, adu tāṉē uḷa-poruḷ ām. sattiyam ām a-c-sorupam ahattil vaippām [alladu: vaippu ām].

அன்வயம்: இவ் உலகம் எலாம் எதன்கண்ணே நிலையாகி இருந்திடும், எல்லாம் எதனது, இவ் அனைத்து உலகும் எதனின்று எழுமோ, மற்று இவை யாவும் எதன்பொருட்டு ஆம், இவ் வையம் எலாம் எதனால் எழுந்திடும், இவ் எல்லாமும் எதுவோ ஆகும், அது தானே உள பொருள் ஆம். சத்தியம் ஆம் அச் சொருபம் அகத்தில் வைப்பாம் [அல்லது: வைப்பு ஆம்].

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): i-vv-ulaham elām edaṉkaṇṇē nilaiyāhi irundiḍum, ellām edaṉadu, i-vv-aṉaittu ulahum edaṉiṉḏṟu eṙumō, maṯṟu ivai yāvum edaṉ poruṭṭu ām, i-v-vaiyam elām edaṉāl eṙundiḍum, i-vv-ellāmum eduvō āhum, adu tāṉē uḷa-poruḷ ām. sattiyam ām a-c-sorupam ahattil vaippām [alladu: vaippu ām].

English translation: In what all this world steadily exists, of what all are, from what this entire world arises, as well as for what all these are, by what all this world arises, whatever this all is, that itself is the existing substance. Let us hold that svarūpa, which is real, in the heart.

Explanatory paraphrase: In what all this world [seemingly] steadily exists, of what [or whose] all are, from what this entire world arises [appears or originates], also for what [or because of what] all these are, by what all this world arises [appears or originates], [and] whatever this all is, that itself is uḷḷa-poruḷ [the existing substance or sat-vastu, the one and only substance that actually exists]. Let us [always] hold [keep, cherish or meditate on] that svarūpa [our own real nature], which [alone] is real, in the heart. {Or: That svarūpa, which is real, is the [great] treasure [of divine grace] [that always exists] in [our] heart.}

Padavurai (word-explanation): எதன்கண்ணே (edaṉkaṇṇē): in what {a locative (seventh case) form of edu, ‘what’} | நிலையாகி (nilaiyāhi): firmly, fixedly, stably, steadily {a compound of nilai, ‘standing’, ‘staying’, ‘firmness’, ‘fixity’, ‘stability’, ‘permanence’ or ‘state’, and āhi, an adverbial participle that means ‘being’ but is used here as an adverbial suffix} | இருந்திடும் (irundiḍum): exists | இ (i): this {proximal demonstrative prefix} | உலகம் (ulaham): world | எலாம் (elām): all, every | எதனது (edaṉadu): of what, whose {a genitive (sixth case) form of edu, ‘what’} | எல்லாம் (ellām): all, every | எதனின்று (edaṉiṉḏṟu): from what {an ablative (fifth case) form of edu, ‘what’} | இ (i): this {proximal demonstrative prefix} | அனைத்து (aṉaittu): so much, such, all, entire | உலகும் (ulahum): entire world {like ulaham, ulahu means ‘world’, and in this context the suffix um implies completeness, totality or entirety, and therefore complements and emphasises the meaning of aṉaittu, ‘all’ or ‘entire’} | எழுமோ (eṙumō): rises, arises, appears, originates {eṙum is a neuter third person singular form of eṙu, ‘rise’, ‘ascend’, ‘arise’, ‘begin’, ‘originate’ or ‘come into being’, and the suffix ō serves a non-essential syntactic function, marking the end of the clause beginning edaṉiṉḏṟu, ‘from what’, which is one of the six forms of edu, ‘what’, to which the demonstrative adu, ‘that’, in the final clause refers} | மற்று (maṯṟu): and, again, besides, moreover, also, as well as [but can be used as a poetic expletive] | இவை (ivai): these {plural proximal demonstrative pronoun} | யாவும் (yāvum): all | எதன்பொருட்டு (edaṉ-poruṭṭu): for what, for the sake of what, for the purpose of what, because of what {edaṉ is the inflectional base of edu, ‘what’, and poruṭṭu is both a noun that means ‘cause’ or ‘reason’ and an adverb that means ‘to’, ‘for’, ‘for the sake of’, ‘in order to’ or ‘because of’, so in this case it serves as a suffix that marks a particular form of the dative (fourth) case} | ஆம் (ām): is | எதனால் (edaṉāl): by what {an instrumental (third case) form of edu, ‘what’} | இ (i): this {proximal demonstrative prefix} | வையம் (vaiyam): earth, world | எலாம் (elām): all | எழுந்திடும் (eṙundiḍum): rises, arises, appears, originates | இ (i): this, these {proximal demonstrative prefix} | எல்லாமும் (ellāmum): all {ellām means ‘all’ or ‘every’, and in this context the suffix um implies entirety, thereby emphasising the meaning of ellām} | எதுவோ (eduvō): what, whatever {edu is the nominative (first case) form of a pronoun meaning ‘what’, and the suffix ō is similar to the suffix ‘ever’ in ‘whatever’, and also serves to indicate the syntactic connection between this interrogative pronoun and the demonstrative pronoun adu, ‘that’, in the main clause that follows, namely that both these pronouns (as well as all the other case forms of edu, ‘what’, in each of the other clauses of this sentence) refer to the same thing} | ஆகும் (āhum): is | அது (adu): that {singular distal demonstrative pronoun, which in this case refers to all the six forms of edu (what) in the previous clauses, namely edaṉkaṇṇē (in what), edaṉadu (of what), edaṉiṉḏṟu (from what), edaṉporuṭṭu (for what), edaṉāl (by what) and eduvō (what)} | தானே (tāṉē): itself, alone {tāṉ and the suffix ē are both intensifiers, so tāṉē is an intensified intensifer, here intensifying the previous word, adu, so adu tāṉē implies ‘that alone’ or ‘only that’} | உள (uḷa): being, existing, real, actual {adjectival participle, a poetic abbreviation of uḷḷa, implying ‘which actually exists’ (as opposed to what merely seems to exist)} | பொருள் (poruḷ): substance | ஆம் (ām): is || சத்தியம் (sattiyam): real, true, actual {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit satya} | ஆம் (ām): which is | அ (a): that {distal demonstrative prefix} | சொருபம் (sorupam): own form, real nature {a shortened form of sorūpam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit svarūpa, which here implies ‘one’s own real nature’ (meaning what we actually are); though nominative (first case) in form, sorupam functions here syntactically in an accusative (second case) sense when vaippām is interpreted as a verb meaning ‘let us hold’} | அகத்தில் (ahattil): inside, in the heart {a locative (seventh case) form of aham, ‘inside’ or ‘heart’} | வைப்பாம் (vaippām): may we [or let us] put, place, hold, keep, guard, cherish, meditate on {or this word can be split as two words, namely vaippu, which means ‘treasure’, and ām, which means ‘is’, in which case ‘ahattil vaippu ām’ means ‘is the treasure in the heart’}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of Yōga Vāsiṣṭham 5.8.12:
यस्मिन् सर्वं यस्य सर्वं यतस्सर्वं यस्मा इदम् ।
येन सर्वं यद्धि सर्वं तत्सत्यं समुपास्महे ॥

yasmin sarvaṁ yasya sarvaṁ yatassarvaṁ yasmā idam |
yēna sarvaṁ yaddhi sarvaṁ tatsatyaṁ samupāsmahē ||
‘இவ் உலகம் எலாம்’ (i-vv-ulaham elām), ‘all this world’, and other such terms in this verse imply all worlds and hence all phenomena. In what do all these worlds seem to exist? Whose are they? From what do they arise? For what are they? By what do they arise? What actually are they? The first sentence of this verse answers each of these questions, saying that the answer to all of them is the same, namely uḷḷa-poruḷ or sat-vastu, the one and only substance that actually exists, which is svarūpa, our own real nature [and which is the same உள்ளபொருள் (uḷḷa-poruḷ), ‘being substance’, ‘existing substance’ or ‘real substance’, that he describes in the first maṅgalam verse of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu as ‘உள்ளல் அற உள்ளத்தே உள்ளது’ (uḷḷal-aṟa uḷḷattē uḷḷadu), ‘existing in the heart without thought’, and that he referred to in the same work as either ‘பொருள்’ (poruḷ) or உளபொருள் (uḷa-poruḷ) in verses 7, 8, 30, 34 and 35]. The second sentence then answers what is logically the next question to ask, namely what we should do with this real substance, saying that we should hold and cherish it in our heart, meaning that we should meditate or fix our mind upon it by turning our entire attention back within.

In order to emphasise that all these worlds are in no way independent of uḷḷa-poruḷ, it is referred to in this verse using seven of the eight grammatical cases, excluding only the vocative or eighth case, and presenting all the rest except the first two in reverse order, namely the locative or seventh case (in what or where), genitive or sixth case (of what or whose), ablative or fifth case (from what), dative or fourth case (for what), instrumental or third case (by what) and nominative or first case (whatever and that) in the first sentence, and accusative or second case (that svarūpa) in the second sentence.

நூல் (nūl): Text

(வெண்பா: veṇbā)

Verse 1:

சத்திணக் கத்தினாற் சார்பகலுஞ் சார்பகலச்
சித்தத்தின் சார்பு சிதையுமே — சித்தச்சார்
பற்றா ரலைவிலதி லற்றார்சீ வன்முத்தி
பெற்றா ரவரிணக்கம் பேண்.

sattiṇak kattiṉāṟ sārbahaluñ sārbahalac
cittattiṉ sārbu sidaiyumē — cittaccār
baṯṟā ralaiviladi laṯṟārjī vaṉmutti
peṯṟā ravariṇakkam pēṇ.


பதச்சேதம்: சத் இணக்கத்தினால் சார்பு அகலும்; சார்பு அகல, சித்தத்தின் சார்பு சிதையுமே; சித்த சார்பு அற்றார் அலைவு இல் அதில் அற்றார்; சீவன்முத்தி பெற்றார். அவர் இணக்கம் பேண்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): sat iṇakkattiṉāl sārbu ahalum; sārbu ahala, cittattiṉ sārbu sidaiyumē; citta sārbu aṯṟār alaivu il adil aṯṟār; jīvaṉ mutti peṯṟār. avar iṇakkam pēṇ.

English translation: By association with being, attachment will leave; when attachment leaves, attachment of the mind will perish; those in whom mental attachment has ceased have ceased in that which is not moving; they have attained jīvanmukti. Cherish their association.

Explanatory paraphrase: By association [compatibility or fitting well together] with sat [pure being, ‘I am’, or those who abide as pure being], [outer] attachment [to all other things] will leave [or depart]; when [outer] attachment leaves, attachment of the mind [or will] [namely viṣaya-vāsanās (inclinations to seek happiness in objects or phenomena), which are the subtle seeds that sprout as outer attachments] will perish [or be dispersed]; those in whom mental attachment has ceased [perished or been severed] have ceased [or perished] in that which is not moving [namely sat, pure being, which exists eternally without ever moving or undergoing even the slightest change of any kind whatsoever]; they have attained jīvanmukti [‘living liberation’, liberation while the body is still living, or liberation from living, implying liberation from jīvatva (lifeness, soulhood, egoness or individuality)]. Cherish their association.

Padavurai (word-explanation): சத்திணக்கத்தினால் (sat-t-iṇakkattiṉāl): by association with being {compound of sat, ‘being’, ‘existence’ or ‘reality’, and iṇakkattiṉāl [an instrumental (third case) form of iṇakkam] by fitting well together, compatibility, friendship, agreement, association} | சார்பு (sārbu): attachment | அகலும் (ahalum): will leave, depart, separate || சார்பு (sārbu): attachment | அகல (ahala): when [it] leaves {infinitive of ahal, used idiomatically to mean ‘when [it] leaves’} | சித்தத்தின் (cittattiṉ): of the mind, of the will {an inflectional base and genitive (sixth case) form of cittam, ‘mind’ or ‘will’} | சார்பு (sārbu): attachment | சிதையுமே (sidaiyumē): will decay, deteriorate, perish, be ruined, dispersed, sundered || சித்தச்சார்பற்றார் (citta-c-cārbaṯṟār): those in whom mental attachment has ceased [perished or been severed], those who are devoid of mental attachment {compound of citta, ‘mind’ or ‘mental’, sārbu, ‘attachment’, and aṯṟār, ‘those in whom [it] has ceased’, ‘those in whom [it] has perished’, ‘those in whom [it] has been severed’ or ‘those who are devoid of’} | அலைவில் (alaivil): not moving, which is not moving, unmoving, motionless {compound of alaivu, which means ‘moving’, ‘wavering’ or ‘agitation’ (particularly mental agitation or distress), and il, which means ‘not’, ‘what is not’ or ‘which is not’} | அதில் (adil): in that, in it {locative (seventh case) form of the singular distal demonstrative pronoun adil, ‘that’ or ‘it’} | அற்றார் (aṯṟār): [they] have ceased, perished || சீவன்முத்தி (jīvaṉmutti): living liberation {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit jīvanmukti, a compound of jīvat, ‘living’ (present participle of jīv, ‘to live’ or ‘to be alive’), and mukti, ‘liberation’; though jīvanmukti is generally taken to mean ‘liberation while the body is still living’, it is only in the view of others that the mukta (liberated one) seems to have any connection with the body (as Bhagavan implies in verses 31, 32 and 33), so a deeper (though perhaps linguistically less accurate) meaning of jīvanmukti is ‘liberation from [bodily] living’, which implies liberation from jīvatva (jīva-ness, soulhood, individuality, ego or separate existence)} | பெற்றார் (peṯṟār): [they] have attained, achieved || அவர் (avar): they, their {though nominative (first case) in form, ‘they’, this pronoun is used here in a genitive (sixth case) sense, ‘their’} | இணக்கம் (iṇakkam): fitting well together, compatibility, friendship, agreement, association {though nominative (first case) in form, this noun is used here in an accusative (second case) sense} | பேண் (pēṇ): cherish {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: Except for the final sentence, ‘அவர் இணக்கம் பேண்’ (avar iṇakkam pēṇ), ‘Cherish their association’, which is his own addition, this verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of verse 9 of Mōha Mudgara, a song by Adi Sankara that is popularly known as Bhaja Gōvindam:
सत्सण्गत्वे निस्सण्गत्वं निस्सण्गत्वे निर्मोहत्वम् ।
निर्मोहत्वे निश्चलतत्त्वं निश्चलतत्त्वे जीवन्मुक्तिः ॥

satsaṇgatvē nissaṇgatvaṁ nissaṇgatvē nirmōhatvam |
nirmōhatvē niścalatattvaṁ niścalatattvē jīvanmuktiḥ ||
Verse 2:

சாதுறவு சாரவுளஞ் சார்தெளிவி சாரத்தா
லேதுபர மாம்பதமிங் கெய்துமோ — வோதுமது
போதகனா னூற்பொருளாற் புண்ணியத்தாற் பின்னுமொரு
சாதகத்தாற் சாரவொணா தால்.

sādhuṟavu sāravuḷañ cārteḷivi cārattā
lēdupara māmpadamiṅ geydumō — vōdumadu
bōdhakaṉā ṉūṯporuḷāṯ puṇṇiyattāṯ piṉṉumoru
sādhakattāṯ sāravoṇā dāl.


பதச்சேதம்: சாது உறவு சார உளம் சார் தெளி விசாரத்தால் ஏது பரம் ஆம் பதம் இங்கு எய்துமோ, ஓதும் அது போதகனால், நூல் பொருளால், புண்ணியத்தால், பின்னும் ஒரு சாதகத்தால் சார ஒணாது; ஆல்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): sādhu uṟavu sāra uḷam sār teḷi vicārattāl ēdu param ām padam iṅgu eydumō, ōdum adu bōdhakaṉāl, nūl poruḷāl, puṇṇiyattāl, piṉṉum oru sādhakattāl sāra oṇādu; āl.

English translation: What exalted state one achieves here by clear investigation, which arises in the heart when one takes refuge in sādhu-association, that, which is extolled, is not possible to achieve by a teacher, by the meaning of texts, by virtuous actions, or moreover by any means.

Explanatory paraphrase: What exalted state [namely the supreme state of knowing and being what one actually is] one achieves here by clear vicāra [investigation, namely self-investigation], which arises in the heart when one takes refuge in sādhu-association [association with a sādhu, which in this context implies a jñāni, one who knows and abides as sat, pure being], that [exalted state], which is extolled [by the Vedas and other texts as the ultimate goal], is not possible to achieve by [studying under the guidance of] a bōdhaka [a teacher of religious or spiritual precepts], by [learning] the meaning of texts, by [doing any number of] virtuous actions, or moreover by any [other] means [whatsoever].

Padavurai (word-explanation): சாதுறவு (sādhuṟavu): sādhu-association {compound of sādhu, ‘one who is pure [saintly, virtuous, kind, benevolent, peaceful, calm, gentle, straightforward, upright, honourable, noble]’ (implying in this context a jñāni, one who knows and abides as sat, pure being), and uṟavu, ‘relationship’, ‘friendship’ or ‘association’} | சார (sāra): when one reaches, takes refuge in {infinitive of sār, used idiomatically to mean ‘when [one] reaches’ or ‘when [one] takes refuge in’} | உளம் (uḷam): heart | சார் (sār): reach, achieve {the root of this verb, used here in the sense of an adjectival participle meaning ‘which reaches’, ‘which is achieved’ or ‘which arises in’} | தெளி (teḷi): clear | விசாரத்தால் (vicārattāl): by investigation {instrumental (third case) form of vicāram} | ஏது (ēdu): what, whatever {interrogative pronoun used to indicate the referent of a subsequent demonstrative, namely adu, ‘that’} | பரம் (param): high, lofty, exalted, excellent, pre-eminent | ஆம் (ām): which is | பதம் (padam): state | இங்கு (iṅgu): here | எய்துமோ (eydumō): one attains, reaches, achieves {eydum is a neuter third person singular form of eydu, ‘attain’ or ‘achieve’, and the suffix ō serves a syntactic function, marking the end of the clause beginning ēdu, ‘what’, to which the demonstrative adu, ‘that’, in the next clause refers} | ஓதும் (ōdum): which is praised, extolled | அது (adu): that {singular distal demonstrative pronoun, which in this case refers to ‘ēdu param ām padam’, ‘what exalted state’, in the previous clause} | போதகனால் (bōdhakaṉāl): by teacher, religious preceptor {instrumental (third case) form of bōdhakaṉ, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit bōdhaka, ‘teacher’} | நூல் (nūl): text, treatise, book | பொருளால் (poruḷāl): by the meaning, import {instrumental (third case) form of poruḷ} | புண்ணியத்தால் (puṇṇiyattāl): by puṇya, virtue, virtuous actions, good deeds {instrumental (third case) form of puṇṇiyam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit puṇya} | பின்னும் (piṉṉum): again, further, moreover, other | ஒரு (oru): one, any | சாதகத்தால் (sādhakattāl): by expedient, by means {instrumental (third case) form of sādhakam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit sādhaka, ‘what accomplishes’ or ‘expedient’} | சார (sāra): to reach, achieve {infinitive} | ஒணாது (oṇādu): is not possible | ஆல் (āl): {suffix used here as a poetic expletive}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of the following verse, which according to some accounts is from Yōga Vāsiṣṭham, though I have not been able to verify this:
न तद्गुरोर्न शास्त्रार्थान्न पुण्यात्प्राप्यते पदम् ।
यत्साधुसङ्गाभ्युदितात् विचार विशदा धृतः ॥

na tadgurōrna śāstrārthānna puṇyātprāpyatē padam |
yatsādhusaṅgābhyuditāt vicāra viśadā dhṛtaḥ ||
Bhagavan also translated this verse more briefly as verse 11 of Upadēśa Taṉippākkaḷ:
சாதுறவா லுட்டெளிவாய்ச் சாருளவிற் சார்பதமில்
போதகனூற் புண்ணியத்தாற் போ.

sādhuṟavā luṭṭeḷivāyc cāruḷaviṯ cārpadamil
bōdhakaṉūṯ puṇṇiyattāṯ pō.


பதச்சேதம்: சாது உறவால் உள் தெளிவாய் சார் உளவில் சார் பதம் இல் போதகன், நூல், புண்ணியத்தால். போ.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): sādhu uṟavāl uḷ teḷivāy sār uḷavil sār padam il bōdhakaṉ, nūl, puṇṇiyattāl. pō.

அன்வயம்: சாது உறவால் உள் தெளிவாய் சார் உளவில் சார் பதம் போதகன், நூல், புண்ணியத்தால் இல். போ.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): sādhu uṟavāl uḷ teḷivāy sār uḷavil sār padam bōdhakaṉ, nūl, puṇṇiyattāl il. pō.

English translation: The state that is reached in the inward-looking means, which clearly arises within by sādhu-association, is not by teachers, texts or good deeds. Go.

Explanatory paraphrase: The state [of knowing and being what one actually is], which is reached [or achieved] in the inward-looking means [namely self-investigation], which clearly arises within by [because of or as a result of] sādhu-association, is not [reached or achieved] by [any other means such as] teachers, [sacred] texts or good deeds. [Understanding this to be the case, stop looking outside, and instead] go [back within].
Padavurai (word-explanation): சாதுறவால் (sādhuṟavāl): by sādhu-association {compound of sādhu, ‘one who is pure [saintly, virtuous, kind, benevolent, peaceful, calm, gentle, straightforward, upright, honourable, noble]’ (implying in this context a jñāni, one who knows and abides as sat, pure being), and uṟavāl [instrumental (third case) form of uṟavu], ‘by relationship’, ‘by friendship’ or ‘by association’} | உள் (uḷ): inside, within | தெளிவாய் (teḷivāy): being clear, as clear, clearly {teḷivu means clarity, and āy is an adverbial participle that means ‘being’ or ‘as’ and is often appended to nouns to form adverbs, in the same way that adverbs are formed from adjectives in English by appending the suffix ‘ly’} | சார் (sār): reach, achieve {the root of this verb, used here in the sense of an adjectival participle meaning ‘which reaches’, ‘which is achieved’ or ‘which arises’} | உளவில் (uḷavil): in the inward-looking means {locative (seventh case) form of uḷavu (a noun derived from uḷ, ‘inside’), which means what is internal, secret, private, espionage, spying, prying, looking inside, an internal or secret means} | சார் (sār): reach, achieve {as explained above} | பதம் (padam): state | இல் (il): is not | போதகனூற்புண்ணியத்தால் (bōdhakaṉūṯpuṇṇiyattāl [bōdhakaṉ-nūl-puṇṇiyattāl]): by teachers, texts or good deeds {compound of bōdhakaṉ [a Tamil form of the Sanskrit bōdhaka], ‘teacher’ or ‘religious preceptor’, nūl, ‘text’, ‘treatise’ or ‘book’, and puṇṇiyattāl [instrumental (third case) form of puṇṇiyam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit puṇya, ‘virtue’, ‘virtuous actions’ or ‘good deeds’], ‘by puṇya’ or ‘by good deeds’; since these three words form a single compound here, the instrumental (third case) ending applies to each of them: ‘by teachers, by texts or by good deeds’} || போ (): go {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Verse 3:

சாதுக்க ளாவார் சகவாச நண்ணினா
லேதுக்கா மிந்நியம் மெல்லாமு — மேதக்க
தண்டென்றன் மாருதத் தான்வீச வேவிசிறி
கொண்டென்ன காரியநீ கூறு.

sādhukka ḷāvār cakavāca naṇṇiṉā
lēdukkā minniyam mellāmu — mēdakka
taṇḍeṉḏṟaṉ mārutat tāṉvīsa vēvisiṟi
koṇḍeṉṉa kāriyanī kūṟu.


பதச்சேதம்: சாதுக்களாவார் சகவாசம் நண்ணினால், ஏதுக்கு ஆம் இந் நியமம் எல்லாமும்? மேதக்க தண் தென்றல் மாருதம் தான் வீசவே, விசிறி கொண்டு என்ன காரியம் நீ கூறு?

Padacchēdam (word-separation): sādhukkaḷ-āvār sahavāsam naṇṇiṉāl, ēdukku ām i-n-niyamam ellāmum? mēdakka taṇ teṉḏṟal mārutam tāṉ vīsavē, visiṟi koṇḍu eṉṉa kāriyam nī kūṟu?

அன்வயம்: சாதுக்களாவார் சகவாசம் நண்ணினால், இந் நியமம் எல்லாமும் ஏதுக்கு ஆம்? மேதக்க தண் தென்றல் மாருதம் தான் வீசவே, நீ கூறு, விசிறி கொண்டு என்ன காரியம்?

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): sādhukkaḷ-āvār sahavāsam naṇṇiṉāl, i-n-niyamam ellāmum ēdukku ām? mēdakka taṇ teṉḏṟal mārutam tāṉ vīsavē, visiṟi koṇḍu eṉṉa kāriyam nī kūṟu?

English translation: If one adheres to living with those who are sādhus, for what are all these restrictions? When the air of the excellent cool southern breeze is blowing, you say, what is the purpose of having a fan?

Explanatory paraphrase: If one adheres to living with those who are sādhus [saintly people, which in this context implies jñānis, those who know and abide as sat, pure being], for what are all these niyamas [restrictions or disciplinary practices such as fasting, yōga practices, ritualistic worship, mantra-japa or meditation on anything other than oneself]? When the air of the excellent cool southern breeze is blowing, you say, what is the purpose of having a fan?

Padavurai (word-explanation): சாதுக்களாவார் (sādhukkaḷ-āvār): those who are sādhus {compound of sādhukkaḷ (plural of sādhu), ‘saintly people’ (which in this context implies jñānis, those who know and abide as sat, pure being), and āvār, ‘they are’ or ‘those who are’} | சகவாசம் (sahavāsam): living together with, companionship, association | நண்ணினால் (naṇṇiṉāl): if adhering to, if [one] adheres to {conditional form of naṇṇu, ‘approach’, ‘reach’, ‘be attached to’ or ‘adhere to’} | ஏதுக்கு (ēdukku): for what {dative (fourth case) form of ēdu, ‘what’} | ஆம் (ām): is, are | இ (i): this, these {proximal demonstrative prefix} | நியமம் (niyamam): restrictions, disciplines, observances, disciplinary practices | எல்லாமும் (ellāmum): all, every {ellām means ‘all’ or ‘every’, and in this context the suffix um implies entirety, thereby emphasising the meaning of ellām} || மேதக்க (mēdakka): excellent | தண் (taṇ): cool | தென்றல் (teṉḏṟal): south wind, breeze | மாருதம் (mārutam): air, wind | தான் (tāṉ): itself {used here as an intensifier} | வீசவே (vīsavē): when blowing, when [it] blows, when [it] is blowing {vīsa is the infinitive of vīsu, ‘blow’, used here idiomatically to mean ‘when [it] blows’, and the suffix ē is an intensifier} | விசிறி (visiṟi): fan, hand-fan | கொண்டு (koṇḍu): having {adverbial participle} | என்ன (eṉṉa): what | காரியம் (kāriyam): effect, result, purpose, benefit {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit kārya} | நீ (): you | கூறு (kūṟu): say {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of the following verse, which according to some accounts is from Yōga Vāsiṣṭham, though I have not been able to verify this:
सज्जनसङ्गे संप्राप्ते समस्त नियमैरलम् ।
तालवृन्तेन किं कार्यं लब्धे मलयमारुते ॥

sajjanasaṅgē saṁprāptē samasta niyamairalam |
tālavṛntēna kiṁ kāryaṁ labdhē malayamārutē ||
Verse 4:

தாபந்தண் சந்திரனாற் றைனியநற் கற்பகத்தாற்
பாபந்தான் கங்கையாற் பாறுமே — தாபமுத
லிம்மூன்று மேகு மிணையில்லா சாதுக்க
டம்மா தரிசனத்தாற் றான்.

tāpandaṇ candiraṉāṯ ṟaiṉiyanaṯ kaṯpakattāṯ
pāpantāṉ gaṅgaiyāṯ pāṟumē — tāpamuda
limmūṉḏṟu mēhu miṇaiyillā sādhukka
ṭammā dariśaṉattāṯ ṟāṉ.


பதச்சேதம்: தாபம் தண் சந்திரனால், தைனியம் நல் கற்பகத்தால், பாபம் தான் கங்கையால் பாறுமே. தாபம் முதல் இம் மூன்றும் ஏகும் இணை இல்லா சாதுக்கள் தம் மா தரிசனத்தால் தான்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): tāpam taṇ candiraṉāl, daiṉiyam nal kaṯpakattāl, pāpam tāṉ gaṅgaiyāl pāṟumē. tāpam mudal i-m-mūṉḏṟum ēhum iṇai illā sādhukkaḷ tam mā dariśaṉattāl tāṉ.

அன்வயம்: தாபம் தண் சந்திரனால், தைனியம் நல் கற்பகத்தால், பாபம் தான் கங்கையால் பாறுமே. இணை இல்லா சாதுக்கள் தம் மா தரிசனத்தால் தான், தாபம் முதல் இம் மூன்றும் ஏகும்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): tāpam taṇ candiraṉāl, daiṉiyam nal kaṯpakattāl, pāpam tāṉ gaṅgaiyāl pāṟumē. iṇai illā sādhukkaḷ tam mā dariśaṉattāl tāṉ tāpam mudal i-m-mūṉḏṟum ēhum.

English translation: Heat will be destroyed by the cool moon, poverty by the good wish-fulfilling tree, and sin itself by the gaṅgā. All these three, beginning with heat, will depart just by the great sight of peerless sādhus.

Explanatory paraphrase: Heat will be destroyed [or removed] by the cool moon, poverty by the good kalpaka [the heavenly wish-fulfilling tree], and pāpa [sin or demerit] itself by the gaṅgā [the holy river Ganges]. All these three, beginning with heat, will depart [slip off or cease] just by the great darśana [seeing or sight] of peerless sādhus [namely jñānis, those who know and abide as sat, pure being].

Padavurai (word-explanation): தாபம் (tāpam): heat | தண் (taṇ): cool | சந்திரனால் (candiraṉāl): by the moon {instrumental (third case) form of candiraṉ, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit candra, ‘moon’} | தைனியம் (daiṉiyam): poverty, affliction {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit dainya} | நல் (nal): good | கற்பகத்தால் (kaṯpakattāl): by the kalpaka, the heavenly wish-fulfilling tree {instrumental (third case) form of kaṯpakam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit kalpaka} | பாபம் (pāpam): sin | தான் (tāṉ): itself {used here as an intensifying suffix} | கங்கையால் (gaṅgaiyāl): by the gaṅgā, the holy river Ganges {instrumental (third case) form of gaṅgai, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit gaṅgā} | பாறுமே (pāṟumē): will be destroyed, scattered, uprooted {an intensified form of pāṟum, neuter third person singular future form of pāṟu, ‘be destroyed’, ‘be scattered’ or ‘be uprooted’} || தாபம் (tāpam): heat | முதல் (mudal): beginning with | இ (i): this, these {proximal demonstrative prefix} | மூன்றும் (mūṉḏṟum): all three {mūṉḏṟu means ‘three’, and the suffix um here implies entirety and therefore means ‘all’} | ஏகும் (ēhum): will go, depart, slip off, cease {neuter third person singular future form of ēhu, ‘go’, ‘depart’ or ‘slip off’} | இணையில்லா (iṇai-y-illā): unequalled, peerless {iṇai means ‘similar’, ‘like’ or ‘equal’, and illā means ‘without’} | சாதுக்கள் (sādhukkaḷ): sādhus {plural of sādhu: saintly people, which in this context implies jñānis, those who know and abide as sat, pure being} | தம் (tam): their {inflectional base and genitive (sixth case) form of tām, ‘they’, but serving here as a case-marking suffix to sādhukkaḷ, so sādhukkaḷ-tam means ‘of sādhus’} | மா (): great {a Tamil word derived from the Sanskrit mahā, ‘great’} | தரிசனத்தால் (dariśaṉattāl): by the darśana, seeing, sight, view {instrumental (third case) form of dariśaṉam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit darśana} | தான் (tāṉ): itself, only, just {used here as an intensifying suffix}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of the following Sanskrit verse, the source of which is unknown:
गङ्गापापां शशितापां दैन्यं कल्पतरुस्तथा ।
पापं तापं च दैन्यं च हन्ति सज्जनदर्शनम् ॥

gaṅgāpāpāṁ śaśitāpāṁ dainyaṁ kalpatarustathā |
pāpaṁ tāpaṁ ca dainyaṁ ca hanti sajjanadarśanam ||
Verse 5:

கம்மயமாந் தீர்த்தங்கள் கன்மண்ணாந் தெய்வங்க
ளம்மகத்துக் கட்கிணையே யாகாவா — மம்மவவை
யெண்ணினா ளாற்றூய்மை யேய்விப்ப சாதுக்கள்
கண்ணினாற் கண்டிடவே காண்.

kammayamān tīrtthaṅgaḷ kaṉmaṇṇān deyvaṅga
ḷammahattuk kaṭkiṇaiyē yāhāvā — mammavavai
yeṇṇiṉā ḷāṯṟūymai yēyvippa sādhukkaḷ
kaṇṇiṉāṯ kaṇḍiḍavē kāṇ.


பதச்சேதம்: கம்மயம் ஆம் தீர்த்தங்கள், கல், மண் ஆம் தெய்வங்கள் அம் மகத்துக்கட்கு இணையே ஆகா ஆம். அம்ம! அவை எண்ணில் நாளால் தூய்மை ஏய்விப்ப; சாதுக்கள் கண்ணினால் கண்டிடவே காண்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): kammayam ām tīrtthaṅgaḷ, kal, maṇ ām deyvaṅgaḷ a-m-mahattukkaṭku iṇaiyē āhā ām. amma! avai eṇṇil nāḷāl tūymai ēyvippa; sādhukkaḷ kaṇṇiṉāl kaṇḍiḍavē kāṇ.

English translation: Tīrthas, which are composed of water, and deities, which are stone or earth, are not at all equal to those mahātmas. Ah! Those give rise to purity by countless days, sādhus as soon as they see by eye. See.

Explanatory paraphrase: Tīrthas [sacred bathing places], which are composed of water, and deities [images of God], which are [composed of] stone or earth, are not at all equal [similar or comparable] to those mahātmas [great souls or jñānis]. Ah! See, those [tīrthas and deities] give rise to purity [of mind, heart or will] by countless days [that is, gradually over a long period of time], [whereas] sādhus [jñānis] [do so] as soon as they see by eye.

Padavurai (word-explanation): கம்மயம் (kammayam): water-composed, composed of water {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit kammaya, in which kam means ‘water’ and maya is a suffix that means ‘made of’, ‘composed of’, ‘consisting of’ or ‘full of’} | ஆம் (ām): being, which is, which are {adjectival participle} | தீர்த்தங்கள் (tīrtthaṅgaḷ): sacred bathing places {plural of tīrttham, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit tīrtha} | கல் (kal): stone | மண் (maṇ): earth, mud, clay | ஆம் (ām): which are {adjectival participle} | தெய்வங்கள் (deyvaṅgaḷ): deities, images of God {plural of deyvam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit daivam, ‘deity’ or ‘God’} | அ (a): that, those {distal demonstrative prefix} | மகத்துக்கட்கு (mahattukkaṭku): to mahātmas (great souls or jñānis) {dative (fourth case) form of mahattukkaḷ, plural of mahattu, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit mahat, ‘great’, ‘greatness’ or ‘what is great’, often used in Tamil to mean mahātma, ‘great soul’} | இணையே (iṇaiyē): at all similar, like, equal, comparable {intensified form of iṇai, ‘similar’, ‘like’ or ‘equal’} | ஆகாவாம் (āhā-v-ām): are not {āhā means ‘are not’, and ām means ‘are’} || அம்ம (amma): ah! {exclamation} || அவை (avai): those {plural distal demonstrative pronoun} | எண்ணில் (eṇṇil): numberless, countless | நாளால் (nāḷāl): by day, by time {instrumental (third case) form of nāḷ, ‘day’ or ‘time’} | தூய்மை (tūymai): purity {tūy means ‘pure’, and mai is a Tamil suffix that denotes an abstract quality or condition, like the English suffixes ‘ness’ and ‘ity’} | ஏய்விப்ப (ēyvippa): give rise to || சாதுக்கள் (sādhukkaḷ): sādhus {plural of sādhu: saintly people, which in this context implies jñānis, those who know and abide as sat, pure being} | கண்ணினால் (kaṇṇiṉāl): by eye {instrumental (third case) form of kaṇ, ‘eye’} | கண்டிடவே (kaṇḍiḍavē): as soon as seeing, as soon as [they] see {intensified form of kaṇḍiḍa, an infinitive used idiomatically in the sense of ‘when seeing’ or ‘when [they] see’} | காண் (kāṇ): see {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: Whereas the previous verse said that heat, poverty and sin will be removed by our seeing peerless sādhus, this verse says that purity will arise in us as soon as they see us. This distinction is significant, because heat, poverty and sin are results of actions we have previously done under the sway of our viṣaya-vāsanās (inclinations to seek happiness in objects or phenomena), which are the impurities in our mind, so this implies that being seen by jñānis is far more efficacious than seeing them, since the former will remove our impurities whereas the latter will remove just the effects of our impurities.

This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 10.48.31, which are words spoken by Sri Krishna to Akrura:
न ह्यम्मयानि तीर्थानि न देवा मृच्छिलामया: ।
ते पुनन्त्युरुकालेन दर्शनादेव साधव: ॥

na hyammayāni tīrthāni na dēvā mṛcchilāmayāḥ |
tē punantyurukālēna darśanādēva sādhavaḥ ||
The implication of ‘न’ (na), which means ‘not’ and which occurs twice in the first line of this Sanskrit verse, is made clear by Bhagavan in his Tamil adaptation, because he interprets them to mean ‘அம் மகத்துக்கட்கு இணையே ஆகாவாம்’ (a-m-mahattukkaṭku iṇaiyē āhā-v-ām), ‘are not at all equal to those mahātmas’. That is, though there are no words in the original Sanskrit verse that mean ‘அம் மகத்துக்கட்கு இணையே’ (a-m-mahattukkaṭku iṇaiyē), ‘at all equal to those mahātmas’, their meaning is implied, because in the previous verse (Bhāgavatam 10.48.30) Sri Krishna had extolled the greatness of sādhus.

Verse 6:

தேவனா ரார்மனந் தேருவ னென்மன
மாவியா மென்னா லறிபடுமே — தேவனீ
யாகுமே யாகையா லார்க்குஞ் சுருதியா
லேகனாந் தேவனே யென்று.

dēvaṉā rārmaṉan tēruva ṉeṉmaṉa
māviyā meṉṉā laṟibaḍumē — dēvaṉī
yāhumē yāhaiyā lārkkuñ śurutiyā
lēkaṉān dēvaṉē yeṉḏṟu.


பதச்சேதம்: ‘தேவன் ஆர்?’ ‘ஆர் மனம் தேருவன்?’ ‘என் மனம் ஆவி ஆம் என்னால் அறிபடுமே.’ ‘தேவன் நீ ஆகுமே, ஆகையால், ஆர்க்கும் சுருதியால் “ஏகன் ஆம் தேவனே” என்று.’

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ‘dēvaṉ ār?’ ‘ār maṉam tēruvaṉ?’ ‘eṉ maṉam āvi ām eṉṉāl aṟibaḍumē.’ ‘dēvaṉ nī āhumē, āhaiyāl, ārkkum śurutiyāl “ēkaṉ ām dēvaṉē” eṉḏṟu.’

அன்வயம்: ‘தேவன் ஆர்?’ ‘ஆர் மனம் தேருவன்?’ ‘என் மனம் ஆவி ஆம் என்னால் அறிபடுமே.’ ‘ஆகையால், “தேவனே ஏகன் ஆம்” என்று சுருதி ஆர்க்குமால், தேவன் நீ ஆகுமே.’

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ‘dēvaṉ ār?’ ‘ār maṉam tēruvaṉ?’ ‘eṉ maṉam āvi ām eṉṉāl aṟibaḍumē.’ ‘āhaiyāl, “dēvaṉē ēkaṉ ām” eṉḏṟu śuruti ārkkumāl, dēvaṉ nī āhumē.’

English translation: ‘Who is God?’ ‘Who knows the mind?’ ‘My mind is only known by me, who am the soul.’ ‘Therefore, since the Vedas roar “God alone is the one”, you are actually God.’

Explanatory paraphrase:
[Disciple:] Who is God?
[Guru:] Who knows the mind? [implying that whoever knows the mind is God].
[Disciple:] My mind is only known by me, who am the soul [or spirit].
[Guru:] Therefore, since śruti [the Vedas] roar [or declare emphatically] ‘God alone is the one’ [implying that the one who actually exists is only God, so he is ‘one only without a second’ (ēkam ēva advitīyam), and hence nothing can be other than him], you are actually God [or God is actually you].

Padavurai (word-explanation): தேவன் (dēvaṉ): God {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit dēva} | ஆர் (ār): who {interrogative pronoun} || ஆர் (ār): who | மனம் (maṉam): mind {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit manas} | தேருவன் (tēruvaṉ): knows || என் (eṉ): my {inflectional base and genitive (sixth case) form of the first person singular pronoun} | மனம் (maṉam): mind | ஆவி (āvi): soul, spirit | ஆம் (ām): who am {adjectival participle} | என்னால் (eṉṉāl): by me {instrumental (third case) form of the first person singular pronoun} | அறிபடுமே (aṟibaḍumē): is only known {aṟibaḍum means ‘is known’ (being a passive form of aṟi, ‘know’), and the suffix ē is an intensifier that in this case implies ‘only’} || தேவன் (dēvaṉ): God | நீ (): you {nominative (first case) form of the second person singular pronoun} | ஆகுமே (āhumē): are actually {āhum means ‘is’ (or in this case ‘are’), and the suffix ē is an intensifier that in this case implies ‘only’ or ‘actually’} | ஆகையால் (āhaiyāl): therefore {literally ‘by being’ (implying ‘since it is so’), instrumental (third case) form of the verbal noun āhai, ‘being’} | ஆர்க்கும் (ārkkum): shout, roar, loudly declare | சுருதியால் (surutiyāl): by śruti, because śruti, since śruti {instrumental (third case) form of suruti, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit śruti, ‘what has been heard’, namely the Vedas} | ஏகன் (ēkaṉ): the one, he who is one {a Tamil personal noun formed from the Sanskrit ēka, ‘one’} | ஆம் (ām): is | தேவனே (dēvaṉē): God alone, God actually {intensified form of dēvaṉ, ‘God’, in which the intensifying suffix ē implies ‘alone’ or ‘actually’} | என்று (eṉḏṟu): saying {an adverbial participle implying ‘that’, ‘thus’ or ‘as’, and in this case serving the same function as inverted commas in English}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of the following Sanskrit verse, the source of which is unknown:
को देवो यो मनोवेत्ति मनो मे दृश्यते मया ।
तस्मात्त्वमेव देवोऽसि एको देव इति श्रुतेः ॥

kō dēvō yō manōvētti manō mē dṛśyatē mayā |
tasmāttvamēva dēvō’si ēkō dēva iti śrutēḥ ||
(விருத்தம்: viruttam)

Verse 7:

ஒளியுனக் கெதுபக லினனெனக் கிருள்விளக்
கொளியுண ரொளியெது கணதுண ரொளியெது
வொளிமதி மதியுண ரொளியெது வதுவக
மொளிதனி லொளியுநீ யெனகுரு வகமதே.

oḷiyuṉak kedupaha liṉaṉeṉak kiruḷviḷak
koḷiyuṇa roḷiyedu kaṇaduṇa roḷiyedu
voḷimati matiyuṇa roḷiyedu vaduvaha
moḷitaṉi loḷiyunī yeṉaguru vahamadē.


பதச்சேதம்: ‘ஒளி உனக்கு எது?’ ‘பகல் இனன் எனக்கு, இருள் விளக்கு.’ ‘ஒளி உணர் ஒளி எது?’ ‘கண்.’ ‘அது உணர் ஒளி எது?’ ‘ஒளி மதி.’ ‘மதி உணர் ஒளி எது?’ ‘அது அகம்.’ ‘ஒளி தனில் ஒளியும் நீ’ என குரு, ‘அகம் அதே’.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ‘oḷi uṉakku edu?’ ‘pahal iṉaṉ eṉakku, iruḷ viḷakku.’ ‘oḷi uṇar oḷi edu?’ ‘kaṇ.’ ‘adu uṇar oḷi edu?’ ‘oḷi mati.’ ‘mati uṇar oḷi edu?’ ‘adu aham.’ ‘oḷi taṉil oḷiyum nī’ eṉa guru, ‘aham adē’.

அன்வயம்: ‘உனக்கு ஒளி எது?’ ‘எனக்கு பகல் இனன், இருள் விளக்கு.’ ‘ஒளி உணர் ஒளி எது?’ ‘கண்.’ ‘அது உணர் ஒளி எது?’ ‘ஒளி மதி.’ ‘மதி உணர் ஒளி எது?’ ‘அது அகம்.’ ‘ஒளி தனில் ஒளியும் நீ’ என குரு, ‘அகம் அதே’.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ‘uṉakku oḷi edu?’ ‘eṉakku pahal iṉaṉ, iruḷ viḷakku.’ ‘oḷi uṇar oḷi edu?’ ‘kaṇ.’ ‘adu uṇar oḷi edu?’ ‘oḷi mati.’ ‘mati uṇar oḷi edu?’ ‘adu aham.’ ‘oḷi taṉil oḷiyum nī’ eṉa guru, ‘aham adē’.

English translation: ‘What is the light for you?’ ‘For me in daytime the sun, in darkness a lamp.’ ‘What is the light that knows the light?’ ‘The eye.’ ‘What is the light that knows that?’ ‘The light is the mind.’ ‘What is the light that knows the mind?’ ‘That is I.’ When the guru said, ‘Even the light in light is you’, ‘I am that alone.’

Explanatory paraphrase:
[Guru:] What is the light for you?
[Disciple:] For me in daytime the sun, in darkness a lamp.
[Guru:] What is the light that knows the [physical] light [from such sources]?
[Disciple:] The eye.
[Guru:] What is the light that knows [or is aware of] that?
[Disciple:] The light [that knows the eye] is the mind.
[Guru:] What is the light that knows [or is aware of] the mind?
[Disciple:] That is I.
When the guru said, ‘Even the light in light [namely pure awareness, which is the light that shines in and thereby illumines the mind, which is the light that in turn illumines all other lights, making them known] is you’, [the disciple replied:] ‘I am that alone [or that indeed]’.

Padavurai (word-explanation): ஒளி (oḷi): light | உனக்கு (uṉakku): to you, for you {dative (fourth case) form of the second person singular pronoun} | எது (edu): what {interrogative pronoun} || பகல் (pahal): daytime {though nominative (first case) in form, pahal is used here in a locative (seventh case) sense, ‘in daytime’} | இனன் (iṉaṉ): sun | எனக்கு (eṉakku): to me, for me {dative (fourth case) form of the first person singular pronoun} | இருள் (iruḷ): darkness {though nominative (first case) in form, iruḷ is used here in a locative (seventh case) sense, ‘in darkness’} | விளக்கு (viḷakku): lamp || ஒளி (oḷi): light {though nominative (first case) in form, oḷi is used here in an accusative (second case) sense} | உணர் (uṇar): know {root of this verb, used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, ‘knowing’ or ‘that knows’} | ஒளி (oḷi): light | எது (edu): what || கண் (kaṇ): eye || அது (adu): that {though nominative (first case) in form, this singular distal demonstrative pronoun is used here in an accusative (second case) sense} | உணர் (uṇar): know, be aware of {root of this verb, used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, ‘that knows’ or ‘that is aware of’} | ஒளி (oḷi): light | எது (edu): what || ஒளி (oḷi): light | மதி (mati): mind || மதி (mati): mind {though nominative (first case) in form, mati is used here in an accusative (second case) sense} | உணர் (uṇar): know, be aware of {root of this verb, used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, ‘that knows’ or ‘that is aware of’} | ஒளி (oḷi): light | எது (edu): what || அது (adu): that | அகம் (aham): I {nominative (first case) form of the Sanskrit first person singular pronoun} || ஒளி (oḷi): light | தனில் (taṉil): in itself {locative (seventh case) form of the generic pronoun tāṉ, but used here as a case-marking suffix to oḷi, so oḷi-taṉil means ‘in light’} | ஒளியும் (oḷiyum): even the light {oḷi means ‘light’, and in this case the case the suffix um means ‘even’, indicating that the light oḷiyum refers to is special, because it is the ultimate light, the light of all lights} | நீ (): you {nominative (first case) form of the second person singular pronoun} | என (eṉa): when [he] said {infinitive used idiomatically to mean ‘when [he] said’} | குரு (guru): guru || அகம் (aham): I | அதே (adē): only that, that alone, that indeed {intensified form of adu, ‘that’, in which the intensifying suffix ē implies ‘only’ or ‘alone’ (or perhaps ‘indeed’)}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of Adi Sankara’s Ēkaślōki:
किं ज्योतिस्तव भानुमानहनि मे रात्रौ प्रदीपादिकं
स्यादेवं रविदीपदर्शनविधौ किं ज्योतिराख्याहिमे ।
चक्षुस्तस्य निमीलनादिसमये किं धीर्धियोर्दर्शने
किं तत्राहमतो भवान्परमकं ज्योतिस्तदस्मि प्रभो ॥

kiṁ jyōtistava bhānumānahani mē rātrau pradīpādikaṁ
syādēvaṁ ravidīpadarśanavidhau kiṁ jyōtirākhyāhimē
|
cakṣustasya nimīlanādisamayē kiṁ dhīrdhiyōrdarśanē
kiṁ tatrāhamatō bhavānparamakaṁ jyōtistadasmi prabhō
||
(வேறு: vēṟu)

Verse 8:

இதயமாங் குகையி னாப்ப ணேகமாம் பிரம்ம மாத்ர
மதுவக மகமா நேரே யவிர்ந்திடு மான்மா வாக
விதயமே சார்வாய் தன்னை யெண்ணியா ழலது வாயு
வதனுட னாழ்ம னத்தா லான்மாவி னிட்ட னாவாய்.

idayamāṅ guhaiyi ṉāppa ṇēkamām biramma mātra
maduvaha mahamā nērē yavirndiḍu māṉmā vāha
vidayamē sārvāy taṉṉai yeṇṇiyā ṙaladu vāyu
vadaṉuḍa ṉāṙma ṉattā lāṉmāvi ṉiṭṭa ṉāvāy.


பதச்சேதம்: இதயம் ஆம் குகையின் நாப்பண் ஏகம் ஆம் பிரம்மம் மாத்ரம் அது ‘அகம் அகம்’ ஆ நேரே அவிர்ந்திடும் ஆன்மாவாக. இதயமே சார்வாய், தன்னை எண்ணி ஆழ் அலது வாயு அதன் உடன் ஆழ் மனத்தால்; ஆன்மாவில் நிட்டன் ஆவாய்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): idayam ām guhaiyiṉ nāppaṇ ēkam ām birammam mātram adu ‘aham aham’ ā nērē avirndiḍum āṉmā-v-āha. idayamē sārvāy, taṉṉai eṇṇi āṙ aladu vāyu adaṉ uḍaṉ āṙ maṉattāl; āṉmāvil niṭṭaṉ āvāy.

அன்வயம்: இதயம் ஆம் குகையின் நாப்பண் ஏகம் ஆம் பிரம்மம் மாத்ரம் அது ‘அகம் அகம்’ ஆ ஆன்மாவாக நேரே அவிர்ந்திடும். தன்னை எண்ணி ஆழ் அலது வாயு அதன் உடன் ஆழ் மனத்தால் இதயமே சார்வாய்; ஆன்மாவில் நிட்டன் ஆவாய்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): idayam ām guhaiyiṉ nāppaṇ ēkam ām birammam mātram adu ‘aham aham’ ā āṉmā-v-āha nērē avirndiḍum. taṉṉai eṇṇi āṙ aladu vāyu adaṉ uḍaṉ āṙ maṉattāl idayamē sārvāy; āṉmāvil niṭṭaṉ āvāy.

English translation: In the centre of the cave that is the heart, brahman, which is the one, alone shines directly as oneself as ‘I am I’. May you reach the heart by the mind that sinks investigating itself or that sinks with the breath; may you be one who is fixed in yourself.

Explanatory paraphrase: In the centre of the cave that is the heart, brahman, which is the one [the only one that actually exists, and hence the one without a second], alone shines directly as oneself as ‘I am I’ [that is, as awareness of oneself as oneself alone]. May you reach [take refuge in, unite with or merge in] the heart by the mind that sinks [or subsides] [deep within] investigating itself or that sinks with the [sinking] breath; [and] may you [thereby] be one who is fixed in yourself.

Padavurai (word-explanation): இதயம் (idayam): heart {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit hṛdaya} | ஆம் (ām): being, which is, that is {adjectival participle} | குகையின் (guhaiyiṉ): of the cave, cavern, hiding place {a genitive (sixth case) form of guhai, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit guhā} | நாப்பண் (nāppaṇ): middle, centre | ஏகம் (ēkam): one, single, unique, the one, alone, only {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit ēka} | ஆம் (ām): being, which is, that is {adjectival participle} | பிரம்மம் (birammam): the infinite and ultimate reality {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit brahman} | மாத்ரம் (mātram): only, alone {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit mātra} | அது (adu): that {singular distal demonstrative pronoun, referring here to ‘brahman alone’ and therefore having no separate meaning in this context} | அகம் அகம் (aham aham): ‘I am I’ {though often wrongly translated as ‘I-I’, ‘aham aham’ actually means ‘I am I’ because in a sentence such as this consisting of a subject and a subject complement in Tamil or Sanskrit the copula (in this case ‘am’) is implicit} | ஆ (ā): be {the root of this verb, used here in the sense of an adverbial participle, ‘being’ or ‘as’} | நேரே (nērē): directly, honestly, straightforwardly {adverb derived from the verb nēr, one of the meanings of which is to appear or come into view, so nērē implies to be seen, perceived or known directly, or in this context to shine directly; nērē also means ‘honestly’ or ‘straightforwardly’, so in this sense it implies openly and clearly, in a manner that is straightforward, transparent and not hidden in any way} | அவிர்ந்திடும் (avirndiḍum): shines | ஆன்மாவாக (āṉmā-v-āha): as oneself {āṉmā is a Tamil form of the Sanskrit ātmā, the nominative (first case) singular form of ātman, which is both a pronoun that means ‘self’, ‘oneself’, ‘myself’, ‘yourself’, ‘himself’, ‘herself’ or ‘itself’, and a noun that means ‘spirit’ (namely ātma-svarūpa, the real nature of oneself, meaning ourself as we actually are) or ‘soul’ (namely ourself as ego or jīva); and āha is an infinitive that means ‘to be’ but that is often used as an adverb or an adverbial suffix meaning ‘being’ or ‘as’} || இதயமே (idayamē): heart {intensified form of idayam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit hṛdaya} | சார்வாய் (sārvāy): may you reach, may you take refuge in, may you unite with, may you merge in {second person singular optative (this kind of optative is generally formed by affixing āhā to a future form of a verb, but in poetry the āhā can be omitted, as in this case, so here the second person singular future verb is used as an optative)} | தன்னை (taṉṉai): itself {accusative (second case) form of the generic pronoun tāṉ, ‘oneself’ or ‘itself’} | எண்ணி (eṇṇi): thinking, contemplating, considering, investigating {adverbial participle} | ஆழ் (āṙ): sink, dive, immerse, subside, enter {the root of this verb, used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, ‘sinking’ or ‘that sinks’} | அலது (aladu): or {poetic abbreviation of alladu, an adversative conjunction, ‘if not’, ‘or’ or ‘else’} | வாயு (vāyu): wind, air, breath | அதனுடன் (adaṉuḍaṉ): with that {adaṉ is an inflectional base of the singular distal demonstrative pronoun, adu, ‘that’, and uḍaṉ is a sociative (third case) ending that means ‘with’; here adaṉuḍaṉ serves as a case-marking suffix to vāyu, ‘breath’, so vāyu-v-adaṉuḍaṉ means ‘with the breath’} | ஆழ் (āṙ): sink {as explained above, used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, ‘sinking’ or ‘that sinks’} | மனத்தால் (maṉattāl): by the mind {instrumental (third case) form of maṉam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit manas, ‘mind’} || ஆன்மாவில் (āṉmāvil): in yourself {locative (seventh case) form of āṉmā, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit ātmā (as explained in more detail above)} | நிட்டன் (niṭṭaṉ): one who is fixed {a Tamil personal noun formed from the Sanskrit niṣṭha: ‘being in’, ‘being on’, ‘being grounded’, ‘being fixed’ or ‘being firm’} | ஆவாய் (āvāy): may you be {second person singular optative (as explained above for sārvāy)}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s translation of the following Sanskrit verse composed by him:
हृदय कुहर मध्ये केवलं ब्रह्म मात्रं
ह्यहमह मिति साक्षा दात्मरू पेण भाति।
हृदि विश मनसास्वं चिन्वता मज्जता वा
पवन चलन रोधा दात्मनिष्ठो भव त्वम्॥

hṛdaya kuhara madhyē kēvalaṁ brahma mātraṁ
hyahamaha miti sākṣā dātmarū pēṇa bhāti
|
hṛdi viśa manasāsvaṁ cinvatā majja tāvā
pavana calana rōdhā dātmaniṣṭhō bhava tvam
||

पदच्छेद: हृदय कुहर मध्ये केवलम् ब्रह्म मात्रम् हि ‘अहम् अहम्’ इति साक्षात् आत्म रूपेण भाति. हृदि विश मनसा स्वम् चिन्वता मज्जता वा पवन चलन रोधात्, आत्म निष्ठः भव त्वम्.

Padacchēda (word-separation): hṛdaya kuhara madhyē kēvalam brahma mātram hi ‘aham aham’ iti sākṣāt ātma rūpēṇa bhāti. hṛdi viśa manasā svam cinvatā majjatā vā pavana calana rōdhāt, ātma niṣṭhaḥ bhava tvam.

English translation: In the centre of the heart-cave, solitarily brahman alone shines clearly in the form of oneself as ‘I am I’. Entering the heart by the mind sinking investigating itself or by restraining the movement of the breath, may you be fixed in yourself.

Explanatory paraphrase: In the centre of the heart-cave, solitarily brahman alone shines clearly [directly or immediately] in the form of oneself as ‘I am I’ [that is, as awareness of oneself as oneself alone]. Entering the heart by the mind sinking [deep within] investigating itself or by restraining the movement of the breath, may you be fixed in yourself.
Word-explanation: हृदयकुहरमध्ये (hṛdaya-kuhara-madhyē): in the heart-cave-centre, in the centre of the heart-cave {compound of hṛdaya, ‘heart’, kuhara, ‘cave’, ‘cavity’, ‘hollow’ or ‘hole’, and madhyē [locative (seventh case) form of madhya], ‘in the middle’ or ‘in the centre’} | केवलम् (kēvalam): only, solely, solitarily {adverb} | ब्रह्म (brahma): brahman | मात्रम् (mātram): only, alone | हि (hi): certainly, indeed {intensifier, often used as a poetic expletive} | अहम् अहम् (aham aham): ‘I am I’ {though often wrongly translated as ‘I-I’, ‘aham aham’ actually means ‘I am I’ because in a sentence such as this consisting of a subject and a subject complement in Tamil or Sanskrit the copula (in this case ‘am’) is implicit} | इति (iti): thus, as {a quotative particle serving the same function as inverted commas in English} | साक्षात् (sākṣāt): openly, clearly, evidently, immediately, directly | आत्मरूपेण (ātma-rūpēṇa): in the self-form, in the form of oneself {ātma is the form taken by ātman when used as the first word in a compound, so it means ‘self-’ or ‘of oneself’, and rūpēṇa is the instrumental (third case) singular form of rūpa, so it literally means ‘by the form’, but in English we would express the same meaning as ‘in the form’} | भाति (bhāti): shines || हृदि (hṛdi): in the heart {locative (seventh case) of hṛd, ‘heart’} | विश (viśa): enter | मनसा (manasā): by the mind {instrumental (third case) of manas} | स्वम् (svam): oneself, itself {accusative (second case) form of sva, ‘oneself’} | चिन्वता (cinvatā): attending, being attentive, thinking, investigating | मज्जता (majjatā): sinking, diving | वा (): or | पवनचलनरोधात् (pavana-calana-rōdhāt): by restraining the movement of the breath {compound of pavana, ‘wind’, ‘air’ or ‘breath’, calana, ‘movement’, and rōdhāt [ablative (fifth case) of rōdha], ‘from restraining’ or ‘by restraining’ [in Sanskrit the ablative (fifth case) is frequently used in cases in which in English we would generally use the instrumental preposition ‘by’ rather than the ablative preposition ‘from’]} | आत्मनिष्ठः (ātma-niṣṭhaḥ): being in yourself, fixed in yourself {compound of ātma, ‘yourself’, and niṣṭhaḥ, ‘being in’, ‘grounded in’, ‘fixed in’ or ‘firmly established in’} | भव (bhava): may [you] be | त्वम् (tvam): you.

Though all the other ideas in this verse are a beautiful expression of Bhagavan’s teachings, it is important to note that there is one idea in it that is not in accordance with them, namely the idea that by pavana-calana-rōdha (restraining the movement of the breath) one can be established in ātma-niṣṭhā (the state of being firmly fixed in oneself), because we can be firmly fixed in and as ourself only when ego is eradicated, and it cannot be eradicated by breath-restraint (prāṇāyāma), as he makes clear, for example, in the eighth paragraph of Nāṉ Ār?, which he concludes by saying: ‘ஆகையால் பிராணாயாமம் மனத்தை யடக்க சகாயமாகுமே யன்றி மனோநாசஞ் செய்யாது’ (āhaiyāl pirāṇāyāmam maṉattai y-aḍakka sahāyam-āhum-ē y-aṉḏṟi maṉōnāśam seyyādu), ‘Therefore prāṇāyāma is just an aid to restrain the mind, but will not bring about manōnāśa [annihilation of mind]’.

Therefore why in this verse did he mention pavana-calana-rōdha as a means to be established in ātma-niṣṭhā? To understand this we need to consider the circumstances under which he wrote it.

One day in 1915 a devotee called Jagadiswara Sastri tried to write a verse beginning with the words ‘hṛdaya kuhara madhyē’, but could not think of appropriate words in which to express the ideas that he had in mind, so he left the paper on which he had written these words with Bhagavan, hoping that he would complete the verse for him. Bhagavan therefore wrote his ideas in the form of this verse, and signed it ‘Jagadisan’ to show that the ideas expressed in it were Jagadiswara Sastri’s. However, except for ‘pavana-calana-rōdhāt’, all the other ideas expressed in this verse are in accordance with Bhagavan’s teachings, because they were ideas that Jagadiswara Sastri had learnt from him.

In Śrī Ramaṇa Gītā Kavyakantha misinterpreted the final two lines of this verse by claiming that they describe three paths, namely manasā svam cinvatā (the mind investigating itself), majjatā (sinking or diving) and pavana-chalana-rodha (restraining the movement of the breath), but when Bhagavan translated this verse into Tamil, he made it clear that majjatā is not a separate path, because he appended the word ஆழ் (āṙ), ‘sink’ (which is used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, ‘sinking’ or ‘that sinks’) after both ‘தன்னை எண்ணி’ (taṉṉai eṇṇi), ‘investigating itself’, and ‘வாயுவதனுடன்’ (vāyu-v-adaṉuḍaṉ) ‘with the breath’, so ‘தன்னை எண்ணி ஆழ் அலது வாயுவதனுடன் ஆழ் மனத்தால்’ (taṉṉai eṇṇi āṙ aladu vāyu-v-adaṉuḍaṉ āṙ maṉattāl) means ‘by the mind that sinks investigating itself or that sinks with the breath’. Thus in Tamil it is very clear that this verse mentions just two paths, because majjatā (sinking or subsiding of the mind) can occur either by self-investigation or by breath-restraint.

However, as Bhagavan often made clear, if the mind subsides by self-investigation, it will result in its destruction (nāśa), whereas if it subsides just by breath-restraint, that will result only in temporary dissolution (laya). Therefore we should not read this verse in isolation from his teachings as a whole and thereby be misled into thinking that we can be established in ātma-niṣṭhā merely by breath-restraint.

To make this clear, when arranging the verses of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham in a suitable order, Bhagavan and Muruganar decided to place immediately after this verse one that states clearly that only the awareness that exists and shines in the heart as the pure and motionless ‘I’ will give liberation by eradicating ego, thereby implying that it is only by the mind sinking deep within by self-investigation (svam cinvatā) and thereby dissolving forever in the heart that we can be firmly fixed in and as ourself.

Explanations and discussions:
2023-05-16: Brahman is the real nature of ourself (ātma-svarūpa), which is what shines in our heart timelessly and immutably as ‘I am I’ without ever appearing or disappearing and without ever waxing or waning (also here)
2023-05-16: In the verse ‘हृदय कुहर मध्ये’ (hṛdaya kuhara madhyē) केवलम् (kēvalam) is an adverb that means ‘solitarily’, so it implies that brahman is ‘one only without a second’ (ēkam ēva advitīyam), as Bhagavan also implied in the first two lines of his Tamil translation of this verse, namely verse 8 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham, in which he translated ‘केवलम् ब्रह्म मात्रम्’ (kēvalam brahma mātram), ‘solitarily brahman alone’, as ‘ஏகம் ஆம் பிரம்ம மாத்ரம்’ (ēkam ām birammam mātram), ‘brahman, which is the one, alone’ (also here)

(வெண்பா: veṇbā)

Verse 9:

அகக்கம லத்தே யமல வசல
வகமுருவ மாகு மறிவே — தகத்தை
யகற்றிடுவ தாலவ் வகமா மறிவே
யகவீ டளிப்ப தறி.

ahakkama lattē yamala vacala
vahamuruva māhu maṟivē — dahattai
yahaṯṟiḍuva dālav vahamā maṟivē
yahavī ḍaḷippa daṟi.


பதச்சேதம்: அக கமலத்தே அமல அசல அகம் உருவம் ஆகும் அறிவு ஏது, அகத்தை அகற்றிடுவதால் அவ் அகம் ஆம் அறிவே, அக வீடு அளிப்பது. அறி.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): aha-kamalattē amala acala aham-uruvam āhum aṟivu ēdu, ahattai ahaṯṟiḍuvadāl a-vv-aham ām aṟivē aha-vīḍu aḷippadu. aṟi.

அன்வயம்: அறிவு ஏது அக கமலத்தே அமல அசல அகம் உருவம் ஆகும், அவ் அகம் ஆம் அறிவே அகத்தை அகற்றிடுவதால் அக வீடு அளிப்பது. அறி.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): aṟivu ēdu aha-kamalattē amala acala aham-uruvam āhum, a-vv-aham ām aṟivē ahattai ahaṯṟiḍuvadāl aha-vīḍu aḷippadu. aṟi.

English translation: What awareness is the blemishless, motionless ‘I’-form in the heart-lotus, only that awareness, which is ‘I’, is what will give inner liberation by removing ‘I’. Know.

Explanatory paraphrase: What awareness exists [and shines] in the heart-lotus as the blemishless [immaculate or pure] and motionless [hence immutable] ‘I’-form [the svarūpa or real nature of ‘I’, meaning ‘I’ as it actually is], only that awareness, which is ‘I’ [namely ātma-svarūpa, the real nature of oneself], is what will give inner liberation [or liberation, which is ‘I’] by removing [expelling or banishing] ‘I’ [namely ego, the spurious ‘I’ that rises and subsides]. Know [this by investigating this pure and motionless awareness that shines eternally as ‘I’ without ever rising or subsiding].

Padavurai (word-explanation): அகக்கமலத்தே aha-k-kamalattē): in the heart-lotus {compound of aha, ‘inside’, ‘home’ or ‘heart’, and kamalattē [intensified form of kamalattu, a locative (seventh case) form of kamalam], ‘in the lotus’} | அமல (amala): blemishless, flawless, faultless, undefiled, devoid of dirt or impurity, immaculate, pure | அசல (acala): motionless, unmoving (thereby implying immovable and hence immutable) | அகமுருவம் (aham-uruvam): I-form, I-nature {compound of aham [nominative (first case) form of the Sanskrit first person singular pronoun], ‘I’, and uruvam [a Tamil word derived from the Sanskrit rūpa], ‘form’ [used here in the sense of svarūpa, ‘own form’, ‘actual form’ or ‘real nature’, so aham-uruvam implies ‘the real nature of I’, namely ‘I as I actually am’]} | ஆகும் (āhum): is | அறிவு (aṟivu): awareness, consciousness, knowledge | ஏது (ēdu): what, which {interrogative pronoun used to indicate the referent of a subsequent demonstrative, namely a, ‘that’, in ‘a-vv-aham ām aṟivē’, ‘only that awareness, which is I’} | அகத்தை (ahattai): I [ego] {accusative (second case) form of aham, ‘I’} | அகற்றிடுவதால் (ahaṯṟiḍuvadāl): by removing, expelling, banishing {instrumental (third case) form of ahaṯṟiḍuvadu, a neuter third person singular participial noun used in the sense of a verbal noun, ‘removing’, ‘expelling’ or ‘banishing’} | அ (a): that {distal demonstrative prefix, referring here to ēdu, ‘what’, in the previous clause} | அகம் (aham): I {nominative (first case) form of the Sanskrit first person singular pronoun} | ஆம் (ām): which is {adjectival participle} | அறிவே (aṟivē): awareness alone, only awareness {aṟivu means ‘awareness’ and the suffix ē is an intensifier that here implies ‘only’ or ‘alone’} | அக (aha): inside, inward, inner, I {aham is both a Tamil noun that means ‘inside’, ‘home’ or ‘heart’ and a Sanskrit pronoun that means ‘I’} | வீடு (vīḍu): leaving, letting go, freedom, liberation | அளிப்பது (aḷippadu): what will give, bestow, yield, beget {future (or predictive) neuter third person singular participial noun} || அறி (aṟi): know, be aware {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: This verse is one of Bhagavan’s two adaptations of verse 46 of Dēvikālōttara – Jñāṉācāra-Vicāra-Paṭalam:
हृत्सरोजेह्यहंरूपा या चितिर्निर्मलाऽचला ।
अहङ्कार परित्यागात् सा चितिर्मोक्षदायिनी ॥

hṛtsarōjēhyahaṁrūpā yā citirnirmalā’calā |
ahaṅkāra parityāgāt sā citirmōkṣadāyinī ||
In his translation of that entire chapter (paṭalam) he adapted the same verse as follows:
இதயகம லத்தே யகமுருவா மெச்சித்
ததுநிமல நிச்சலமே யாகு — முதிக்கு
மகங்கார நீக்குதலா லச்சித்தே முத்தி
சுகங்கொடுப்ப தென்று துணி.

idayakama lattē yahamuruvā meccit
tadunimala niccalamē yāhu — mudikku
mahaṅkāra nīkkudalā laccittē mutti
sukhaṅkoḍuppa deṉḏṟu tuṇi.


பதச்சேதம்: இதய கமலத்தே அகம் உரு ஆம் எச் சித்து அது நிமல நிச்சலமே ஆகும், உதிக்கும் அகங்காரம் நீக்குதலால் அச் சித்தே முத்தி சுகம் கொடுப்பது என்று துணி.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): idaya-kamalattē aham-uru ām e-c-cittu adu nimala niccalamē āhum, udikkum ahaṅkāram nīkkudalāl a-c-cittē mutti sukham koḍuppadu eṉḏṟu tuṇi.

அன்வயம்: எச் சித்து அது இதய கமலத்தே நிமல நிச்சலமே ஆகும் அகம் உரு ஆம், அச் சித்தே உதிக்கும் அகங்காரம் நீக்குதலால் முத்தி சுகம் கொடுப்பது என்று துணி.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): e-c-cittu adu idaya-kamalattē nimala niccalamē āhum aham-uru ām, a-c-cittē udikkum ahaṅkāram nīkkudalāl mutti sukham koḍuppadu eṉḏṟu tuṇi.

English translation: What awareness is the ‘I’-form, which is blemishless and motionless, in the heart-lotus, know for sure that only that awareness is what will give the happiness of liberation by removing the rising ego.

Explanatory paraphrase: What awareness exists [and shines] in the heart-lotus as the ‘I’-form [the svarūpa or real nature of ‘I’], which is blemishless [immaculate or pure] and motionless [hence immutable], know for sure that only that awareness is what will give the happiness of liberation by removing [or destroying] the rising ego [the spurious ‘I’ that rises from and subsides in this pure awareness, which alone is real and enduring].
In the kaliveṇbā version of this verse, before the first phrase, ‘இதய கமலத்தே’ (idaya-kamalattē), ‘in the heart-lotus’, Bhagavan added an adjectival (or relative) clause, ‘உடல் உள் சாரும்’ (uḍal uḷ sārum), ‘which mingles within the body’, and he changed the final word, ‘துணி’ (tuṇi), an imperative meaning ‘conclude’ or ‘know for sure’, to ‘துணியாய்’ (tuṇiyāy), an optative meaning ‘may you conclude’ or ‘may you know for sure’, so this kaliveṇbā version means:
What awareness is the ‘I’-form, which is blemishless and motionless, in the heart-lotus, which mingles within the body, may you know for sure that only that awareness is what will give the happiness of liberation by removing the rising ego.
Padavurai (word-explanation): உடல் (uḍal): body | உள் (uḷ): within | சாரும் (sārum): which approaches, associates with, joins, unites, mixes, mingles (adjectival participle) | இதயகமலத்தே (idaya-kamalattē): in the heart-lotus {compound of idaya [a Tamil form of the Sanskrit hṛdaya], ‘heart’, and kamalattē [intensified form of kamalattu, a locative (seventh case) form of kamalam], ‘in the lotus’} | அகமுரு (aham-uru): I-form, I-nature {compound of aham [nominative (first case) form of the Sanskrit first person singular pronoun], ‘I’, and uru [a Tamil word derived from the Sanskrit rūpa], ‘form’ [used here in the sense of svarūpa, ‘own form’, ‘actual form’ or ‘real nature’, so aham-uru implies ‘the real nature of I’, namely ‘I as I actually am’]} | ஆம் (ām): is | எ (e): what {interrogative prefix used to indicate the referent of a subsequent demonstrative, namely a, ‘that’, in a-c-cittē, ‘that awareness alone’} | சித்து (cittu): awareness {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit cit} | அது (adu): that {singular distal demonstrative pronoun, referring here to cittu, ‘awareness’, and therefore having no separate meaning} | நிமல (nimala): blemishless, flawless, immaculate, pure {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit nirmala} | நிச்சலமே (niccalamē): unmoving, motionless, immovable, fixed, steady, unchanging, immutable {niccalam is a Tamil form of the Sanskrit niścalam, ‘unmoving’, and the suffix ē is an intensifier} | ஆகும் (āhum): which is {adjectival participle, applying here to aham-uru, ‘I-form’} | உதிக்கும் (udikkum): rising, arising, appearing, coming out, which rises {adjectival participle} | அகங்காரம் (ahaṅkāram): ego {though nominative (first case) in form, ahaṅkāram is used here in an accusative (second case) sense} | நீக்குதலால் (nīkkudalāl): by removing, excluding, destroying {instrumental (third case) form of the verbal noun nīkkudal, ‘removing’} | அ (a): that {distal demonstrative prefix, referring here to e-c-cittu, ‘what awareness’, in the previous clause} | சித்தே (cittē): awareness alone {cittu is a Tamil form of the Sanskrit cit, ‘awareness’ or ‘consciousness’, and the suffix ē is an intensifier, which here implies ‘only’ or ‘alone’} | முத்திசுகம் (mutti-sukham): liberation-happiness, the happiness of liberation {compound of mutti [a Tamil form of the Sanskrit mukti], ‘liberation’, and sukham, ‘happiness’ or ‘bliss’} | கொடுப்பது (koḍuppadu): what will give, grant, bring forth, beget, give birth to {future (or predictive) neuter third person singular participial noun} | என்று (eṉḏṟu): saying {an adverbial participle implying ‘that’, ‘thus’ or ‘as’} | துணி (tuṇi): conclude, know for certain, know for sure, know clearly {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

(விருத்தம்: viruttam)

Verse 10:

தேகங் கடநிகர் சடமிதற் ககமெனுந் திகழ்விலதா
னாகஞ் சடலமி றுயிலினி றினமுறு நமதியலாற்
கோகங் கரனெவ ணுளனுணர்ந் துளருளக் குகையுள்ளே
சோகம் புரணவ ருணகிரி சிவவிபு சுயமொளிர்வான்.

dēhaṅ ghaṭanihar jaḍamidaṟ kahameṉun tihaṙviladā
ṉāhañ jaḍalami ṟuyiliṉi ṟiṉamuṟu namadiyalāṟ
kōhaṅ karaṉeva ṇuḷaṉuṇarn duḷaruḷak guhaiyuḷḷē
sōham phuraṇava ruṇagiri śivavibhu suyamoḷirvāṉ.


பதச்சேதம்: தேகம் கடம் நிகர் சடம்; இதற்கு ‘அகம்’ எனும் திகழ்வு இலதால், ந அகம், சடலம் இல் துயிலினில் தினம் உறும் நமது இயல் ஆல். ‘க: அகங்கரன்? எவண் உளன்?’ உணர்ந்து உளர் உள குகை உள்ளே, ‘ச: அகம்’ புரண அருணகிரி சிவ விபு சுயம் ஒளிர்வான்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): dēham ghaṭam nihar jaḍam; idaṟku ‘aham’ eṉum tihaṙvu iladāl, na aham, jaḍalam il tuyiliṉil diṉam uṟum namadu iyal āl. ‘kaḥ ahaṅkaraṉ? evaṇ uḷaṉ?’ uṇarndu uḷar uḷa guhai uḷḷē, ‘saḥ aham’ phuraṇa aruṇagiri śiva vibhu suyam oḷirvāṉ.

அன்வயம்: தேகம் கடம் நிகர் சடம்; இதற்கு ‘அகம்’ எனும் திகழ்வு இலதால், சடலம் இல் துயிலினில் தினம் நமது இயல் உறும் ஆல், ந அகம். ‘க: அகங்கரன்? எவண் உளன்?’ உணர்ந்து உளர் உள குகை உள்ளே, அருணகிரி சிவ விபு ‘ச: அகம்’ புரண சுயம் ஒளிர்வான்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): dēham ghaṭam nihar jaḍam; idaṟku ‘aham’ eṉum tihaṙvu iladāl, jaḍalam il tuyiliṉil diṉam namadu iyal uṟum āl, na aham. ‘kaḥ ahaṅkaraṉ? evaṇ uḷaṉ?’ uṇarndu uḷar uḷa guhai uḷḷē, aruṇagiri śiva vibhu ‘saḥ aham’ phuraṇa suyam oḷirvāṉ.

English translation: The body is insentient like a pot; since the shining called ‘I’ does not exist for it, since our nature exists daily in sleep, in which the body does not exist, it is not I. Within the heart-cave of those who are, knowing who is he who is ego, where is he, the omnipresent Lord, Arunagiri-Siva, will shine spontaneously, the clarity ‘He is I’.

Explanatory paraphrase: The body is jaḍa [insentient or non-aware] like a pot; since the shining [or brightness] called ‘I’ [namely the self-shining awareness ‘I am’] does not exist for it [that is, since it is not aware of itself as ‘I’], [and] since our [real] nature [our fundamental awareness ‘I am’, which is our very being] exists [and shines] daily in [dreamless] sleep, in which the body does not exist, it [this body] is not I. Within the cave of the heart of those who [just] are [as they actually are], knowing [or being aware of] [themself as such] [by investigating] who is he who is ego [and] where is he, the omnipresent Lord, Arunagiri-Siva, will shine spontaneously [as] the sphuraṇa [clarity or clear awareness] ‘He is I’.

Padavurai (word-explanation): தேகம் (dēham): body | கடம் (ghaṭam): pot | நிகர் (nihar): like | சடம் (jaḍam): insentient, non-aware || இதற்கு (idaṟku): for this, for it {a dative (fourth case) form of idu, ‘this’ or ‘it’} | அகம் (aham): I | எனும் (eṉum): called {adjectival participle} | திகழ்வு (tihaṙvu): shining, brightness | இலதால் (iladāl): since it is not, since it does not exist {poetic abbreviation of illadāl, an instrumental (third case) form of illadu, ‘what is not’ or ‘not being’, so it literally means ‘by not being’ but implies ‘since [or because] it is not’} | நாகம் (nāham): not I {Sanskrit phrase, a fusion of na, ‘not’, and aham, ‘I’} | சடலம் (jaḍalam): body | இல் (il): non-existence, in which [it] does not exist {negation of existence, as opposed to al, which is a negation of an attribute} | துயிலினில் (tuyiliṉil): in sleep {locative (seventh case) form of tuyil, ‘sleep’} | தினம் (diṉam): day, daily | உறும் (uṟum): exists | நமது (namadu): our {a genitive (sixth case) form of the inclusive plural first person pronoun nām, ‘we’} | இயல் (iyal): nature | ஆல் (āl): by, because, since {instrumental (third case) ending, usually affixed to a noun, pronoun or verbal noun, but in this case used alone} || கோகங்கரன் (kōhaṅkaraṉ): who is he who is ego {kōham is a Sanskrit interrogative phrase, a fusion of kaḥ, an interrogative pronoun meaning ‘who’, and aham, ‘I’, and therefore means ‘who am I?’, but in this case Bhagavan has replaced aham, ‘I’, with ahaṅkaraṉ [a Tamil personal noun formed from the Sanskrit ahaṅkara, ‘ego’], ‘he who is ego’} | எவண் (evaṇ): where | உளன் (uḷaṉ): he is, is he | உணர்ந்து (uṇarndu): knowing, being aware {adverbial participle} | உளர் (uḷar): those who are, those who exist {though nominative (first case) in form, uḷar is used here in a genitive (sixth case) sense, ‘of those who are’} | உளக்குகை (uḷa-k-kuhai): heart-cave {compound of uḷa [a poetic abbreviation of uḷḷa], ‘heart’, and guhai [a Tamil form of the Sanskrit guhā], ‘cave’ | உள்ளே (uḷḷē): within {intensified form of uḷ, ‘inside’ or ‘within’} | சோகம் (sōham): he is I {Sanskrit phrase, a fusion of saḥ, ‘he’, and aham, ‘I’, implying that God is I} | புரண (phuraṇa): shining, clarity, clear awareness {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit sphuraṇa, ‘shining’ or ‘shining forth’} | அருணகிரி (aruṇagiri): Arunagiri {an alternative name of Arunachala} | சிவ (śiva): Siva | விபு (vibhu): extending everywhere, filling, pervading, omnipresent, eternal, supreme, powerful, omnipotent, ruler, sovereign, Lord, God | சுயம் (suyam): itself, by itself, spontaneously, of its own accord {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit svayam} | ஒளிர்வான் (oḷirvāṉ): [he] will shine.

Note: Bhagavan first composed this verse in Sanskrit on 20th September 1927 to explain a well-known Vedantic teaching, ‘dēhaṁ nāham. kōham? sōham’, ‘The body is not I. Who am I? He is I’, and on the same day or soon after he composed it in Tamil. His original Sanskrit verse is:
देहं मृन्मय वज्जडात्मकम् अहं बुद्धिर्न तस्यास्त्यतो
नाहं तत्तदभाव सुप्ति समये सिद्धात्म सद्भावतः ।
कोहं भाव युतः कुतो वरधिया दृश्त्वात्म निष्ठात्मनां
सोहं स्फूर्ति तयाऽरुणाचल शिवः पूर्णो विभाति स्वयम् ॥

dēhaṁ mṛnmaya vajjaḍātmakam ahaṁ buddhirna tasyāstyatō
nāhaṁ tattadabhāva supti samayē siddhātma sadbhāvataḥ |
kōhaṁ bhāva yutaḥ kutō varadhiyā dṛśtvātma niṣṭhātmanāṁ
sōhaṁ sphūrti tayā’ruṇācala śivaḥ pūrṇō vibhāti svayam ||


पदच्छेद: देहम् मृन्मय वत् जड आत्मकम्. अहम् बुद्धिः न तस्य अस्ति. अतः न अहम्. तद् तद् अभाव सुप्ति समये सिद्ध आत्म सत् भावतः. कः अहम् भाव युतः कुतस् वर धिया दृश्त्व आत्म निष्ठ आत्मनाम् सः अहम् स्फूर्तितया अरुणाचल शिवः पूर्णः विभाति स्वयम्.

Padacchēda (word-separation): dēham mṛnmaya vat jaḍa ātmakam. aham buddhiḥ na tasya asti. ataḥ na aham. tad tad abhāva supti samayē siddha ātma sat bhāvataḥ. kaḥ aham-bhāva-yutaḥ kutas vara dhiyā dṛśtva ātma niṣṭha ātmanām saḥ aham sphūrtitayā aruṇācala śivaḥ pūrṇaḥ vibhāti svayam.

English translation: The body is of the nature of insentience like anything composed of clay. There is no ‘I’-sense belonging to it. Consequently not I. Also because of the established persistence of the existence of oneself during sleep, in which it is non-existent. To selves fixed in themself having seen by a discerning intellect who is the one combined with the ‘I’-condition, from where, the whole, Arunachala Siva, shines spontaneously as the clarity ‘He is I’.

Explanatory paraphrase: The body is jaḍātmakam [of the nature of jaḍa: insentience or non-awareness] like [a pot or anything else] composed of clay. There is no ahaṁ-buddhi [sense or awareness ‘I’] belonging to it [in other words, it does not have any awareness of itself as ‘I’]. Consequently [it is] not I. Also because of the established [or certain] persistence [endurance or continuity] of the existence of oneself at the time of [or during] sleep, in which it [namely the body] is non-existent. To selves fixed in themself [firmly being as they actually are] having seen by [means of] a [keenly] discerning intellect [or pure mind] who is the one combined with ahaṁ-bhāva [the ‘I’-condition or state of being ‘I’, namely ego], [and] from where [did it arise], pūrṇa [the one infinite whole], [namely] Arunachala Siva, shines spontaneously as sōhaṁ-sphūrti [the clarity ‘He is I’].
Word-explanation: देहम् (dēham): body | मृन्मय (mṛnmaya): composed of clay (mṛd+maya), what is composed of clay, anything composed of clay | वत् (vat): like | जडात्मकम् (jaḍātmakam): of the nature of insentience, of the nature of non-awareness {compound of jaḍa, ‘insentient’ or ‘non-aware’, and ātmakam, ‘composed of’, ‘having the nature of’ or ‘of the nature of’} || अहंबुद्धिः (ahaṁ-buddhi): I-sense {compound of aham, ‘I’, and buddhiḥ, ‘discernment’, ‘comprehension’, ‘perception’, ‘sense’, ‘concept’, ‘idea’, ‘knowledge’ or ‘awareness’} | न (na): not | तस्य (tasya): of it, belonging to it {genitive (sixth case) of tad} | अस्ति (asti): is, it is, there is || अतः (ataḥ): from this, therefore, consequently, accordingly | न (na): not | अहम् (aham): I || तद् (tad): also, equally | तद् (tad): it, that | अभाव (abhāva): non-existent, in which [it is] non-existent {though this was the word that Bhagavan used here when he composed this verse, Kavyakantha Ganapati Sastri changed it to apēta, which means ‘gone’, ‘departed’, ‘disappeared’ or ‘free from’ and which therefore dilutes the meaning and impact that Bhagavan intended by abhāva, ‘non-existent’, so in many printed versions of this verse apēta is found in place of abhāva} | सुप्ति (supti): sleep | समये (samayē): in the time, at the time, during {locative (seventh case) of samaya, ‘time’ or ‘occasion’} | सिद्ध (siddha): accomplished, settled, established, certain | आत्मसत् (ātma-sat): self-existence, existence of oneself {compound of ātma, ‘self’ or ‘oneself’, and sat, ‘being’ or ‘existence’} | भावतः (bhāvataḥ): because of the existence, persistence, endurance, continuity || कः (kaḥ): who | अहंभावयुतः (ahaṁ-bhāva-yutaḥ): one combined with the ‘I’-condition [namely ego] {compound of aham, ‘I’, bhāva, ‘existence’, ‘being’, ‘condition’ or ‘state’, and yutaḥ, ‘one who is combined with [joined with, united with, connected with or attached to]’; in Tamil (and perhaps also in Sanskrit and other Indian languages) ahaṁ-bhāvam is a term that is commonly used to mean ‘egotism’, so ahaṁ-bhāva-yutaḥ implies ‘one combined with egotism’, namely ego, and hence in his Tamil version of this verse Bhagavan translated this term as ahaṅkaraṉ [a Tamil personal noun formed from the Sanskrit ahaṅkara, ‘ego’], ‘he who is ego’} | कुतस् (kutas): from where, from what, where | वर (vara): choosing, discerning, choice, best, excellent, pure | धिया (dhiyā): by mind, by intellect {instrumental (third case) of dhī} | दृश्त्व (dṛśtva): having seen | आत्मनिष्ठात्मनाम् (ātma-niṣṭhātmanām): of selves fixed in themself {compound of ātma, ‘self’, ‘oneself’ or ‘themself’, niṣṭha, ‘being in’, ‘grounded in’, ‘fixed in’ or ‘firmly established in’, and ātmanām [genitive (sixth case) plural of ātman], of selves, belonging to selves (implying ‘to selves’ or ‘to those’)} | सः (saḥ): he | अहम् (aham): I | स्फूर्तितया (sphūrtitayā): as the shining, shining forth, clarity, appearance, manifestation {sphūrti means ‘shining’ or ‘shining forth’, and tayā is the instrumental (third case) singular form of the suffix ता (), which means the same as the English suffixes ‘ness’ and ‘ity’, so sphūrtitayā literally means ‘with [or by] the shining-ness [clearness or clarity]’ but implies ‘as the clarity’ [I am not entirely convinced by this explanation of tayā (which incidentally is a suffix that he also uses in verses 20, 21 and 23 of Upadēśa Sāraḥ), but it is the only plausible explanation I have been able to find, so if anyone can offer me a better explanation, please let me know]} | अरुणाचल (aruṇācala): Arunachala | शिवः (śivaḥ): Siva | पूर्णः (pūrṇaḥ): full, whole, complete, entire, all | विभाति (vibhāti): shines | स्वयम् (svayam): itself, by itself, spontaneously, of its own accord.

(வெண்பா: veṇbā)

Verse 11:

பிறந்த தெவன்றன் பிரம்மமூ லத்தே
பிறந்ததெவ ணானென்று பேணிப் — பிறந்தா
னவனே பிறந்தா னவனிதமு னீச
னவனவன வன்றினமு நாடு.

piṟanda devaṉḏṟaṉ birammamū lattē
piṟandadeva ṇāṉeṉḏṟu pēṇip — piṟandā
ṉavaṉē piṟandā ṉavaṉitamu ṉīśa
ṉavaṉavaṉa vaṉḏṟiṉamu nāḍu.


பதச்சேதம்: பிறந்தது எவன்? தன் பிரம்ம மூலத்தே பிறந்தது எவண் நான் என்று பேணி பிறந்தான், அவனே பிறந்தான். அவன் நிதம், முனீசன். நவன் நவன் அவன் தினமும்; நாடு.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): piṟandadu evaṉ? taṉ biramma mūlattē piṟandadu evaṇ nāṉ eṉḏṟu pēṇi piṟandāṉ, avaṉē piṟandāṉ. avaṉ nitam, muṉīśaṉ. navaṉ navaṉ avaṉ diṉamum; nāḍu.

அன்வயம்: பிறந்தது எவன்? நான் பிறந்தது எவண் என்று பேணி தன் பிரம்ம மூலத்தே பிறந்தான், அவனே பிறந்தான். அவன் நிதம், முனீசன். அவன் தினமும் நவன் நவன்; நாடு.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): piṟandadu evaṉ? nāṉ piṟandadu evaṇ eṉdṟu pēṇi taṉ biramma mūlattē piṟandāṉ, avaṉē piṟandāṉ. avaṉ nitam, muṉīśaṉ. avaṉ diṉamum navaṉ navaṉ; nāḍu.

English translation: Who has been born? Carefully investigating where I was born, he who has been born in his source, brahman, he alone is he who has been born. He is eternal, the Lord of sages. He is daily new-new. Investigate.

Explanatory paraphrase: Who has [really] been born? He who has been born in [and as] his source, brahman, [being firmly established there by] carefully [tenderly or lovingly] investigating [himself, the source] where I [namely ego, the rising ‘I’, which is what is always aware of itself as ‘I am this aging and perishable body’] was born, he alone is one who has [really] been born. He is eternal [being immortal, imperishable and immutable], muṉīśaṉ [the Lord of sages]. He is daily [or always] new and fresh [being the ageless and ever-fresh awareness ‘I am’]. Investigate [yourself and be born thus as brahman].

Padavurai (word-explanation): பிறந்தது (piṟandadu): was born, has been born | எவன் (evaṉ): which man, who || தன் (taṉ): one’s, his {inflectional base and genitive (sixth case) form of the generic pronoun tāṉ, ‘one’, ‘oneself’, ‘he’, ‘she’ or ‘it’} | பிரம்மமூலத்தே (biramma-mūlattē): in the brahman-source (implying ‘in the source, brahman’) {compound of biramma, which is a Tamil form of the Sanskrit brahman, and mūlattē [an intensified form of mūlattu, the inflectional base and a locative (seventh case) form of mūlam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit mūla, ‘root’, ‘origin’ or ‘source’], ‘in the source’} | பிறந்தது (piṟandadu): was born | எவண் (evaṇ): where | நான் (nāṉ): I | என்று (eṉḏṟu): saying {an adverbial participle implying ‘that’, ‘thus’ or ‘as’} | பேணி (pēṇi): cherishing, caring for, knowing (in this context implying ‘carefully [tenderly or lovingly] investigating [or attending to]’) {adverbial participle} | பிறந்தான் (piṟandāṉ): he who has been born | அவனே (avaṉē): he alone {avaṉ means ‘he’, and the suffix ē is an intensifier that here implies ‘only’ or ‘alone’} | பிறந்தான் (piṟandāṉ): he who has been born || அவன் (avaṉ): he | நிதம் (nitam): eternal {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit nitya, ‘continuous’, ‘permanent’, ‘perpetual’ or ‘eternal’} | முனீசன் (muṉīśaṉ): Lord of sages {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit munīśa, a compound of muni, ‘sage’, and īśa, ‘Ruler’, ‘Lord’ or ‘God’} || நவனவன் (navaṉavaṉ): he who is new-new, fresh-fresh {duplication of navaṉ, a personalised form of navam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit nava, ‘new’ or ‘fresh’} | அவன் (avaṉ): he | தினமும் (diṉamum): daily, always {diṉam is a Tamil form of the Sanskrit dina, ‘day’, and in this context the suffix um implies completeness, wholeness or entirety, so diṉamum means ‘every day’, ‘daily’ or ‘always’} || நாடு (nāḍu): investigate {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: As I explain in Bhagavan’s verses on birthday celebrations, devotees first began to celebrate his birthday (jayantī) in 1912, and at that time he composed two verses, which are now verses 4 and 5 of Upadēśa Taṉippākkaḷ, gently rebuking them for doing so. In the last three lines of the first of these two verses he wrote: ‘பிறந்தது எவண் நாம் என்று பேணி, பிறந்து இறத்தல் இன்று என்றும் ஒன்றாய் இலகு பொருளில் பிறந்த அன்றே பிறந்த நாள் ஆம்’ (piṟandadu evaṇ nām eṉḏṟu pēṇi, piṟandu iṟattal iṉḏṟu eṉḏṟum oṉḏṟāy ilahu poruḷil piṟanda aṉḏṟē piṟanda nāḷ ām), ‘only that day when, carefully investigating where we were born, we are born in poruḷ [the real substance or vastu], which always shines as one without being born and dying, is [the real] birthday’.

Many years later (sometime between 1928 and 1931), while discussing the meaning and implications of these two verses with Lakshmana Sarma, Bhagavan explained what he meant in the first verse by ‘பிறந்து இறத்தல் இன்று என்றும் ஒன்றாய் இலகு பொருளில் பிறந்த[து]’ (piṟandu iṟattal iṉḏṟu eṉḏṟum oṉḏṟāy ilahu poruḷil piṟanda[du]), ‘[being] born in poruḷ [the real substance or vastu], which always shines as one without being born and dying’, and Lakshmana Sarma summarised his explanation in the following Sanskrit verse:
लेभे जनिं यः परमे स्वमूले विचार्य कस्मादहमित्युदारः ।
स एव जातः स च नित्यजातो नवो नवोऽयं सततं मुनीन्द्रः ॥

lēbhē janiṁ yaḥ paramē svamūlē vicārya kasmādahamityudāraḥ |
sa ēva jātaḥ sa ca nityajātō navō navō’yaṁ satataṁ munīndraḥ ||
On seeing this, Bhagavan at once composed this Tamil verse expressing the same idea.

Explanations and discussions:
2020-12-31: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham verse 11: real birth is only being born in brahman by lovingly attending to the source from which we rose

Verse 12:

இழிவுடல்யா னென்ன லிகந்திடுக வென்று
மொழிவிலின் பாந்தன்னை யோர்க — வழியு
முடலோம்ப லோடுதனை யோரவுனல் யாறு
கடக்கக் கராப்புணைகொண் டற்று.

iṙivuḍalyā ṉeṉṉa lihandiḍuga veṉḏṟu
moṙiviliṉ bāndaṉṉai yōrga — vaṙiyu
muḍalōmba lōḍudaṉai yōravuṉal yāṟu
kaḍakkak karāppuṇaigoṇ ḍaṯṟu.


பதச்சேதம்: இழிவு உடல் ‘யான்’ என்னல் இகந்திடுக. என்றும் ஒழிவு இல் இன்பு ஆம் தன்னை ஓர்க. அழியும் உடல் ஓம்பல் ஓடு தனை ஓர உனல் யாறு கடக்க கரா புணை கொண்டு அற்று.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): iṙivu uḍal ‘yāṉ’ eṉṉal ihandiḍuga. eṉḏṟum oṙivu il iṉbu ām taṉṉai ōrga. aṙiyum uḍal ōmbal ōḍu taṉai ōra uṉal yāṟu kaḍakka karā puṇai koṇḍu aṯṟu.

English translation: Cease considering the wretched body ‘I’. Investigate yourself, who are ever-unceasing happiness. Together with cherishing the perishable body, thinking to investigate oneself is like grasping a crocodile, a raft to cross a river.

Explanatory paraphrase: Cease considering the wretched [base or despicable] body [to be] ‘I’. Investigate [or know] yourself, who are ever-unceasing [or imperishable] happiness [or bliss]. Together with [along with or while] cherishing the perishable body, thinking [or intending] to investigate [or know] oneself is like grasping a crocodile [as] a raft to cross a river.

Padavurai (word-explanation): இழிவு (iṙivu): wretched, base, despicable | உடல் (uḍal): body | யான் (yāṉ): I | என்னல் (eṉṉal): saying, considering {verbal noun that literally means ‘saying’ but here implies ‘thinking’ or ‘considering’} | இகந்திடுக (ihandiḍuga): leave, cease, may [you] leave, may [you] cease {optative} || என்றும் (eṉḏṟum): always, ever, forever {adverb} | ஒழிவில் (oṙivil): unceasing, imperishable {compound of oṙivu [verbal noun], ‘ceasing’ or ‘perishing’, and il [word negating existence], ‘not’, ‘non-existent’, ‘without’ or ‘devoid of’} | இன்பு (iṉbu): happiness, bliss | ஆம் (ām): being, who is, who are {adjectival participle} | தன்னை (taṉṉai): yourself {accusative (second case) form of the generic pronoun tāṉ, ‘one’, ‘oneself’, ‘myself’, ‘yourself’, ‘himself’, ‘herself’ or ‘itself’} | ஓர்க (ōrga.): investigate, know, may [you] investigate, may [you] know {optative} || அழியும் (aṙiyum): perishing, which perishes, perishable {adjectival participle} | உடல் (uḍal): body | ஓம்பல் (ōmbal): cherishing {verbal noun} | ஓடு (ōḍu): with, together with, along with | தனை (taṉai): oneself {poetic abbreviation of taṉṉai (explained above)} | ஓர (ōra): to investigate, to know {infinitive} | உனல் (uṉal): thinking, intending {verbal noun} | யாறு (yāṟu): river | கடக்க (kaḍakka): to cross {infinitive} | கரா (karā): crocodile, alligator | புணை (puṇai): float, raft | கொண்டு (koṇḍu): grasping, seizing, having | அற்று (aṯṟu): is like.

Note: One day Bhagavan expressed orally the teachings contained in this verse, explaining that our aim should be to put an end to the false awareness ‘I am this body’, and that the means to do so is to investigate and know what we actually are, and then citing the analogy of grasping a crocodile mistaking it to be a raft to cross a river, which Adi Sankara used in verse 84 of Vivēkacūḍāmaṇi to illustrate the folly of believing that taking excessive care of the body, being obsessed with the idea that it should always be strong and healthy and should thereby live long, is a means or at least an aid for one to know oneself. Hearing this, Muruganar recorded these teachings in a verse that is now verse 125 of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, on seeing which Bhagavan composed this verse, which is also included in Guru Vācaka Kōvai as verse B1.

The first two lines of this verse are an original composition by Bhagavan, and the last two lines are a translation by him of verse 84 of Vivēkacūḍāmaṇi:
शरीरपोषणार्थी सन्य आत्मानं दिदृक्षते ।
ग्राहं दारुधिया धृत्वा नदीं तर्तुं स इच्छति ॥

śarīrapoṣaṇārthī sanya ātmānaṁ didṛkṣatē |
grāhaṁ dārudhiyā dhṛtvā nadīṁ tartuṁ sa icchati ||
Explanations and discussions:
2020-03-05: We cannot force ourself to be unconcerned about the body, but we need to try to wean ourself gradually off such concerns by practising self-investigation and self-surrender
2020-01-09: To cure ourself of ego, the root of all diseases, the ‘proper diet’ is only self-attentiveness and the ‘rest and fasting’ is abstaining from attending to anything else
2015-08-18: So long as we experience this body as ourself, we will be concerned about it, but if we are intent upon investigating and experiencing who or what we actually are, we should try as far as possible to minimise that concern by attending only to ourself and not to our body or any other thing

Verse 13:

தானந் தவம்வேள்வி தன்மம்யோ கம்பத்தி
வானம் பொருள்சாந்தி வாய்மையருள் — மோனநிலை
சாகாமற் சாவறிவு சார்துறவு வீடின்பந்
தேகான்ம பாவமற றேர்.

dāṉan tavamvēḷvi dhaṉmamyō gambhatti
vāṉam poruḷśānti vāymaiyaruḷ — mōṉanilai
sāhāmaṟ sāvaṟivu sārtuṟavu vīḍiṉban
dēhāṉma bhāvamaṟa ṟēr.


பதச்சேதம்: தானம், தவம், வேள்வி, தன்மம், யோகம், பத்தி, வானம், பொருள், சாந்தி, வாய்மை, அருள், மோனம், நிலை, சாகாமல் சாவு, அறிவு, சார் துறவு, வீடு, இன்பம் தேகான்ம பாவம் அறல். தேர்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): dāṉam, tavam, vēḷvi, dhaṉmam, yōgam, bhatti, vāṉam, poruḷ, śānti, vāymai, aruḷ, mōṉam, nilai, sāhāmal sāvu, aṟivu, sār tuṟavu, vīḍu, iṉbam dēhāṉma-bhāvam aṟal. tēr.

அன்வயம்: தேகான்ம பாவம் அறல் தானம், தவம், வேள்வி, தன்மம், யோகம், பத்தி, வானம், பொருள், சாந்தி, வாய்மை, அருள், மோனம், நிலை, சாகாமல் சாவு, அறிவு, சார் துறவு, வீடு, இன்பம். தேர்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): dēhāṉma-bhāvam aṟal dāṉam, tavam, vēḷvi, dhaṉmam, yōgam, bhatti, vāṉam, poruḷ, śānti, vāymai, aruḷ, mōṉam, nilai, sāhāmal sāvu, aṟivu, sār tuṟavu, vīḍu, iṉbam. tēr.

English translation: The condition ‘the body is myself’ being severed is giving, austerity, sacrifice, righteousness, yōga, devotion, space, substance, peace, truth, grace, silence, firmness, death without dying, knowledge, accomplished renunciation, liberation and happiness. Know.

Explanatory paraphrase: Know [understand or consider] that dēhātma-bhāva [the body-self-condition or body-self-conviction, namely ego, the false awareness ‘this body is myself’] being severed [ceasing or perishing] is dāna [giving or charity], tavam [tapas, burning, heat, fire, austerity or asceticism], vēḷvi [yāga, yajña, offering, sacrifice, sacrificial fire or worship], dharma [righteousness, virtue, morality, duty or justice], yōga [joining, yoking or harnessing, particularly in the sense of yoking the mind to the object or target of its meditation or to any spiritual practice], bhakti [devotion or love], vāṉam [space or sky, implying either the space of pure awareness or heaven], poruḷ [substance or vastu, in the sense of either the one real substance, namely pure being, or wealth], śānti [pacification, cessation, peace, tranquillity, calmness or quiet], vāymai [truth or truthfulness], aruḷ [divine grace, kindness, tenderness, affection, love, solicitude, compassion, benevolence, pity, mercy or blessing], mauna [silence, namely the silence of pure being], nilai [standing, fixedness, firmness, stability, permanence or niṣṭhā], sāhāmal sāvu [death without dying], aṟivu [knowledge, awareness, understanding, wisdom or jñāna], sār tuṟavu [accomplished renunciation], vīḍu [mukti, liberation, release, leaving or letting go] and iṉbam [happiness or bliss].

Padavurai (word-explanation): தானம் (dāṉam): giving, charity | தவம் (tavam): burning, heat, fire, austerity, asceticism {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit tapas} | வேள்வி (vēḷvi): yāga, yajña, offering, sacrifice, sacrificial fire, worship | தன்மம் (dhaṉmam): righteousness, virtue, morality, duty, justice, law, nature {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit dharma, which has a wide range of meanings all derived from its etymological meaning of ‘what holds’, ‘what upholds’ or ‘what holds together’ (being derived from the verb dhṛ, ‘hold’, ‘bear’, ‘carry’, ‘support’, ‘sustain’ or ‘preserve’)} | யோகம் (yōgam): joining, yoking, harnessing, meditation (in the sense that meditation is yoking the mind to the object or target of its meditation), spiritual practice, spiritual attainment | பத்தி (bhatti): devotion, love {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit bhakti} | வானம் (vāṉam): space, sky (implying either the space of pure awareness or heaven) | பொருள் (poruḷ): substance, vastu (in the sense of either the one real substance, namely pure being, or wealth) | சாந்தி (śānti): pacification, cessation, peace, tranquillity, calmness, quiet, rest | வாய்மை (vāymai): truth, truthfulness | அருள் (aruḷ): divine grace, kindness, tenderness, affection, love, solicitude, compassion, benevolence, pity, mercy, blessing | மோனம் (mōṉam): silence (the silence of pure being) {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit mauna} | நிலை (nilai): standing, fixedness, firmness, stability, permanence, niṣṭhā | சாகாமல் (sāhāmal): not dying, without dying {negative adverbial participle} | சாவு (sāvu): death | அறிவு (aṟivu): knowledge, awareness (here implying pure awareness), understanding, wisdom, jñāna | சார் (sār): reach, accomplish {the root of this verb, used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, ‘accomplished’} | துறவு (tuṟavu): renunciation | வீடு (vīḍu): mukti, liberation, release, leaving, letting go {a Tamil noun derived from the verb viḍu, ‘leave’ or ‘let go’} | இன்பம் (iṉbam): happiness, bliss | தேகான்ம (dēhāṉma): body-self, ‘body is myself’ {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit dēhātma, a compound of dēha, ‘body’, and ātma, ‘self’ or ‘oneself’} | பாவம் (bhāvam): being, enduring, permanence, state, condition, state of mind, idea, attitude, conviction | அறல் (aṟal): being cut off, being severed, perishing, ceasing {verbal noun} || தேர் (tēr): investigate, consider, understand, know {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: This verse, which is also included in Guru Vācaka Kōvai as verse B17, is an original composition by Bhagavan. One day (sometime between 1928 and 1931) he expressed this orally, and Muruganar recorded part of what he said as verse 847 of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, on seeing which Bhagavan expressed the same as a kuṟaḷ veṇbā (a two-line veṇbā), which is the last two lines of this verse. Muruganar then composed verse 848 of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, recording the rest of what Bhagavan had expressed orally, and Bhagavan then expressed the same as the first two lines of this verse.

Explanations and discussions:
2022-12-24: Eradication of ego, the false awareness ‘I am this body’ (dēhātma-bhāva or dēhātma-buddhi), is the sum and substance of all good qualities
2021-03-28: There are many different practices, each of which may have certain benefits, but all benefits can be achieved in full only when ego is eradicated, and we cannot eradicate it by any means other than investigating ourself and thereby being aware of ourself as we actually are, so if we are drawn to this simple path of self-investigation, no other practice is necessary

Verse 14:

வினையும் விபத்தி வியோகமஞ் ஞான
மினையவையார்க் கென்றாய்ந் திடலே — வினைபத்தி
யோகமுணர் வாய்ந்திடநா னின்றியவை யென்றுமிறா
னாகமன லேயுண்மை யாம்.

viṉaiyum vibhatti viyōgamañ ñāṉa
miṉaiyavaiyārk keṉḏṟāyn diḍalē — viṉaibhatti
yōgamuṇar vāyndiḍanā ṉiṉḏṟiyavai yeṉḏṟumiṟā
ṉāhamaṉa lēyuṇmai yām.


பதச்சேதம்: வினையும், விபத்தி, வியோகம், அஞ்ஞானம் இணையவை யார்க்கு என்று ஆய்ந்திடலே வினை, பத்தி, யோகம், உணர்வு. ஆய்ந்திட, ‘நான்’ இன்றி அவை என்றும் இல். தானாக மனலே உண்மை ஆம்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): viṉai-y-um, vibhatti, viyōgam, aññāṉam iṉaiyavai yārkku eṉḏṟu āyndiḍal-ē viṉai, bhatti, yōgam, uṇarvu. āyndiḍa, ‘nāṉ’ iṉḏṟi avai eṉḏṟum il. tāṉ-āha maṉal-ē uṇmai ām.

English translation: Investigating for whom are suchlike, karma, vibhakti, viyōga and ajñāna, is itself karma, bhakti, yōga and jñāna. When one investigates, without ‘I’ they never exist. Only being permanently as oneself is what is true.

Explanatory paraphrase: Investigating for whom [or to whom] are those [defects] such as karma [action], vibhakti [lack of devotion], viyōga [separation] and ajñāna [ignorance], is itself [or alone] [what will fulfil the purpose and aims of each of the paths of] karma [desireless action or niṣkāmya karma], bhakti [devotion or love], yōga [joining, yoking or harnessing, particularly in the sense of yoking the mind to the object or target of its meditation or to any spiritual practice, and in this context referring to practices whose aim is to bring about ‘cessation of mental activity’ (citta-vṛtti nirōdhaḥ)] and jñāna [knowledge or awareness in the sense of true self-knowledge, which is awareness of oneself as one actually is]. When one investigates [oneself keenly enough], [the ‘I’ for whom karma, vibhakti, viyōga and ajñāna seem to exist, namely ego, will cease to exist, and] without [that] ‘I’ they [namely karma, vibhakti, viyōga and ajñāna] never exist. Only being permanently as oneself [one’s own real nature, namely pure awareness] is what is true [or real].

Padavurai (word-explanation): வினையும் (viṉai-y-um): action, karma {the suffix um is a connective particle that links viṉai with the next three words, so here it means ‘and’; in this context viṉai (action) implies either kāmya karma (action done with desire) or more broadly and deeply kartṛtva (doership), the false identity ‘I am the doer of this action’, because without such doership we would have absolutely no connection with any action whatsoever} | விபத்தி (vibhatti): non-devotion, lack of devotion {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit vibhakti, which usually means ‘separation’, but in this context is used as an antonym of bhakti, so it implies ‘non-devotion’ or ‘lack of bhakti’; however, even when it is interpreted to mean ‘non-devotion’, it still obliquely implies ‘separation’, because our seeming separation from God is sustained by our lack of love (bhakti) for him, so bhakti is the solution to this separation, and to the extent to which we have genuine bhakti, the gap of our separation from him will be closed} | வியோகம் (viyōgam): non-joining, separation {here primarily implying separation from or non-adherence to spiritual practice, but since such separation can occur only after we rise as ego, thereby seemingly separating from our own real nature (svarūpa), a deeper implication of viyōga is our error of rising as ego} | அஞ்ஞானம் (aññāṉam): ignorance {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit ajñāna, here implying ignorance of ourself as we actually are, which is also ignorance of God, since he alone is what we actually are} | இணையவை (iṉaiyavai): those like, suchlike, those such as {a compound of iṉai, ‘likeness’, and avai, ‘those’} | யார்க்கு (yārkku): to whom, for whom {dative (fourth case) form of yār, ‘who’} | என்று (eṉḏṟu): saying {an adverbial participle implying ‘that’, ‘thus’ or ‘as’} | ஆய்ந்திடலே (āyndiḍal-ē): investigating alone {āyndiḍal is a verbal noun that means ‘investigating’, and the suffix ē is an intensifier that implies ‘only’, ‘alone’, ‘itself’, ‘definitely’ or ‘certainly’} | வினை (viṉai): action, karma (here implying the practice of niṣkāmya karma, ‘desireless action’) | பத்தி (bhatti): devotion, attachment, love {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit bhakti, which implies devotion or loving attachment to God} | யோகம் (yōgam): joining, yoking, harnessing, attaching, connecting, fixing the mind on, meditation, spiritual practice {though yōga is often translated as ‘union’ and therefore interpreted to mean ‘union with God’ or ‘union with one’s real nature’, this is not actually the sense in which it is generally used in a spiritual context; in its broadest sense yōga means any spiritual practice (since any such practice entails harnessing oneself to it), particularly the practice of meditation (since meditation is yoking the mind to the object or target of its meditation), but in the more technical sense in which it is used here, yōga means the set of practices systemised by Patanjali in his Yōga Sūtra, the aim of which is to bring about ‘cessation of mental activity’ (citta-vṛtti nirōdhaḥ) and thereby to separate or isolate oneself as puruṣa (awareness), who is now the seer, knower or subject, from prakṛti, meaning all phenomena or objects of awareness} | உணர்வு (uṇarvu): awareness, knowledge, jñāna {in this context meaning true self-knowledge, which is awareness of oneself as one actually is} || ஆய்ந்திட (āyndiḍa): when one investigates {infinitive, ‘to investigate’, used idiomatically to mean ‘when investigating’ or ‘when [one] investigates’} | நான் (nāṉ): I | இன்றி (iṉḏṟi): without | அவை (avai): those, they {plural distal demonstrative pronoun, here referring to the four defects mentioned above, namely karma, vibhakti, viyōga and ajñāna} | என்றும் (eṉḏṟum): always | இல் (il): are not, do not exist {a word negating existence} || தானாக (tāṉ-āha): as oneself {tāṉ is a generic pronoun that means ‘oneself’, and in this context implies ourself as we actually are, and āha is the infinitive of āhu, ‘be’ or ‘become’, but is often used as an adverb or adverbial suffix meaning ‘being’ or ‘as’} | மனலே (maṉal-ē): only enduring, being permanent, permanently being {maṉal is a poetic abbreviation of maṉṉal, a verbal noun that means ‘enduring’ or ‘being permanent’, and the suffix ē is an intensifier that in this context means ‘only’ or ‘alone’} | உண்மை (uṇmai): existence, reality, truth, what is real, what is true {an abstract noun derived from the tenseless verb uḷ, ‘be’ or ‘exist’, and the suffix mai, which means the same as the English suffix ‘ness’, so uḷ-mai (which becomes uṇmai according to the Tamil rules of puṇarcci [euphonic coalescence or sandhi]) etymologically means ‘be-ness’, ‘is-ness’ or ‘existence’, and is therefore used to mean what is real, actual or true} | ஆம் (ām): is.

Note: This verse, which is also included in Guru Vācaka Kōvai as verse B11, is an original composition by Bhagavan, and he was prompted to compose it after seeing verses 703 and 704 of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, in which Muruganar had recorded an explanation he had given, namely that except by knowing the reality of oneself by investigating who am I, the doer who rose to do action (karma), and thereby eradicating ego, it is not possible to achieve the supreme bliss of upaśāntam (peaceful cessation), which is the aim of all practices of karma.

The aim of all forms of spiritual practice is to rectify defects of some kind or another, such as karma (action done with desire for some benefit), vibhakti (lack of devotion or love for God), viyōga (separation, particularly in the sense of not keeping the mind yoked to or fixed firmly on the target of its meditation) and ajñāna (ignorance of one’s own real nature), but these and all other defects exist only for ego, the false awareness that is mistakenly aware of itself as ‘I am this body’ and that is consequently aware of the appearance of things other than itself. Without ego, no defects could exist, and since it is the nature of ego to have defects, we cannot eradicate all defects entirely and forever without eradicating ego.

Since ego cannot rise, stand or flourish without constantly ‘grasping form’, which means attending to things other than itself (namely forms, objects or phenomena), as Bhagavan explains in verse 25 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, it will be eradicated only when it attends to itself so keenly that it thereby ceases to be aware of anything else at all, so investigating who am I, the one who has all these defects, is the only means by which we can achieve the aim of all forms of spiritual practice.

Explanations and discussions:
2021-03-28: There are many different practices, each of which may have certain benefits, but all benefits can be achieved in full only when ego is eradicated, and we cannot eradicate it by any means other than investigating ourself and thereby being aware of ourself as we actually are, so if we are drawn to this simple path of self-investigation, no other practice is necessary
2015-12-10: Since the ultimate aim of each of these four kinds of spiritual practice is the removal of ego, and since ego can be completely and effectively removed only by means of ātma-vicāra, practising ātma-vicāra and thereby merging back into one’s own being, which is the source from which one rose as this ego, is itself the culmination and pinnacle of karma, bhakti, yōga and jñāna
2015-07-18: Whereas other devotional practices can help to remove other defects in our mind, only self-investigation can remove ego, which is the root of all those defects, because only when we investigate this ego by looking at it very carefully will we discover that it does not actually exist, and that what seemed to be this ego is only ourself as we really are, so no other spiritual practice can be complete on its own without self-investigation
2014-03-20: By practising ātma-vicāra we will achieve the true aim of all forms of spiritual practice, each of which can be classified as being a form of one of the four yōgas, namely karma (the path of desireless action), bhakti (the path of devotion), yōga (the path of union) or jñāna (the path of knowledge)

Verse 15:

சத்தியினாற் றாமியங்குந் தன்மையுண ராதகில
சித்திகணாஞ் சேர்வமெனச் சேட்டிக்கும் — பித்தர்கூத்
தென்னை யெழுப்பிவிடி னெம்மட்டித் தெவ்வரெனச்
சொன்னமுட வன்கதையின் சோடு.

śattiyiṉāṯ ṟāmiyaṅgun taṉmaiyuṇa rādakhila
siddhigaṇāñ cērvameṉac cēṭṭikkum — pittarkūt
teṉṉai yeṙuppiviḍi ṉemmaṭṭit tevvareṉac
coṉṉamuḍa vaṉkathaiyiṉ jōḍu.


பதச்சேதம்: சத்தியினால் தாம் இயங்கும் தன்மை உணராது, ‘அகில சித்திகள் நாம் சேர்வம்’ என சேட்டிக்கும் பித்தர் கூத்து ‘என்னை எழுப்பிவிடின், எம்மட்டு இத் தெவ்வர்?’ என சொன்ன முடவன் கதையின் சோடு.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): śattiyiṉāl tām iyaṅgum taṉmai uṇarādu, ‘akhila siddhigaḷ nām sērvam’ eṉa cēṭṭikkum pittar kūttu ‘eṉṉai eṙuppiviḍiṉ, emmaṭṭu i-t-tevvar?’ eṉa soṉṉa muḍavaṉ kathaiyiṉ jōḍu.

அன்வயம்: தாம் சத்தியினால் இயங்கும் தன்மை உணராது, ‘அகில சித்திகள் நாம் சேர்வம்’ என சேட்டிக்கும் பித்தர் கூத்து ‘என்னை எழுப்பிவிடின், இத் தெவ்வர் எம்மட்டு?’ என சொன்ன முடவன் கதையின் சோடு.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): tām śattiyiṉāl iyaṅgum taṉmai uṇarādu, ‘akhila siddhigaḷ nām sērvam’ eṉa cēṭṭikkum pittar kūttu ‘eṉṉai eṙuppiviḍiṉ, i-t-tevvar emmaṭṭu?’ eṉa soṉṉa muḍavaṉ kathaiyiṉ jōḍu.

English translation: Not knowing the fact that they move by śakti, the buffoonery of lunatics who strive thus, ‘We shall acquire all siddhis’, is a match for the story of the lame person who said, ‘If anyone helps me rise, what measure are these enemies?’

Explanatory paraphrase: Not knowing the fact that they move [or the manner in which they function] [only] by śakti [divine power, namely cit-śakti, the power of pure awareness], the buffoonery of lunatics [or idiots] who strive [doing various kinds of tapas with the desire] ‘We shall [hereby] acquire all siddhis [supernatural, magical or miraculous powers]’ is a match for the story of the lame person [who could not even stand or do anything else unaided, but] who [nevertheless] said, ‘If anyone helps me rise, what measure are these enemies [that is, what match will they be for my strength]?’

Padavurai (word-explanation): சத்தியினால் (sattiyiṉāl): by śakti [divine power] {instrumental (third case) form of satti, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit śakti} | தாம் (tām): they | இயங்கும் (iyaṅgum): moving, functioning, that [they] move, in which [they] move {adjectival participle} | தன்மை (taṉmai): nature, manner, fact | உணராது (uṇarādu): not knowing, not being aware of {negative adverbial participle} | அகில (akhila): all | சித்திகள் (siddhigaḷ): siddhis, accomplishments (particularly supernatural, magical or miraculous powers) {plural of siddhi, ‘accomplishment’} | நாம் (nām): we | சேர்வம் (sērvam): will acquire {a future first person plural form of sēr, ‘join’, ‘reach’, ‘gain’ or ‘acquire’} | என (eṉa): thus {literally ‘to say’, an infinitive that is often used in an adverbial sense as an alternative to the adverbial participle eṉḏṟu, ‘saying’, which generally serves the same function as ‘that’, ‘thus’, ‘as’ or inverted commas in English} | சேட்டிக்கும் (cēṭṭikkum): who strive, exert themselves {adjectival participle of cēṭṭi, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit verb cēṣṭ, ‘be active’, ‘make effort’, ‘exert oneself’, ‘strive’ or ‘struggle’} | பித்தர் (pittar): lunatics, madmen, fools, idiots | கூத்து (kūttu): dancing, dramatic performance, pantomime, ludicrous actions, buffoonery | என்னை (eṉṉai): me {accusative (second case) form of the first person singular pronoun} | எழுப்பிவிடின் (eṙuppiviḍiṉ): if raising, if helping to rise, if [anyone] helps to rise {a conditional form of eṙuppu, ‘cause to rise’, ‘help to rise’ or ‘raise’} | எம்மட்டு (emmaṭṭu): what measure, what extent {interrogative pronoun, formed from the interrogative prefix e, ‘what’, and maṭṭu, ‘measure’, ‘amount’, ‘degree’, ‘size’ or ‘extent’} | இ (i): this, these {proximal demonstrative prefix} | தெவ்வர் (tevvar): enemy | என (eṉa): thus {as explained above} | சொன்ன (soṉṉa): who said {past adjectival participle} | முடவன் (muḍavaṉ): lame person, cripple | கதையின் (kathaiyiṉ): of the story {inflectional base and genitive (sixth case) form of kathai, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit kathā, ‘story’} | சோடு (jōḍu): pair, partner, match, equal.

Note: This verse, which is also included in Guru Vācaka Kōvai as verse B2, is an original composition by Bhagavan. He first expressed the teaching in this verse orally, and what he said was recorded by Muruganar in verses 168 and 169 of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, on seeing which Bhagavan condensed the meaning of those two verses as this one verse.

Verse 16:

சித்தத்தின் சாந்தியதே சித்தமா முத்தியெனிற்
சித்தத்தின் செய்கையின்றிச் சித்தியாச் — சித்திகளிற்
சித்தஞ்சேர் வாரெங்ஙன் சித்தக் கலக்கந்தீர்
முத்திசுகந் தோய்வார் மொழி.

cittattiṉ śāntiyadē siddhamā muttiyeṉiṟ
cittattiṉ seygaiyiṉḏṟic siddhiyāc — siddhigaḷiṟ
cittañcēr vāreṅṅaṉ cittak kalakkantīr
muttisukhan tōyvār moṙi.


பதச்சேதம்: சித்தத்தின் சாந்தி அதே சித்தம் ஆம் முத்தி எனில், சித்தத்தின் செய்கை இன்றி சித்தியா சித்திகளில் சித்தம் சேர்வார் எங்ஙன் சித்த கலக்கம் தீர் முத்தி சுகம் தோய்வார்? மொழி.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): cittattiṉ śānti adē siddham ām mutti eṉil, cittattiṉ seygai iṉḏṟi siddhiyā siddhigaḷil cittam sērvār eṅṅaṉ citta-kalakkam tīr mutti-sukham tōyvār? moṙi.

அன்வயம்: சித்தத்தின் சாந்தி அதே சித்தம் ஆம் முத்தி எனில், சித்தத்தின் செய்கை இன்றி சித்தியா சித்திகளில் சித்தம் சேர்வார் சித்த கலக்கம் தீர் முத்தி சுகம் எங்ஙன் தோய்வார்? மொழி.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): cittattiṉ śānti adē siddham ām mutti eṉil, cittattiṉ seygai iṉḏṟi siddhiyā siddhigaḷil cittam sērvār citta-kalakkam tīr mutti-sukham eṅṅaṉ tōyvār? moṙi.

English translation: Since pacification of mind alone is liberation, which is accomplished, how will those whose mind is yoked on siddhis, which are not accomplished without activity of mind, immerse in the bliss of liberation, in which turbulence of mind has ceased? Say.

Explanatory paraphrase: Since citta-śānti [pacification, cessation or extinction of mind] alone is mukti [liberation], which is [eternally] accomplished, how will those whose mind [or will] is yoked [attached or set] on [acquiring] siddhis [accomplishments, particularly supernatural, magical or miraculous powers], which are not accomplished [achieved or acquired] without activity of mind, immerse in mukti-sukham [the bliss of liberation], in which turbulence [agitation, disturbance or movement] of mind has ceased? Say.

Padavurai (word-explanation): சித்தத்தின் (cittattiṉ): of mind, of will {inflectional base and genitive (sixth case) form of cittam, ‘mind’, particularly in the sense of ‘will’} | சாந்தி (śānti): pacification, cessation, extinction, peace, calmness, tranquillity | அதே (adē): that alone {intensified form of the singular distal demonstrative pronoun, adu, ‘that’, used here as a suffix intensifying śānti, so śānti-y-adē means ‘pacification [cessation or extinction] alone’} | சித்தம் (siddham): accomplished {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit siddha} | ஆம் (ām): which is {adjectival participle} | முத்தி (mutti): liberation {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit mukti} | எனில் (eṉil): if saying {conditional form of eṉ, ‘say’, but used here in the sense of ‘since’} | சித்தத்தின் (cittattiṉ): of mind, of will {as explained above} | செய்கை (seygai): doing, action, activity {verbal noun} | இன்றி (iṉḏṟi): without | சித்தியா (siddhiyā): which are not accomplished, achieved, acquired {negative adjectival participle} | சித்திகளில் (siddhigaḷil): on [or in] siddhis (accomplishments, particularly supernatural, magical or miraculous powers) {locative (seventh case) form of siddhigaḷ, the plural of siddhi, ‘accomplishment’} | சித்தம் (cittam): mind, will | சேர்வார் (sērvār): those who join, attach, yoke | எங்ஙன் (eṅṅaṉ): how, in what way {interrogative pronoun} | சித்தக்கலக்கம் (citta-k-kalakkam): mind-agitation, agitation of mind, mental agitation {compound of citta, ‘mind’ or ‘mental’, and kalakkam, ‘agitation’, ‘turbulence’, ‘disturbance’, ‘movement’, ‘distress’ or ‘bewilderment’ | தீர் (tīr): cease, end, expire, be finished, leave {the root of this verb used here in the sense of an adjectival participle meaning ‘ceasing’ or ‘in which [it] has ceased’} | முத்திசுகம் (sukham): liberation-happiness, happiness of liberation, happiness which is liberation {compound of mutti [a Tamil form of the Sanskrit mukti], ‘liberation’, and sukham, ‘happiness’ or ‘bliss’} | தோய்வார் (tōyvār): they will bathe, soak, immerse || மொழி (moṙi): say {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: This verse, which is also included in Guru Vācaka Kōvai as verse B7, is an original composition by Bhagavan, which he wrote when Muruganar showed him verses 219, 220 and 222 of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, in which he had recorded what Bhagavan had said regarding the folly and peril of desiring siddhis (supernatural powers or any other such worldly accomplishments).

Verse 17:

பூபரந் தாங்கவிறை போலியுயிர் தாங்கலது
கோபுரந் தாங்கியுருக் கோரணிகாண் — மாபரங்கொள்
வண்டிசெலு வான்சுமையை வண்டிவை யாதுதலை
கொண்டுநலி கொண்டதெவர் கோது.

Bhūbharan dāṅgaviṟai pōliyuyir tāṅgaladu
gōpuran tāṅgiyuruk ghōraṇikāṇ — mābharaṅgoḷ
vaṇḍiselu vāṉcumaiyai vaṇḍivai yādutalai
koṇḍunali koṇḍadevar kōdu.


பதச்சேதம்: பூ பரம் தாங்க இறை, போலி உயிர் தாங்கல் அது கோபுரம் தாங்கி உரு கோரணி; காண். மா பரம் கொள் வண்டி செலுவான் சுமையை வண்டி வையாது, தலை கொண்டு நலி கொண்டது எவர் கோது?

Padacchēdam (word-separation): bhū bharam tāṅga iṟai, pōli uyir tāṅgal adu gōpuram tāṅgi uru ghōraṇi; kāṇ. mā bharam koḷ vaṇḍi seluvāṉ sumaiyai vaṇḍi vaiyādu, talai koṇḍu nali koṇḍadu evar kōdu?

அன்வயம்: பூ பரம் இறை தாங்க, போலி உயிர் தாங்கல் அது கோபுரம் தாங்கி உரு கோரணி; காண். மா பரம் கொள் வண்டி செலுவான் சுமையை வண்டி வையாது, தலை கொண்டு நலி கொண்டது எவர் கோது?

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): bhū bharam iṟai tāṅga, pōli uyir tāṅgal adu gōpuram tāṅgi uru ghōraṇi; kāṇ. mā bharam koḷ vaṇḍi seluvāṉ sumaiyai vaṇḍi vaiyādu, talai koṇḍu nali koṇḍadu evar kōdu?

English translation: When God bears the burden of the world, the spurious soul bearing is a gōpuram tāṅgi form mockery; see. Someone travelling in a train that is carrying a great burden, not putting luggage on the train, suffering carrying on head is whose fault?

Explanatory paraphrase: See, when God [always] bears [or supports] the [entire] burden of the world, the spurious [imitation or unreal] soul [imagining that he is] bearing [it or even a small part of it] is a mockery [like] the form of a gōpuram tāṅgi [‘temple gate tower supporter’, a plaster statue standing high on the tower above a temple gateway, posing as if strenuously carrying or supporting the top of it]. Someone travelling in a train that is carrying a great burden, not putting [their] luggage on the train [but instead unnecessarily] suffering [or accepting pain] carrying [it] on [their] head is whose fault?

Padavurai (word-explanation): பூ (bhū): world, Earth | பரம் (bharam): burden, load | தாங்க (tāṅga): when [he] bears, supports {infinitive, ‘to bear’ or ‘to support’, used here idiomatically to mean ‘when [he] bears’ or ‘when [he] supports’} | இறை (iṟai): God | போலி (pōli): imitation, artificial, spurious, counterfeit, false, unreal | உயிர் (uyir): life, soul, living being, individual | தாங்கல் (tāṅgal): bearing, supporting {verbal noun} | அது (adu): that {singular distal demonstrative pronoun, used here as a suffix to tāṅgal and therefore not having a separate meaning} | கோபுரம் (gōpuram): temple gate tower, the tower above a temple gateway | தாங்கி (tāṅgi): one who bears or supports, supporter, support | உரு (uru): form | கோரணி (ghōraṇi): mockery, mimicry || காண் (kāṇ): see {root of this verb used here as an imperative} || மா (): great {a Tamil word derived from the Sanskrit mahā, ‘great’} | பரம் (bharam): burden, load | கொள் (koḷ): carry, hold, contain {the root of this verb used here in the sense of an adjectival participle meaning ‘carrying’ or ‘that is carrying’} | வண்டி (vaṇḍi): cart, wagon, carriage, train {though nominative (first case) in form, vaṇḍi is used here in a locative (seventh case) sense, ‘in a train’} | செலுவான் (seluvāṉ): one who goes, travels | சுமையை (sumaiyai): load, burden, luggage {accusative (second case) form of sumai} | வண்டி (vaṇḍi): cart, wagon, carriage, train {though nominative (first case) in form, vaṇḍi is used here in a locative (seventh case) sense, ‘on the train’} | வையாது (vaiyādu): not putting, not placing {negative adverbial participle} | தலை (talai): head {though nominative (first case) in form, talai is used here in a locative (seventh case) sense, ‘on [their] head’} | கொண்டு (koṇḍu): grasping, holding, carrying {adverbial participle} | நலி (nali): pain, distress, misery, suffering | கொண்டது (koṇḍadu): grasping, receiving, acquiring, taking, holding, enduring {participial noun used in the sense of a verbal noun; ‘nali koṇḍadu’ means ‘grasping [acquiring or holding] pain’, so it implies ‘suffering’} | எவர் (evar): which person, who {though nominative (first case) in form, this interrogative pronoun is used here in a genitive (sixth case) sense, ‘which person’s’ or ‘whose’} | கோது (kōdu): fault, blemish, defect, error.

Note: This verse, which is also included in Guru Vācaka Kōvai as verse B3, is an original composition by Bhagavan, in which he summarised what Muruganar wrote in verses 171, 172 and 173 of Guru Vācaka Kōvai.

(விருத்தம்: viruttam)

Verse 18:

இருமுலை நடுமார் படிவயி றிதன்மே
லிருமுப் பொருளுள நிறம்பல விவற்று
ளொருபொரு ளாம்பல ரும்பென வுள்ளே
யிருவிரல் வலத்தே யிருப்பது மிதயம்.

Irumulai naḍumār baḍivayi ṟidaṉmē
lirumup poruḷuḷa niṟambala vivaṯṟu
ḷoruporu ḷāmbala rumbeṉa vuḷḷē
yiruviral valattē yiruppadu midayam.


பதச்சேதம்: இரு முலை நடு, மார்பு அடி, வயிறு இதன் மேல், இரு முப் பொருள் உள; நிறம் பல. இவற்றுள் ஒரு பொருள் ஆம்பல் அரும்பு என உள்ளே இரு விரல் வலத்தே இருப்பதும் இதயம்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): iru mulai naḍu, mārbu aḍi, vayiṟu idaṉ mēl iru-mu-p poruḷ uḷa; niṟam pala. ivaṯṟuḷ oru poruḷ āmbal arumbu eṉa uḷḷē iru viral valattē iruppadum idayam.

English translation: Between the two breasts, below the chest, above the stomach, there are six things; the colours are various. Among these, one thing resembling a water lily bud, and what is inside two digits to the right, is the heart.

Explanatory paraphrase: Between the two breasts, below the chest [and] above the stomach, there are six things; [their] colours are various. Among these [six things], one thing resembling a water lily bud, and [which is] what is inside two digits to the right [from the centre of the chest], is the heart.

Padavurai (word-explanation): இரு (iru): two | முலை (mulai): breast {though singular in form, mulai is used here in a plural sense, so it implies ‘breasts’} | நடு (naḍu): middle, centre, intermediate, between | மார்பு (mārbu): chest, breast | அடி (aḍi): foot, base, bottom, below | வயிறிதன்மேல் (vayiṟidaṉmēl): above the stomach {compound of vayiṟu, ‘belly’ or ‘stomach’, and idaṉmēl, ‘above it’ or ‘over it’, which serves here as a case-marking suffix, in which idaṉ is the inflectional base of the singular proximal demonstrative pronoun, idu, ‘this’, and mēl is a locative (seventh case) ending that means ‘above’ or ‘over’} | இருமு (iru-mu): two-three, six {compound of iru, ‘two’, and mu, ‘three’, which implies ‘two times three’, namely ‘six’} | பொருள் (poruḷ): thing {though singular in form, poruḷ is used here in a plural sense, so it implies ‘things’} | உள (uḷa): exist, there are || நிறம் (niṟam): colour {though singular in form, niṟam is used here in a plural sense, so it implies ‘colours’} | பல (pala): many, diverse, various || இவற்றுள் (ivaṯṟuḷ): among these {a locative (seventh case) form of the plural proximal demonstrative pronoun, ivai, ‘these’} | ஒரு (oru): one | பொருள் (poruḷ): thing | ஆம்பல் (āmbal): water lily | அரும்பு (arumbu): bud | என (eṉa): like, resembling {literally ‘to say’, an infinitive that is sometimes used as a sign of comparison} | உள்ளே (uḷḷē): inside {intensified form of uḷ, ‘inside’ or ‘within’} | இரு (iru): two | விரல் (viral): finger, digit {though singular in form, viral is used here in a plural sense, so it implies ‘fingers’ or ‘digits’} | வலத்தே (valattē): on the right, to the right {intensified form of valattu, the inflectional base and a locative (seventh case) form of valam, ‘right’} | இருப்பதும் (iruppadum): and what is {iruppadu is a participial noun that means ‘that which is’ or ‘what is’, and the suffix um is used here as a connective particle meaning ‘and’} | இதயம் (idayam): heart {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit hṛdaya}.

Explanations and discussions:
2020-01-16: Though Bhagavan did sometimes say that the location of the heart in relation to the body is ‘two digits to the right from the centre of the chest’, he said so only to satisfy the curiosity of those who were unwilling to give up thinking in terms of themself being a body and of yogic concepts such as the various cakras or mystic centres in the body, whereas to those who were willing to understand the true import of his teachings, he made it very clear that what he generally meant by the term ‘heart’, unless the context indicated otherwise, is our own real nature
2015-08-29: Why did Bhagavan specify the right side of the chest as the location of the heart?
2015-08-29: Though that ‘one thing resembling a lotus bud and existing inside, two digits to the right’ is described in verse 18 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham as ‘hṛdaya’ (the heart), it would be more accurate to describe it as ‘hṛdaya-sthāna’ (the heart-place), as Bhagavan called it in his answer to the eighth question in the second chapter of Upadēśa Mañjari, or as ‘hṛt-pīṭha’ (the heart-seat, heart-throne or heart location), as it is called in verse 6 of chapter 5 of Śrī Ramaṇa Gītā, in which it is recorded that he said that the hṛt-pīṭha is on the right side of the chest, not on the left, because nothing confined within the limits of time and space can be the actual hṛdaya, the heart or core of ourself

Verse 19:

அதன்முக மிகலுள தகமுள சிறுதுளை
யதனிலா சாதியொ டமர்ந்துள திருந்தம
மதனையா சிரித்துள வகிலமா நாடிக
ளதுவளி மனதொளி யவற்றின திருப்பிடம்.

Adaṉmuka mihaluḷa dahamuḷa siṟuduḷai
yadaṉilā śādiyo ḍamarnduḷa dirundama
madaṉaiyā śirittuḷa vakhilamā nāḍiga
ḷaduvaḷi maṉadoḷi yavaṯṟiṉa diruppiḍam.


பதச்சேதம்: அதன் முகம் இகல் உளது; அகம் உள சிறு துளை; அதனில் ஆசா ஆதி ஒடு அமர்ந்து உளது இரும் தமம்; அதனை ஆசரித்து உள அகில மா நாடிகள்; அது வளி, மனது, ஒளி அவற்றினது இருப்பிடம்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): adaṉ mukham ihal uḷadu; aham uḷa siṟu tuḷai; adaṉil āśā ādi oḍu amarndu uḷadu irum tamam; adaṉai āśirittu uḷa akhila mā nāḍigaḷ; adu vaḷi, maṉadu, oḷi avaṯṟiṉadu iruppiḍam.

அன்வயம்: அதன் முகம் இகல் உளது; அகம் உள சிறு துளை; அதனில் ஆசா ஆதி ஒடு இரும் தமம் அமர்ந்து உளது; அகில மா நாடிகள் அதனை ஆசரித்து உள; வளி, மனது, ஒளி அவற்றினது இருப்பிடம் அது.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): adaṉ mukham ihal uḷadu; aham uḷa siṟu tuḷai; adaṉil āśā ādi oḍu irum tamam amarndu uḷadu; akhila mā nāḍigaḷ adaṉai āśirittu uḷa; vaḷi, maṉadu, oḷi avaṯṟiṉadu iruppiḍam adu.

English translation: Its mouth is closed; inside exists a tiny hole; in it dense darkness exists residing along with desire and so on; all the major nāḍis exist adhering to it; it is the abode of breath, mind and light.

Explanatory paraphrase: Its mouth [the mouth of that bud-like thing called ‘heart’] is closed [tight like an intricately entangled knot]; inside [it] exists a tiny hole [or hollow]; in it [that tiny hole] dense tamas [darkness, namely the darkness of self-ignorance, which is ego, the false awareness ‘I am this body’] exists residing along with desire and so on; all the major nāḍis [‘tubes’ or subtle channels through which mind and prāṇa (life, vitality or vital energy) spread throughout the body] exist adhering to [or depending upon] it; it is the abode of breath, mind and light [the fundamental, ever-existing and all-pervading light of pure awareness, ‘I am’, which shines unaffected and immutably in even the densest darkness, illumining it and all other things, and which is therefore the one real heart, the ultimate centre of everything, in which everything is contained].

Padavurai (word-explanation): அதன் (adaṉ): of that, of it, its {inflectional base and genitive (sixth case) form of the singular distal demonstrative pronoun, adu, ‘that’} | முகம் (mukham): mouth, face | இகல் (ihal): tightened, closed | உளது (uḷadu): is, exists {a poetic abbreviation of uḷḷadu, the neuter third person singular form of the tenseless verb uḷ, ‘be’ or ‘exist’} || அகம் (aham): inside | உள (uḷa): is | சிறு (siṟu): small, little, tiny | துளை (tuḷai): hole, hollow, opening || அதனில் (adaṉil): in that, in it {a locative (seventh case) form of the singular distal demonstrative pronoun, adu, ‘that’} | ஆசாதி (āśādi): beginning with desire {a Sanskrit compound of āśā, ‘desire’, and ādi, ‘beginning’, thereby implying ‘what begins with desire’ or ‘desire and so on’} | ஒடு (oḍu): with, together with, along with {third case ending denoting association (a sociative as distinct from an instrumental form of the third case)} | அமர்ந்து (amarndu): residing, remaining, sitting {adverbial participle} | உளது (uḷadu): is, exists {as explained above} | இரும் (irum): great, intense, dense, black {adjective derived from irumai, ‘greatness’, ‘vastness’ or ‘blackness’} | தமம் (tamam): darkness {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit tamas} || அதனை (adaṉai): that, it {accusative (second case) form of the singular distal demonstrative pronoun, adu, ‘that’} | ஆசரித்து (āśirittu): joining, connecting, attaching to, adhering to, sticking to, resorting to, taking refuge in, depending on, resting on {adverbial participle} | உள (uḷa): exist | அகில (akhila): all | மா (): great, major {a Tamil word derived from the Sanskrit mahā, ‘great’ or ‘large’} | நாடிகள் (nāḍigaḷ): nāḍis {plural of nāḍi, ‘tube’ or ‘pipe’ (particularly any tubular organ in the body, such as arteries and veins, but in this case meaning the subtle channels or ‘nerves’ through which mind and prāṇa are said to flow in the body)} || அது (adu): that, it {nominative (first case) form of the singular distal demonstrative pronoun} | வளி (vaḷi): wind, air, breath | மனது (maṉadu): mind {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit manas} | ஒளி (oḷi): light | அவற்றினது (avaṯṟiṉadu): of those {a genitive (sixth case) form of the plural proximal demonstrative pronoun, avai, ‘those’, used here as a case-marking suffix to the compound ‘vaḷi-maṉadu-oḷi’, ‘breath, mind and light’} | இருப்பிடம் (iruppiḍam): being place, dwelling place, abode {compound of iruppu, ‘being’, and iḍam, ‘place’}.

Note: Bhagavan translated the above two verses from the Malayalam version of Aṣṭāṅga Hṛdayam (The Heart of the Eight Limbs [of Ayurveda]), which is one of the foundational texts of Ayurveda. In order to understand where the ideas expressed in these verses stand in relation to his deeper teachings, it is helpful to consider what he himself said about them in an answer that Natananandar recorded in Upadēśa Mañjari. That is, when Natananandar asked him, ‘ஹ்ருதயத்தின் ஸ்வரூபம் யாது?’ (hrudayattiṉ svarūpam yādu?), ‘What is the svarūpa [real nature] of hṛdaya [the heart]’ (Upadēśa Mañjari, Chapter 2, question 9), Bhagavan replied:
ஹ்ருதயத்தைப் பற்றி வர்ணிக்கும் சுருதிகள்,
“இருமுலை நடுமார் படிவயி றிதன்மே
லிருமுப் பொருளுள நிறம்பல விவற்று
ளொருபொரு ளாம்ப லரும்பென வுள்ளே
யிருவிரல் வலத்தே யிருப்பது மிதயம்.

அதன்முக மிகலுள தகமுள சிறுதுளை
யதனிலா சாதியொ டமர்ந்துள திருந்தம
மதனையா சிரித்துள வகிலமா நாடிக
ளதுவளி மனதொளி யவற்றின திருப்பிடம்.”
(உள்ளது நாற்பது, அனுபந்தம்)
எனக்கூறினும் பரமார்த்தத்தில் ஹ்ருதயமென்ற சொற்குப் பொருள் ஆன்மாவே. அது சத்து சித்து ஆனந்தம் நித்தியம் பூரணம் என்னு மிலக்கணங்களால் வ்யவஹரிக்கப்படுவதால், அதற்கு உள்வெளி, கீழ்மேல் என்பவாதிய பேதங்கள் கிடையா. சர்வ நினைவுகளும் எவ்விடத்தொடுங்குகின்றனவோ அந் நிச்சலமான இடமே ஆன்ம நிலை யெனப்படும். அதன் ஸ்வரூபத்தை உள்ளவாறு உணர்ந்துநிற்குங்கால் அது தேகத்திற்குள்ளிலோ பறம்பிலோ என்பதாதிய ஆராய்ச்சிகளுக்கு அங்கு இடமில்லை.

hrudayattai-p paṯṟi varṇikkum śurutigaḷ,
“irumulai naḍumār baḍivayi ṟidaṉmē
lirumup poruḷuḷa niṟambala vivaṯṟu
ḷoruporu ḷāmbala rumbeṉa vuḷḷē
yiruviral valattē yiruppadu midayam.

adaṉmuka mihaluḷa dahamuḷa siṟuduḷai
yadaṉilā śādiyo ḍamarnduḷa dirundama
madaṉaiyā śirittuḷa vakhilamā nāḍiga
ḷaduvaḷi maṉadoḷi yavaṯṟiṉa diruppiḍam.”
(uḷḷadu nāṟpadu, aṉubandham)
eṉa-k-kūṟiṉum paramārtthattil hrudayam-eṉḏṟa soṯku-p poruḷ āṉmāvē. adu sattu cittu āṉandam nittiyam pūraṇam eṉṉum ilakkaṇaṅgaḷāl vyavaharikka-p-paḍuvadāl, adaṟku uḷ-veḷi, kīṙ-mēl eṉbavādiya bhēdaṅgaḷ kiḍaiyā. sarva niṉaivugaḷum e-vv-iḍattoḍuṅgugiṉḏṟaṉavō a-n-niścalam-āṉa iḍamē āṉma nilai y-eṉa-p-paḍum. adaṉ svarūpattai uḷḷavāṟu uṇarndu-niṟkuṅ-kāl adu dēhattiṟkuḷḷilō paṟambilō eṉbadādiya ārāyccigaḷukku aṅgu iḍam-illai.

Though texts that describe about hṛdaya [the heart] say,
Between the two breasts, below the chest [and] above the stomach, there are six things; [their] colours are various. Among these [six things], one thing resembling a water lily bud, and [which is] what is inside two digits to the right, is hṛdaya [the heart].

Its mouth is closed; inside exists a tiny hole; in it dense tamas [darkness] exists residing along with desire and so on; all the major nāḍis exist adhering to it; it is the abode of breath, mind and light.
(Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham)
in paramārtha [reality or ultimate truth] the meaning for the term hṛdaya is only ātman [oneself]. Since it is distinguished by the lakṣaṇas [indicative marks or characteristics] called sat [existence], cit [awareness], ānanda [happiness], nitya [permanence or eternality] and pūrṇa [fullness, wholeness, entirety or infinity], differences such as inside or outside and below or above are not found for it. In what place all thoughts cease, that motionless place alone is called the state of ātman [oneself]. When one stands experiencing its svarūpa [real nature] as it is, there is no place there for investigations such as whether it is either inside or outside the body.
That is, any location assigned to the heart in the body seems to be real only in relation to the seeming reality of the body, but since the body, like all other phenomena, is just an illusory appearance that seems to exist only in the view of ourself as ego, the location of the heart in it is equally unreal. Therefore the description of the ‘heart’ in these two verses is not a description of the heart as it actually is but is more like a metaphorical description of ego, which, being the experiencer, is the centre or ‘heart’ of the body and everything else that it experiences.

As the ‘heart’ is described in these two verses, ego is often described figuratively as being like a flower bud that is tightly closed, because it is the knot of ignorance that keeps us tightly bound to saṁsāra, the illusory appearance of embodied existence, and because the dawn of ātma-jñāna that occurs when this knot of ignorance is finally unravelled is in some respects analogous to the blossoming of a flower bud, which opens its face to bathe in the bright light of the sun. Dense darkness (tamas) is said to reside along with desire and so on in this tightly closed bud-like ego because ego is itself the dense darkness of self-ignorance, and it is only in this darkness that desire and all other passions arise and flourish.

Though ego is the dense darkness of self-ignorance that rises as the false awareness ‘I am this body’, and though it is therefore the abode or dwelling place (iruppiḍam) of both mind and breath (prāṇa), it also serves as the abode of the original light of pure awareness, because this light is what always shines within it as its fundamental awareness of its own existence, ‘I am’. That is, though it may seem to be a contradiction when this verse says that dense darkness (tamas) resides in the bud-like thing called ‘heart’, but that this ‘heart’ is also the abode of light, this is not actually a contradiction, because the light of pure awareness, ‘I am’, is eternal and immutable, so it shines even in the dense darkness of self-ignorance, ‘I am this body’, untouched and unaffected by the appearance and disappearance of this darkness, being the original and only real light, which is what illumines the appearance and disappearance of darkness and all other things.

This light of pure awareness, ‘I am’, is therefore the one real heart (as Bhagavan also makes clear below in verses 21 to 24), because it is the centre and substance of ego, the false awareness ‘I am this body’, and hence it is also the ultimate centre and substance of all other things, which seem to exist only in the view of ego. Moreover, not only is it the heart or centre of ego and everything else, it is also that in which they are all contained, because it is the only thing that actually exists, and hence it is the one infinite reality that appears as ego and all other finite things, as Bhagavan implies in verse 3 of Ēkāṉma Pañcakam:
தன்னுட் டனுவிருக்கத் தானச் சடவுடலந்
தன்னு ளிருப்பதாத் தானுன்னு — மன்னவன்
சித்திரத்தி னுள்ளுளதச் சித்திரத்துக் காதார
வத்திர மென்றெண்ணு வான்.

taṉṉuṭ ṭaṉuvirukkat tāṉaj jaḍavuḍalan
taṉṉu ḷiruppadāt tāṉuṉṉu — maṉṉavaṉ
cittiratti ṉuḷḷuḷadac cittirattuk kādhāra
vattira meṉḏṟeṇṇu vāṉ.


பதச்சேதம்: தன் உள் தனு இருக்க, தான் அச் சட உடலம் தன்னுள் இருப்பதா தான் உன்னும் அன்னவன் சித்திரத்தின் உள் உளது அச் சித்திரத்துக்கு ஆதார வத்திரம் என்று எண்ணுவான்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): taṉ uḷ taṉu irukka, tāṉ a-j-jaḍa uḍalam taṉṉuḷ iruppadā tāṉ uṉṉum aṉṉavaṉ cittirattiṉ uḷ uḷadu a-c-cittirattukku ādhāra vattiram eṉḏṟu eṇṇuvāṉ.

அன்வயம்: தன் உள் தனு இருக்க, தான் அச் சட உடலம் தன்னுள் இருப்பதா தான் உன்னும் அன்னவன் சித்திரத்துக்கு ஆதார வத்திரம் அச் சித்திரத்தின் உள் உளது என்று எண்ணுவான்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): taṉ uḷ taṉu irukka, tāṉ a-j-jaḍa uḍalam taṉṉuḷ iruppadā tāṉ uṉṉum aṉṉavaṉ cittirattukku ādhāra vattiram a-c-cittirattiṉ uḷ uḷadu eṉḏṟu eṇṇuvāṉ.

English translation: When the body is within oneself, anyone who thinks that oneself is only within that insentient body is someone who thinks that the cloth, which is the support for the picture, exists within that picture.

Explanatory paraphrase: When the body is [actually] within oneself, anyone who thinks that oneself is only within that insentient body is [like] someone who thinks that the cloth [of the screen], which is the ādhāra [support, foundation, basis or container] for the [cinema] picture, exists within that picture.
Therefore, rather than saying that the heart, which is ourself as we actually are, exists in a particular location within the body, it is more correct to say that this body and everything else seems to exist only within the heart, the one infinite space of pure awareness, which shines eternally as our own being, our very existence, ‘I am’.

(வேறு: vēṟu)

Verse 20:

இதயமலர்க் குகையகமா யிலகிறையே
     குகேசனென வேத்தப் பட்டோ
னிதமனைய குகேசன்யா னெனுஞ்சோகம்
     பாவனைதா னின்னு டம்பிற்
றிதமுறுநா னெனுந்திடம்போ லப்பியாச
     பலத்தாலத் தேவாய் நிற்கிற்
சிதையுடனா னெனுமவித்தை செங்கதிரோ
     னெதிரிருள்போற் சிதையு மன்றே.

idayamalark kuhaiyahamā yilahiṟaiyē
     guhēśaṉeṉa vēttap paṭṭō
ṉitamaṉaiya guhēśaṉyā ṉeṉuñcōham
     bhāvaṉaitā ṉiṉṉu ḍambiṯ
ṟitamuṟunā ṉeṉundiḍhambō labbhiyāsa
     balattālat tēvāy niṯkiṯ
cidaiyuḍaṉā ṉeṉumaviddai seṅgadirō
     ṉediriruḷpōṯ cidaiyu maṉḏṟē.


பதச்சேதம்: இதய மலர் குகை ‘அகம்’ ஆய் இலகு இறையே ‘குகேசன்’ என ஏத்தப்பட்டோன். நிதம் ‘அனைய குகேசன் யான்’ எனும் சோகம் பாவனை தான் நின் உடம்பில் திதம் உறும் ‘நான்’ எனும் திடம் போல் அப்பியாச பலத்தால், அத் தேவாய் நிற்கில், ‘சிதை உடல் நான்’ எனும் அவித்தை, செங்கதிரோன் எதிர் இருள் போல், சிதையும் அன்றே.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): idaya malar guhai ‘aham’ āy ilahu iṟaiyē ‘guhēśaṉ’ eṉa ēttappaṭṭōṉ. nitam ‘aṉaiya guhēśaṉ yāṉ’ eṉum sōham bhāvaṉai tāṉ niṉ uḍambil thitam uṟum ‘nāṉ’ eṉum diḍham pōl abbhiyāsa balattāl, a-t-dēvāy niṯkil, ‘sidai uḍal nāṉ’ eṉum aviddai, seṅgadirōṉ edir iruḷ pōl, sidaiyum aṉḏṟē.

அன்வயம்: இதய மலர் குகை ‘அகம்’ ஆய் இலகு இறையே ‘குகேசன்’ என ஏத்தப்பட்டோன். ‘அனைய குகேசன் யான்’ எனும் நிதம் சோகம் பாவனை தான் அப்பியாச பலத்தால், நின் உடம்பில் திதம் உறும் ‘நான்’ எனும் திடம் போல் அத் தேவாய் நிற்கில், ‘சிதை உடல் நான்’ எனும் அவித்தை, செங்கதிரோன் எதிர் இருள் போல், அன்றே சிதையும்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): idaya malar guhai ‘aham’ āy ilahu iṟaiyē ‘guhēśaṉ’ eṉa ēttappaṭṭōṉ. ‘aṉaiya guhēśaṉ yāṉ’ eṉum nitam sōham bhāvaṉai tāṉ abbhiyāsa balattāl, niṉ uḍambil thitam uṟum ‘nāṉ’ eṉum diḍham pōl a-t-dēvāy niṯkil, ‘sidai uḍal nāṉ’ eṉum aviddai, seṅgadirōṉ edir iruḷ pōl, aṉḏṟē sidaiyum.

English translation: The Lord shining as ‘I’ in the cave of the heart-blossom alone has been extolled as ‘Guhesan’. By the strength of practice of constant meditation ‘He is I’, namely ‘Such Guhesan is I’, if standing as that Lord like the firmness called ‘I’ that is fixed in your body, the ignorance called ‘The perishable body is I’ will immediately perish like darkness in front of the sun.

Explanatory paraphrase: The Lord shining as ‘I’ in the cave of the heart-blossom alone has been extolled as ‘Guhesan’ [the Lord of the cave]. By the abhyāsa-bala [strength of repeated practice] of constant sōham bhāvanā [meditation ‘He is I’], namely ‘Such Guhesan [that Lord who shines in the heart as ‘I’] [alone] is I’, if [you] stand [remain or abide] as that Lord [namely ‘I’] as firmly as ‘I’ is [now] fixed in [and as] your body, the avidyā [ignorance, in the sense of false awareness] called ‘[This] perishable body is I’ [namely ego] will immediately perish [or be dispersed] like darkness in front of the sun.

Padavurai (word-explanation): இதயமலர்க்குகை (idaya-malar-k-kuhai): heart-blossom-cave, the cave of the heart-blossom {compound of idaya [a Tamil form of the Sanskrit hṛdaya], ‘heart’, malar, ‘blossom’ or ‘flower in full bloom’, and guhai [a Tamil form of the Sanskrit guhā], ‘cave’; though nominative (first case) in form, this compound is used here in a locative (seventh case) sense, ‘in the cave of the heart-blossom’} | அகம் (aham): I | ஆய் (āy): being, as {adverbial participle} | இலகு (ilahu): shine {the root of this verb, used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, ‘shining’ or ‘who shines’} | இறையே (iṟaiyē): God alone, the Lord alone {iṟai means ‘God’ or ‘Lord’, and the suffix ē is an intensifier that in this case implies ‘only’ or ‘alone’} | குகேசன் (guhēśaṉ): Guhesan, cave-Lord, the Lord of the cave {compound of guhā, ‘cave’, and īśaṉ [a Tamil form of the Sanskrit īśa], ‘God’ or ‘Lord’} | என (eṉa): as {literally ‘to say’, an infinitive that is often used in an adverbial sense as an alternative to the adverbial participle eṉḏṟu, ‘saying’, which generally serves the same function as ‘that’, ‘thus’, ‘as’ or inverted commas in English} | ஏத்தப்பட்டோன் (ēttappaṭṭōṉ): he has been praised, he has been extolled {masculine third person singular past passive form of ēttu, ‘praise’ or ‘extol’} || நிதம் (nitam): constant {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit nitya, ‘constant’, ‘permanent’ or ‘eternal’} | அனைய (aṉaiya): such, the same, that very | குகேசன் (guhēśaṉ): Guhesan | யான் (yāṉ): I | எனும் (eṉum): called, as, namely {adjectival participle, a poetic abbreviation of eṉṉum} | சோகம் (sōham): ‘He is I’ {Sanskrit compound of saḥ, ‘he’, and aham, ‘I’} | பாவனை (bhāvaṉai): meditation, imagination, mental conception, thought, idea {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit bhāvanā} | தான் (tāṉ): itself, only, just {an intensifier, but used here as a poetic expletive} | நின் (niṉ): your | உடம்பில் (uḍambil): in the body {locative (seventh case) form of uḍambu, ‘body’} | திதம் (thitam): standing, stable, steady, fixed, firm {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit sthita} | உறும் (uṟum): existing, being, which is, that is {adjectival participle} | நான் (nāṉ): I | எனும் (eṉum): called, as {adjectival participle} | திடம் (diḍham): firmness, steadiness, strength {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit dṛḍha} | போல் (pōl): like, as, similar, resembling {‘niṉ uḍambil thitam uṟum nāṉ eṉum diḍham pōl’ literally means ‘like the firmness called I that is fixed in your body’, but implies ‘as firmly as I is fixed in your body’} | அப்பியாசபலத்தால் (abbhiyāsa-balattāl): by the strength of practice {a compound of abbhiyāsa [a Tamil form of the Sanskrit abhyāsa], ‘practice’, ‘exercise’, ‘repetition’ or ‘repeated practice’, and balattāl [an instrumental (third case) form of balam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit bala, ‘strength’ or ‘power’], ‘by strength’} | அ (a): that {distal demonstrative prefix} | தேவாய் (dēvāy): as God, as the Lord {compound of dēva, ‘God’ or ‘Lord’, and the adverbial participle āy, ‘being’ or ‘as’} | நிற்கில் (niṯkil): if standing, if remaining {conditional form of nil, ‘stand’, ‘stop’ or ‘stay’} | சிதை (sidai): deteriorate, decay, be dispersed, perish {the root of this verb, used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, ‘perishing’, ‘which perishes’ or ‘perishable’, therefore implying ‘mortal’} | உடல் (uḍal): body | நான் (nāṉ): I | எனும் (eṉum): called, which says {adjectival participle} | அவித்தை (aviddai): ignorance {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit avidyā} | செங்கதிரோன் (seṅgadirōṉ): sun | எதிர் (edir): in front of, before | இருள் (iruḷ): darkness | போல் (pōl): like | சிதையும் (sidaiyum): will be dispersed, will perish | அன்றே (aṉḏṟē): that very day, immediately {aṉḏṟu means ‘that day’ or ‘then’, and the suffix ē is an intensifier}.

Note: In this verse, which he adapted from verses 59 and 62 of chapter 19 of Prabhuliṇga Līlai (a Tamil translation or adaptation by Turaimangalam Sivaprakasa Swamigal of an earlier work composed by Chamarasa in Kannada on the life of a Virasaiva saint called Allama Prabhu), Bhagavan implies that the correct way to understand sōham bhāvanā (the meditation ‘He is I’) is that ‘He is I’ (sōham) means ‘The Lord who shines in my heart as I alone is I’. In other words, sōham bhāvanā will yield its intended result of eradicating ego, the false awareness ‘I am this body’, only if the ‘he’ (saḥ) in ‘he is I’ (sōham) is correctly understood to mean nothing other than what shines in the heart as ‘I’, because if we take it to mean anything other than ‘I’, our attention when meditating ‘he is I’ will be oscillating between ‘I’ and whatever other thing we take ‘he’ to be referring to. Since ‘he is I’ (sōham) implies that there is no ‘he’ (God or brahman) other than ‘I’, our aim should be to keep our attention fixed on ‘I’ so firmly that it is not diverted away towards anything else at all even to the slightest extent.

This is why he described this practice in verse 8 of Upadēśa Undiyār as ‘ananya-bhāva’ (meditation on what is not other), thereby implying that we should meditate on nothing other than ‘I’, because God alone is what exists and shines as ‘I’ in the ‘cave’ or innermost depth of our heart.

In the next series of four verses he makes clear what is meant by the term ‘heart’ in this context.

Verse 21:

எப்பெருங்கண் ணாடியின்கண் ணிவையாவு
     நிழலாக வெதிரே தோன்று
மிப்பிரபஞ் சத்துயிர்கட் கெல்லாமவ்
     விதயமென விசைப்ப தேதோ
செப்புதியென் றேவினவு மிராமனுக்கு
     வசிட்டமுனி செப்பு கின்றா
னிப்புவியி னுயிர்க்கெல்லா மிதயமிரு
     விதமாகு மெண்ணுங் காலே.

epperuṅgaṇ ṇāḍiyiṉgaṇ ṇivaiyāvu
     niṙalāha vedirē tōṉḏṟu
mippirapañ cattuyirkaṭ kellāmav
     vidayameṉa visaippa dēdō
ceppudiyeṉ ḏṟēviṉavu mirāmaṉukku
     vasiṭṭamuṉi ceppu giṉḏṟā
ṉibbhuviyi ṉuyirkkellā midayamiru
     vidhamāhu meṇṇuṅ gālē.


பதச்சேதம்: ‘எப் பெரும் கண்ணாடியின்கண் இவை யாவும் நிழலாக எதிரே தோன்றும், இப் பிரபஞ்சத்து உயிர்கட்கு எல்லாம் அவ் இதயம் என இசைப்பது ஏதோ, செப்புதி’ என்றே வினவும் இராமனுக்கு வசிட்ட முனி செப்புகின்றான்: இப் புவியின் உயிர்க்கு எல்லாம் இதயம் இருவிதம் ஆகும், எண்ணுங்காலே.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ‘e-p-perum kaṇṇāḍiyiṉgaṇ ivai yāvum niṙal-āha edirē tōṉḏṟum, i-p-pirapañcattu uyirgaṭku ellām a-vv-idayam eṉa isaippadu ēdō, seppudi’ eṉḏṟē viṉavum irāmaṉukku vasiṭṭha muṉi seppugiṉḏṟāṉ: i-b-bhuviyiṉ uyirkku ellām idayam iru vidham āhum, eṇṇum kālē.

அன்வயம்: ‘எப் பெரும் கண்ணாடியின்கண் இவை யாவும் நிழலாக எதிரே தோன்றும், இப் பிரபஞ்சத்து உயிர்கட்கு எல்லாம் அவ் இதயம் என இசைப்பது ஏதோ, செப்புதி’ என்றே வினவும் இராமனுக்கு வசிட்ட முனி செப்புகின்றான்: எண்ணுங்காலே, இப் புவியின் உயிர்க்கு எல்லாம் இதயம் இருவிதம் ஆகும்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ‘e-p-perum kaṇṇāḍiyiṉgaṇ ivai yāvum niṙal-āha edirē tōṉḏṟum, i-p-pirapañcattu uyirgaṭku ellām a-vv-idayam eṉa isaippadu ēdō, seppudi’ eṉḏṟē viṉavum irāmaṉukku vasiṭṭha muṉi seppugiṉḏṟāṉ: eṇṇum kālē, i-b-bhuviyiṉ uyirkku ellām idayam iru vidham āhum.

English translation: To Rama who asked, ‘In what great mirror all these appear in front as a shadow, say, what is that which is indicated as that heart for all sentient beings in this world?’, Vasistha Muni says: When considering, the heart for all sentient beings of this world is of two kinds.

Explanatory paraphrase: To Rama who asked, ‘Say, for all sentient beings in this world, what is that which is indicated as that heart in which great mirror all these [namely all phenomena that constitute the mind and world] appear in front as a shadow [image or reflection]?’, Vasistha, the wise one (muni), says: When [one] considers, the heart for all sentient beings of this world is of two kinds.

Padavurai (word-explanation): எ (e): what, which {interrogative prefix used to indicate the referent of a subsequent demonstrative, namely a, ‘that’, in a-vv-idayam, ‘that heart’, thus serving a function similar to but not exactly the same as a relative pronoun in English} | பெரும் (perum): large, vast, great | கண்ணாடியின்கண் (kaṇṇāḍiyiṉgaṇ): in mirror {a locative (seventh case) form of kaṇṇāḍi, ‘mirror’} | இவை (ivai): these {plural proximal demonstrative pronoun} | யாவும் (yāvum): all | நிழல் (niṙal): shadow, reflection, reflected image | ஆக (āha): as {an infinitive that literally means ‘to be’ but that is often used as an adverb in the sense of ‘being’ or ‘as’} | எதிரே (edirē): in front {intensified form of edir, ‘before’ or ‘in front’} | தோன்றும் (tōṉḏṟum): appears | இ (i): this {proximal demonstrative prefix} | பிரபஞ்சத்து (pirapañcattu): in [this] world {the inflectional base of pirapañcam (a Tamil form of the Sanskrit prapañca, ‘what is spread out’, namely the ‘world’ or ‘universe’), used here in a locative (seventh case) sense} | உயிர்கட்கு (uyirgaṭku): for souls, for sentient beings {a dative (fourth case) form of uyirgaḷ, the plural of uyir, ‘soul’ or ‘sentient being’} | எல்லாம் (ellām): all | அ (a): that {distal demonstrative prefix, referring here to ‘e-p-perum kaṇṇāḍi’, ‘what great mirror’, in the previous clause} | இதயம் (idayam): heart {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit hṛdaya} | என (eṉa): thus, as {literally ‘to say’, an infinitive that is often used in an adverbial sense as an alternative to the adverbial participle eṉḏṟu, ‘saying’, which generally serves the same function as ‘that’, ‘thus’, ‘as’ or inverted commas in English} | இசைப்பது (isaippadu): what is indicated, that which is indicated {neuter third person singular participial noun} | ஏதோ (ēdō): what, whatever {ēdu is an interrogative pronoun that means ‘what’, and the suffix ō can be taken here either to be a poetic expletive or to be more or less equivalent to the English suffix ‘ever’ in ‘whatever’} | செப்புதி (seppudi): say, tell {imperative} | என்றே (eṉḏṟē): saying {intensified form of the adverbial participle eṉḏṟu, ‘saying’, which implies ‘that’ or ‘thus’, and in this case serves the same function as inverted commas in English} | வினவும் (viṉavum): asking, who asked {adjectival participle} | இராமனுக்கு (irāmaṉukku): to Rama {dative (fourth case) form of irāmaṉ, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit rāma, ‘Rama’} | வசிட்ட (vasiṭṭha): Vasistha {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit vasiṣṭha} | முனி (muṉi): sage, wise person {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit muni} | செப்புகின்றான் (seppugiṉḏṟāṉ): says || இ (i): this | புவியின் (bhuviyiṉ): of world, of planet Earth {a genitive (sixth case) form of bhuvi, ‘world’ or ‘Earth’} | உயிர்க்கு (uyirkku): for souls, for sentient beings {a dative (fourth case) form of uyir, ‘soul’ or ‘sentient being’, which though singular in form is used here in a plural sense} | எல்லாம் (ellām): all | இதயம் (idayam): heart {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit hṛdaya} | இருவிதம் (iru-vidham): of two kinds {compound of iru, ‘two’, and vidham [a Tamil form of the Sanskrit vidha], ‘kind’, ‘sort’ or ‘variety’} | ஆகும் (āhum): is | எண்ணுங்காலே (eṇṇuṅkālē): when considering, if considering, when [one] considers {compound of eṇṇum, an adjectival participle that means ‘thinking’ or ‘considering’, and kālē, an intensified form of kāl, a suffix that when appended to an adjectival participle means ‘when’ or ‘if’}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of Yōga Vāsiṣṭham 5.78.32 and 33:
श्री राम उवाच:
ब्रह्मन् जगति भूतानां हृदयं तत्किमुच्यते ।
इदं सर्वं महादर्शे यस्मिंस्तत्प्रतिबिम्बति ॥

śrī rāma uvāca:
brahman jagati bhūtānāṁ hṛdayaṁ tatkimucyatē |
idaṁ sarvaṁ mahādarśē yasmiṁstatpratibimbati ||

श्री वसिष्ठ उवाच:
साधो जगति भूतानां हृदयं द्विविधं स्मृतम् ।
उपादेयं च हेयं च विभागोऽयं तयोः श्रुणु ॥

śrī vasiṣṭha uvāca:
sādhō jagati bhūtānāṁ hṛdayaṁ dvividhaṁ smṛtam |
upādēyaṁ ca hēyaṁ ca vibhāgō’yaṁ tayōḥ śruṇu ||
Verse 22:

கொளத்தக்க துந்தள்ளத் தக்கதுமா
     மிவ்விரண்டின் கூறு கேளா
யளத்தற்கா முடம்பின்மார் பகத்தொரிடத்
     திதயமென வமைந்த வங்கந்
தளத்தக்க தோரறிவா காரவித
     யங்கொள்ளத் தக்க தாமென்
றுளத்துட்கொள் ளஃதுள்ளும் புறமுமுள
     துள்வெளியி லுள்ள தன்றாம்.

koḷattakka dundaḷḷat takkadumā
     mivviraṇḍiṉ kūṟu kēḷā
yaḷattaṯkā muḍambiṉmār bahattoriḍat
     tidayameṉa vamainda vaṅgan
taḷattakka dōraṟivā kāravida
     yaṅgoḷḷat takka dāmeṉ
ṟuḷattuṭkoḷ ḷaḵduḷḷum buṟamumuḷa
     duḷveḷiyi luḷḷa daṉḏṟām.


பதச்சேதம்: கொள தக்கதும் தள்ள தக்கதும் ஆம் இவ் இரண்டின் கூறு கேளாய். அளத்தற்கு ஆம் உடம்பின் மார்பு அகத்து ஓர் இடத்து இதயம் என அமைந்த அங்கம் தள தக்கது. ஓர் அறிவு ஆகார இதயம் கொள்ள தக்கது ஆம் என்று உளத்துள் கொள். அஃது உள்ளும் புறமும் உளது; உள் வெளியில் உள்ளது அன்று ஆம்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): koḷa takkadum taḷḷa takkadum ām i-vv-iraṇḍiṉ kūṟu kēḷāy. aḷattaṟku ām uḍambiṉ mārbu ahattu ōr iḍattu idayam eṉa amainda aṅgam taḷa takkadu. ōr aṟivu-ākāra idayam koḷḷa takkadu ām eṉḏṟu uḷattuḷ koḷ. aḵdu uḷḷum puṟamum uḷadu; uḷ veḷiyil uḷḷadu aṉḏṟu ām.

English translation: Listen to the nature of these two, which are what is fit to accept and what is fit to reject. The organ situated as ‘heart’ in a place inside the chest of the measurable body is what is fit to reject. Accept within heart that the heart in the form of the one awareness is what is fit to accept. That is what is both inside and outside; it is not what is inside-outside.

Explanatory paraphrase: Listen to the nature [or characteristics] of these two [kinds of heart], [one of] which is what is fit to accept [grasp or hold] and [the other of which is] what is fit to reject [discard, cast off or abandon]. The organ called ‘heart’ situated in a place inside the chest of the measurable [limited or finite] body is what is fit to reject. Accept within [your] heart that the heart in the form of the one [unique, peerless, incomparable and only existing] awareness [namely sat-cit, the pure being-awareness that shines eternally as ‘I am’] is what is fit to accept. That is what is both inside and outside [being omnipresent, because (as described in the previous verse) it is the one great mirror in which the entire world of time and space appears as a shadow]; [yet] it is not what is inside [and/or] outside [thereby implying not only that it is not what exists either only inside or only outside, but also that it is what exists untouched by any distinction such as inside or outside].

Padavurai (word-explanation): கொள (koḷa): to grasp, receive, accept, hold {infinitive, a poetic abbreviation of koḷḷa} | தக்கதும் (takkadum): what is fit, proper, appropriate, worthy {takkadu is a neuter third person singular participial noun that means ‘what is fit’ or ‘what is proper’, and in this context the suffix um appended both to this and to the next occurrence of takkadu links them together like the conjunction ‘and’ in English} | தள்ள (taḷḷa): to reject, discard, cast off, abandon, neglect, refuse to accept {infinitive} | தக்கதும் (takkadum): and what is fit {as explained above} | ஆம் (ām): which is, which are {adjectival participle} | இ (i): this, these {proximal demonstrative prefix} | இரண்டின் (iraṇḍiṉ): of two {a genitive (sixth case) form of iraṇḍu, ‘two’} | கூறு (kūṟu): nature, characteristics, properties | கேளாய் (kēḷāy): hear, listen to, may you listen to {second person singular optative or polite imperative} || அளத்தற்காம் (aḷattaṟkām): which is for measuring, measurable, limited, finite {aḷattaṟku means ‘for measuring’ or ‘for limiting’, being a dative (fourth case) form of aḷattal, a verbal noun that means ‘measuring’ or ‘limiting’; and ām is an adjectival participle that means ‘being’ or ‘which is’} | உடம்பின் (uḍambiṉ): of the body {genitive (sixth case) form of uḍambu, ‘body’} | மார்பு (mārbu): chest, breast | அகத்து (ahattu): inside, within {the inflectional base of aham, ‘inside’, used here in a locative (seventh case) sense} | ஓர் (ōr): one, a | இடத்து (iḍattu): in [a] place {the inflectional base of iḍam, ‘place’, used here in a locative (seventh case) sense} | இதயம் (idayam): heart {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit hṛdaya} | என (eṉa): as {literally ‘to say’, an infinitive that is often used in an adverbial sense as an alternative to the adverbial participle eṉḏṟu, ‘saying’, which generally serves the same function as ‘that’, ‘thus’, ‘as’ or inverted commas in English} | அமைந்த (amainda): settled, situated {adjectival participle} | அங்கம் (aṅgam): organ, limb, part of the body | தள (taḷa): to reject {infinitive, a poetic abbreviation of taḷḷa} | தக்கது (takkadu): what is fit || ஓர் (ōr): one, single, unique, peerless, incomparable | அறிவாகாரவிதயம் (aṟivākāra-v-idayam): awareness-form-heart, heart in the form of awareness {compound of aṟivu, ‘awareness’, ākāra [a Sanskrit suffix] ‘form’ (which in the middle of a three-word compound, as in this case, implies ‘in the form of’ or ‘of the form of’), and idayam, ‘heart’} | கொள்ள (koḷḷa): to accept {infinitive} | தக்கது (takkadu): what is fit | ஆம் (ām): is | என்று (eṉḏṟu): saying {an adverbial participle implying ‘that’, ‘thus’ or ‘as’} | உளத்துள் (uḷattuḷ): within heart {a locative (seventh case) form of uḷam, a poetic abbreviation of uḷḷam, ‘heart’, in which the locative ending uḷ means specifically ‘within’ or ‘inside’} | கொள் (koḷ): accept {root of this verb used here as an imperative} || அஃது (aḵdu): that {singular distal demonstrative pronoun} | உள்ளும் (uḷḷum): both inside | புறமும் (puṟamum): and outside {in this context the suffix um appended to uḷ, ‘inside’, and to puṟam, ‘outside’, implies ‘both … and …’} | உளது (uḷadu): is, exists, what is, what exists {a poetic abbreviation of uḷḷadu, which is both the neuter third person singular form of the tenseless verb uḷ, ‘be’ or ‘exist’, and as such means ‘it is’ or ‘it exists’, and a neuter third person singular participial noun that means ‘what is’ or ‘what exists’} || உள் (uḷ): inside | வெளியில் (veḷiyil): outside, in the outside {a locative (seventh case) form of veḷi, ‘outside’, ‘space’ or ‘open space’} | உள்ளது (uḷḷadu): what is, what exists {neuter third person singular participial noun} | அன்றாம் (aṉḏṟām): it is not {compound of aṉḏṟu, ‘not’, and ām, ‘it is’}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of Yōga Vāsiṣṭham 5.78.34 and 35:
इयत्तया परिच्छिन्ने देहे यद्वक्षसोऽन्तरम् ।
हेयं तद्धृदयं विद्धि तनावेकतटे स्थितम् ॥

iyattayā paricchinnē dēhē yadvakṣasō’ntaram |
hēyaṁ taddhṛdayaṁ viddhi tanāvēkataṭē sthitam ||

संविन्मात्रं तु हृदयमुपादेयं स्थितं स्मृतम् ।
तदन्तरे च बाह्ये च न च बाह्ये न चान्तरे ॥

saṁvinmātraṁ tu hṛdayamupādēyaṁ sthitaṁ smṛtam |
tadantarē ca bāhyē ca na ca bāhyē na cāntarē ||
Verse 23:

அதுவேமுக் கியவிதய மதன்கண்ணிவ்
     வகிலமுமே யமர்ந்தி ருக்கு
மதுவாடி யெப்பொருட்கு மெல்லாச்செல்
     வங்கட்கு மதுவே யில்ல
மதனாலே யனைத்துயிர்க்கு மறிவதுவே
     யிதயமென வறைய லாகுஞ்
சிதையாநிற் குங்கற்போற் சடவுடலி
     னவயவத்தோர் சிறுகூ றன்றால்.

aduvēmuk khiyavidaya madaṉgaṇṇiv
     vakhilamumē yamarndi rukku
maduvāḍi yepporuṭku mellāccel
     vaṅgaṭku maduvē yilla
madaṉālē yaṉaittuyirkku maṟivaduvē
     yidayameṉa vaṟaiya lāhuñ
cidaiyāniṯ kuṅgaṯpōṯ jaḍavuḍali
     ṉavayavattōr siṟukū ṟaṉḏṟāl.


பதச்சேதம்: அதுவே முக்கிய இதயம். அதன்கண் இவ் அகிலமுமே அமர்ந்து இருக்கும். அது ஆடி எப் பொருட்கும். எல்லா செல்வங்கட்கும் அதுவே இல்லம். அதனாலே, அனைத்து உயிர்க்கும் அறிவு அதுவே இதயம் என அறையல் ஆகும். சிதையாநிற்கும் கல் போல் சட உடலின் அவயவத்து ஓர் சிறு கூறு அன்று; ஆல்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): aduvē mukkhiya idayam. adaṉgaṇ i-vv-akhilamumē amarndu irukkum. adu āḍi e-p-poruṭkum. ellā selvaṅgaṭkum aduvē illam. adaṉālē, aṉaittu uyirkkum aṟivu aduvē idayam eṉa aṟaiyal āhum. sidaiyāniṯkum kal pōl jaḍa uḍaliṉ avayavattu ōr siṟu kūṟu aṉḏṟu; āl.

அன்வயம்: அதுவே முக்கிய இதயம். இவ் அகிலமுமே அதன்கண் அமர்ந்து இருக்கும். எப் பொருட்கும் ஆடி அது. எல்லா செல்வங்கட்கும் இல்லம் அதுவே. அதனாலே, அனைத்து உயிர்க்கும் அறிவு அதுவே இதயம் என அறையல் ஆகும். சிதையாநிற்கும் கல் போல் சட உடலின் அவயவத்து ஓர் சிறு கூறு அன்று; ஆல்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): aduvē mukkhiya idayam. i-vv-akhilamumē adaṉgaṇ amarndu irukkum. e-p-poruṭkum āḍi adu. ellā selvaṅgaṭkum illam aduvē. adaṉālē, aṉaittu uyirkkum aṟivu aduvē idayam eṉa aṟaiyal āhum. sidaiyāniṯkum kal pōl jaḍa uḍaliṉ avayavattu ōr siṟu kūṟu aṉḏṟu; āl.

English translation: That alone is the principal heart. In it this entire universe is residing. It is the mirror for all things whatsoever. It alone is the home for all riches. Therefore it, the awareness for all sentient beings, is what is declared as the heart. It is not a small portion in part of the perishable, stone-like insentient body.

Explanatory paraphrase: That alone is the principal [first, foremost, primary and preeminent] heart. In it this entire universe is residing. It is the mirror for all things whatsoever [the mirror in which each and every thing appears]. It alone is the home for all [spiritual] riches [everything of real value]. Therefore it, [which is] the awareness [the original and fundamental awareness, ‘I am’] for all sentient beings, is what is declared as the [real] heart. It is not a small portion in part of the perishable, stone-like insentient body [the body, which is perishable (or mortal) and insentient like a stone].

Padavurai (word-explanation): அதுவே (aduvē): that alone, that indeed {intensified form of adu, ‘that’, referring here to ‘ōr aṟivu-ākāra-idayam’, ‘the heart in the form of the one awareness’, which was described in the previous verse as ‘koḷḷa takkadu’, ‘what is fit to accept’} | முக்கிய (mukkhiya): first, foremost, primary, principal, preeminent, important {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit mukhya} | இதயம் (idayam): heart {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit hṛdaya} || அதன்கண் (adaṉgaṇ): in that, in it {a locative (seventh case) form of adu, ‘that’ or ‘it’} | இ (i): this, these {proximal demonstrative prefix} | அகிலமுமே (akhilamumē): entire whole, entire universe, everything entirely {akhilam means ‘the whole’, ‘all’ or ‘the universe’; um is a suffix that in this context implies completeness, totality or entirety, thereby complementing and emphasising the meaning of akhilam; and ē is an intensifying suffix} | அமர்ந்து (amarndu): residing, abiding, remaining, resting, being seated {adverbial participle} | இருக்கும் (irukkum): is, exists || அது (adu): that, it {singular distal demonstrative pronoun} | ஆடி (āḍi): mirror | எ (e): what {interrogative prefix used here in the sense of ‘whatever’ or ‘whatsoever’, thereby implying ‘each’ or ‘every’} | பொருட்கும் (poruṭkum): for all things {poruṭku is a dative (fourth case) form of poruḷ, which in this context means ‘thing’ or ‘object’, and um is a suffix that in this context implies totality or entirety, so e-p-poruṭkum means ‘for all things whatsoever’ or ‘for each and every thing’} || எல்லா (ellā): all | செல்வங்கட்கும் (selvaṅgaṭkum): for all riches, for all wealth, for all prosperities {selvaṅgaṭku is a dative (fourth case) form of selvaṅgaḷ, the plural of selvam, ‘wealth’, ‘riches’, ‘prosperity’ or ‘flourishing’, and um is a suffix that in this context implies totality or entirety, thereby complementing and emphasising the meaning of ellā, ‘all’, so ellā-c-celvaṅgaṭkum means ‘for all riches’ (implying ‘for all spiritual riches’ or ‘for everything of real value’)} | அதுவே (aduvē): that alone, it alone {adu mean ‘that’ or ‘it’, and the suffix ē is an intensifier that here implies ‘only’ or ‘alone’} | இல்லம் (illam): home, house, abode || அதனாலே (adaṉālē): by that alone, because of that alone, therefore {adaṉāl is an instrumental (third case) form of adu, ‘that’, so it means ‘by that’, ‘because of that’ or ‘therefore’, and the suffix ē is an intensifier} | அனைத்து (aṉaittu): all | உயிர்க்கும் (uyirkkum): for all souls, for all sentient beings {uyirkku is a dative (fourth case) form of uyir, ‘soul’ or ‘sentient being’, and here the suffix um implies totality or entirety, thereby complementing and emphasising the meaning of aṉaittu, ‘all’, so aṉaittuyirkkum means ‘for all sentient beings’} | அறிவு (aṟivu): awareness | அதுவே (aduvē): that alone | இதயம் (idayam): heart | என (eṉa): as {literally ‘to say’, an infinitive that is often used in an adverbial sense as an alternative to the adverbial participle eṉḏṟu, ‘saying’, which generally serves the same function as ‘that’, ‘thus’, ‘as’ or inverted commas in English} | அறையல் (aṟaiyal): declaring, what is declared {verbal noun formed from aṟai, ‘to speak’ or ‘to declare’} | ஆகும் (āhum): is || சிதையாநிற்கும் (sidaiyāniṯkum): perishing, which is perishing, perishable, destructible, mortal {adjectival participle, in which sidai is the root of a verb (derived from the Sanskrit chid, ‘divide’, ‘cut off’ or ‘destroy’) that means ‘perish’, ‘decay’, ‘degenerate’, ‘be cut to pieces’, ‘be dispersed’, ‘be destroyed’, ‘die’ or ‘turn out to be unreal’, and āniṯkum is formed from āniṉḏṟu, an affirmative medial particle added to the root of any verb to indicate the present tense} | கல் (kal): stone | போல் (pōl): like | சட (jaḍa): non-aware, insentient | உடலின் (uḍaliṉ): of the body {a genitive (sixth case) form of uḍal, ‘body’} | அவயவத்து (avayavattu): in part {inflectional base of avayavam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit avayava, ‘limb’, ‘organ’ or ‘part of the body’, used here in a locative (seventh case) sense} | ஓர் (ōr): one, a | சிறு (siṟu): small, little, insignificant | கூறு (kūṟu): section, part, portion | அன்று (aṉḏṟu): it is not || ஆல் (āl): by {an instrumental (third case) ending, used here as a poetic expletive}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of Yōga Vāsiṣṭham 5.78.36 and 37:
तत्तु प्रधानम् हृदयं तत्रेदं समवस्थितम् ।
तदादर्शः पदार्थानां तत्कोशः सर्वसम्पदाम् ॥

tattu pradhānam hṛdayaṁ tatrēdaṁ samavasthitam |
tadādarśaḥ padārthānāṁ tatkōśaḥ sarvasampadām ||

सर्वेषामेव जन्तूनां संवित् हृदयमुच्यते ।
न देहावयवैकांशो जडजीर्णोपलोपमः ॥

sarvēṣāmēva jantūnāṁ saṁvit hṛdayamucyatē |
na dēhāvayavaikāṁśō jaḍajīrṇōpalōpamaḥ ||
(வேறு: vēṟu)

Verse 24:

ஆதலினா லறிவுமய மாஞ்சுத்த
     விதயத்தே யகத்தைச் சேர்க்குஞ்
சாதனையால் வாதனைக ளொடுவாயு
     வொடுக்கமுமே சாருந் தானே.

ādaliṉā laṟivumaya māñśuddha
     vidayattē yahattaic cērkkuñ
sādhaṉaiyāl vādaṉaiga ḷoḍuvāyu
     voḍukkamumē sārun tāṉē.


பதச்சேதம்: ஆதலினால், அறிவுமயம் ஆம் சுத்த இதயத்தே அகத்தை சேர்க்கும் சாதனையால், வாதனைகளோடு வாயு ஒடுக்கமுமே சாரும் தானே.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ādaliṉāl, aṟivumayam ām śuddha idayattē ahattai sērkkum sādhaṉaiyāl, vādaṉaigaḷoḍu vāyu oḍukkamumē sārum tāṉē.

அன்வயம்: ஆதலினால், அறிவுமயம் ஆம் சுத்த இதயத்தே அகத்தை சேர்க்கும் சாதனையால், வாதனைகளோடு வாயு ஒடுக்கமுமே தானே சாரும்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ādaliṉāl, aṟivumayam ām śuddha idayattē ahattai sērkkum sādhaṉaiyāl, vādaṉaigaḷoḍu vāyu oḍukkamumē tāṉē sārum.

English translation: Therefore by the means of fixing the mind in the pure heart, which is composed of awareness, complete dissolution of breath along with inclinations will be achieved automatically.

Explanatory paraphrase: Therefore by the sādhana [means or steady and persistent practice] of fixing the mind [attention] in the pure heart, which is composed of awareness [the clear, infinite and eternal awareness ‘I am’], complete [and hence permanent] dissolution [or cessation] of vāyu [breath, prāṇa or life] along with vāsanās [inclinations, namely viṣaya-vāsanās, inclinations to seek happiness in anything other than oneself] will be achieved automatically [or spontaneously].

Padavurai (word-explanation): ஆதலினால் (ādaliṉāl): by being, therefore {an instrumental (third case) form of the verbal noun ādal, ‘being’} | அறிவுமயம் (aṟivumayam): consisting of awareness, composed of awareness {aṟivu means ‘knowledge’ or ‘awareness’, and mayam is a Tamil form of the Sanskrit suffix maya, which means ‘made of’, ‘composed of’, ‘consisting of’ or ‘full of’} | ஆம் (ām): which is {adjectival participle} | சுத்த (śuddha): pure, clean, clear | இதயத்தே (idayattē): in the heart {an intensified form of idayattu, the inflectional base of idayam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit hṛdaya, ‘heart’, used here in a locative (seventh case) sense} | அகத்தை (ahattai): mind, ego {accusative (second case) form of aham, a Tamil word that means ‘inside’, ‘heart’, ‘mind’ or ‘ego’} | சேர்க்கும் (sērkkum): joining, attaching, tying, fastening, securing, fixing, gathering, restoring, incorporating {adjectival participle modifying the next word, sādhaṉaiyāl, so ‘sērkkum sādhaṉaiyāl’ means ‘by the fixing means’, ‘by the means which is fixing’ or ‘by the means of fixing’} | சாதனையால் (sādhaṉaiyāl): by the means, by persistent practice {instrumental (third case) form of sādhaṉai, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit sādhana, which means ‘means’ but is often used in the sense of ‘steady and persistent practice’, particularly spiritual practice, because such practice is the means to achieve an aim} | வாதனைகளோடு (vādaṉaigaḷoḍu): with inclinations, along with inclinations, together with inclinations {a sociative (third case) form of vādaṉaigaḷ, the plural of vādaṉai, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit vāsanā, ‘inclination’} | வாயு (vāyu): wind, air, breath, prāṇa, life | ஒடுக்கமுமே (oḍukkamumē): complete dissolution, cessation {oḍukkam means ‘dissolution’ or ‘cessation’; um is a suffix that in this context implies completeness, totality or entirety; and ē is an intensifying suffix} | சாரும் (sārum): will be reached, achieved {though active in form, ‘will reach’ or ‘will achieve’, this verb is used here as an agentless middle voice (which in English can be used only with a few verbs, such as ‘break’, as in ‘the window broke’), so its sense can best be conveyed in English by the passive voice} | தானே (tāṉē): by itself, automatically, spontaneously {an intensified form of tāṉ, ‘itself’, which is used here in an adverbial sense, ‘by itself’, ‘automatically’ or ‘spontaneously’}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of Yōga Vāsiṣṭham 5.78.38:
तस्मात्संविन्मये शुद्धे हृदये हृतवासनः ।
बलान्नियोजिते चित्ते प्राणस्पन्दो निरुध्यते ॥

tasmātsaṁvinmayē śuddhē hṛdayē hṛtavāsanaḥ |
balānniyōjitē cittē prāṇaspandō nirudhyatē ||
(வெண்பா: veṇbā)

Verse 25:

அகில வுபாதி யகன்ற வறிவே
தகமச் சிவமென் றனிச — மகத்தே
யகலாத் தியான மதனா லகத்தி
னகிலவா சத்தி யகற்று.

akhila vupādhi yahaṉḏṟa vaṟivē
dahamac śivameṉ ḏṟaṉiśa — mahattē
yahalāt dhiyāṉa madaṉā lahatti
ṉakhilavā catti yahaṯṟu.


பதச்சேதம்: ‘அகில உபாதி அகன்ற அறிவு ஏது, அகம் அச் சிவம்’ என்று அனிசம் அகத்தே அகலா தியானம் அதனால், அகத்தின் அகில ஆசத்தி அகற்று.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ‘akhila upādhi ahaṉḏṟa aṟivu ēdu, aham a-c-śivam’ eṉḏṟu aṉiśam ahattē ahalā dhiyāṉam adaṉāl, ahattiṉ akhila āsatti ahaṯṟu.

அன்வயம்: ‘அகில உபாதி அகன்ற அறிவு ஏது, அச் சிவம் அகம்’ என்று அனிசம் அகத்தே அகலா தியானம் அதனால், அகத்தின் அகில ஆசத்தி அகற்று.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ‘akhila upādhi ahaṉḏṟa aṟivu ēdu, a-c-śivam aham’ eṉḏṟu aṉiśam ahattē ahalā dhiyāṉam adaṉāl, ahattiṉ akhila āsatti ahaṯṟu.

English translation: By incessantly uninterrupted meditation in the heart, ‘What awareness is devoid of every adjunct, that śivam is I’, dispel every attachment of the mind.

Explanatory paraphrase: By incessantly uninterrupted meditation in the heart, ‘What awareness is devoid of every upādhi [adjunct, namely everything that one mistakes oneself to be, thereby limiting oneself and disguising one’s real nature], that śivam [auspicious substance (maṅgala vastu), which is Siva in his ultimate form as the one self-shining awareness-nature (cit-svarūpa), meaning awareness as it actually is] is I’, dispel every attachment of the mind [heart or will].

Padavurai (word-explanation): அகில (akhila): whole, entire, complete, all, every | உபாதி (upādhi): something mistaken to be another thing, substitute, fraud, deception, disguise, false appearance, limitation, adjunct | அகன்ற (ahaṉḏṟa): left, devoid of {past adjectival participle of ahal, ‘leave’, ‘depart’, ‘vanish’ or ‘separate’, so it literally means ‘from which [they] have left’ and therefore implies ‘which is devoid of’} | அறிவு (aṟivu): awareness | ஏது (ēdu): what {interrogative pronoun used to indicate the referent of a subsequent demonstrative, namely a, ‘that’, in a-c-śivam, ‘that śivam’} | அகம் (aham): I | அ (a): that {distal demonstrative prefix, referring here to ‘aṟivu ēdu’, ‘what awareness’, in the previous clause} | சிவம் (śivam): goodness, benevolence, auspiciousness, auspicious substance or reality (maṅgala vastu), Siva in his ultimate form as the one self-shining awareness-nature (cit-svarūpa) | என்று (eṉḏṟu): saying {an adverbial participle implying ‘that’, ‘thus’ or ‘as’, and in this case serving the same function as inverted commas in English} | அனிசம் (aṉisam): incessantly, ceaselessly, always {adverb, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit aniśam} | அகத்தே (ahattē): in the heart {intensified form of ahattu, the inflectional base of aham, ‘heart’, used here in a locative (seventh case) sense} | அகலா (ahalā): not leaving, not separating, uninterrupted {negative adjectival participle} | தியானம் (dhiyāṉam): meditation, contemplation {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit dhyāna} | அதனால் (adaṉāl): by that {an instrumental (third case) form of adu, ‘that’, serving here as an instrumental case-marking suffix appended to dhiyāṉam} | அகத்தின் (ahattiṉ): of the heart, mind or will {a genitive (sixth case) form of aham, ‘heart’} | அகில (akhila): whole, entire, complete, all, every | ஆசத்தி (āsatti): attachment, clinging {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit āsakti} | அகற்று (ahaṯṟu): remove, dispel, expel, banish {root of this verb used here as an imperative; causative of ahal, ‘leave’, ‘depart’, ‘vanish’ or ‘separate’}.

Note: This verse is one of Bhagavan’s two adaptations of verse 47 of Dēvikālōttara – Jñāṉācāra-Vicāra-Paṭalam:
सर्वोपाधिविनिर्मुक्तं चिद्रूपं यन्निरन्तरम् ।
तच्छिवोऽहमिति ध्यात्वा सर्वासक्तिं विवर्जयेत् ॥

sarvōpādhivinirmuktaṁ cidrūpaṁ yannirantaram |
tacchivō’hamiti dhyātvā sarvāsaktiṁ vivarjayēt ||
In his translation of that entire chapter (paṭalam) he translated the same verse as follows:
சருவ வுபாதியுஞ் சாரா துளசித்
துருவ மெதுவொன் றுளது — நிரந்தர
மந்தச் சிவமகமென் றன்பாற் றியானித்தே
யெந்தவா சத்தியுநீ யெற்று.

saruva vupādhiyuñ sārā duḷacit
turuva meduvoṉ ḏṟuḷadu — nirantara
mandac śivamahameṉ ḏṟaṉbāṟ ṟiyāṉittē
yendavā sattiyunī yeṯṟu.


பதச்சேதம்: சருவ உபாதியும் சாராது உள சித்து உருவம் எது ஒன்று உளது, நிரந்தரம் அந்த சிவம் அகம் என்று அன்பால் தியானித்தே, எந்த ஆசத்தியும் நீ எற்று.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): saruva upādhiyum sārādu uḷa cittu uruvam edu oṉḏṟu uḷadu, nirantaram anda śivam aham eṉḏṟu aṉbāl dhiyāṉittē, enda āsattiyum nī eṯṟu.

அன்வயம்: ‘சருவ உபாதியும் சாராது உள சித்து உருவம் எது ஒன்று உளது, அந்த சிவம் அகம்’ என்று நிரந்தரம் அன்பால் தியானித்தே, எந்த ஆசத்தியும் நீ எற்று.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ‘saruva upādhiyum sārādu uḷa cittu uruvam edu oṉḏṟu uḷadu, anda śivam aham’ eṉḏṟu nirantaram aṉbāl dhiyāṉittē, enda āsattiyum nī eṯṟu.

English translation: Incessantly meditating with love, ‘What one existing awareness-nature exists unconnected with all adjuncts, that śivam is I’, sever you each and every attachment.

Explanatory paraphrase: Incessantly meditating with love, ‘What one existing cit-uruvam [the one whose form or nature is pure being-awareness (sat-cit-svarūpa), ‘I am’] exists unconnected with all upādhis [adjuncts], that śivam [auspicious substance (maṅgala vastu), which is Siva in his ultimate form as the one self-shining awareness-nature (cit-svarūpa)] is I’, [may] you sever [cast away or destroy] each and every attachment.
In the kaliveṇbā version of this verse, before the first words, ‘சருவ உபாதியும்’ (saruva upādhiyum), ‘all adjuncts’, Bhagavan added an adjectival (or relative) clause, ‘அகம் சேர்’ (aham sēr), ‘I-joined’ or ‘I-mixed’, which implies ‘which are conflated with I [thereby forming ego, the false awareness ‘I am these adjuncts’]’, and he changed the final word, the imperative ‘எற்று’ (eṯṟu), ‘sever’, ‘cast away’ or ‘destroy’, to ‘எற்றுதி’ (eṯṟudi), which an optative form of the same verb, ‘may you sever’, so this kaliveṇbā version means:
Incessantly meditating with love, ‘What one existing awareness-nature [pure being-awareness, ‘I am’] exists unconnected with all I-mixed adjuncts [that is, with all adjuncts that are mixed and conflated with ‘I’, thereby forming ego, the false awareness ‘I am these adjuncts’], that śivam is I’, may you sever [cast away or destroy] each and every attachment.
Padavurai (word-explanation): அகம் (aham): I | சேர் (sēr): join, unite, mix, mingle, blend, conflate {the root of this verb used here as an adjectival participle, ‘mixed’, ‘mingled’ or ‘conflated’} | சருவ (saruva): all {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit sarva} | உபாதியும் (upādhi-y-um): something mistaken to be another thing, substitute, fraud, deception, disguise, false appearance, limitation, adjunct {in this context the suffix um implies completeness, totality or entirety, and therefore complements and emphasises the meaning of saruva, ‘all’} | சாராது (sārādu): not connected with (negative adverbial participle) | உள (uḷa): being, existing, which exists {adjectival participle, poetic abbreviation of uḷḷa} | சித்து (cittu): awareness {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit cit} | உருவம் (uruvam): form, nature {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit rūpa}| எது (edu): what {interrogative pronoun used to indicate the referent of a subsequent demonstrative, namely anda, ‘that’, in anda-c-śivam, ‘that śivam’} | ஒன்று (oṉḏṟu): one {noun} | உளது (uḷadu): is, exists {a poetic abbreviation of uḷḷadu, the neuter third person singular form of the tenseless verb uḷ, ‘be’ or ‘exist’} | நிரந்தரம் (nirantaram): incessantly, uninterruptedly, constantly | அந்த (anda): that {demonstrative adjective, referring here to ‘uḷa cittu uruvam edu oṉḏṟu’, ‘what one existing awareness-nature’, in the previous clause} | சிவம் (śivam): goodness, benevolence, auspiciousness, auspicious substance or reality (maṅgala vastu), Siva in his ultimate form as the one self-shining awareness-nature (cit-svarūpa) | அகம் (aham): I | என்று (eṉḏṟu): saying {an adverbial participle implying ‘that’, ‘thus’ or ‘as’, and in this case serving the same function as inverted commas in English} | அன்பால் (aṉbāl): by love, with love {an instrumental (third case) form of aṉbu, ‘love’} | தியானித்தே (dhiyāṉittē): meditating {an intensified form of dhiyāṉittu, an adverbial participle of dhiyāṉi, a Tamil verb derived from the Sanskrit noun dhyāna, ‘meditation’ or ‘contemplation’} | எந்த (enda): what, which {interrogative adjective used as a quantifier in the sense of ‘whatever’, ‘any’ or ‘each’} | ஆசத்தியும் (āsatti-y-um): attachment, clinging {āsatti is a Tamil form of the Sanskrit āsakti, and in this context the suffix um implies completeness, totality or entirety, so ‘enda āsatti-y-um’ implies ‘any and every attachment’ or ‘each and every attachment’} | நீ (): you | எற்று (eṯṟu): cut off, sever, throw out, cast away, get rid of, kill, destroy {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

(விருத்தம்: viruttam)

Verse 26:

விதவிதமா நிலைகளெலாம் விசாரஞ் செய்து
     மிச்சையறு பரமபதம் யாதொன் றுண்டோ
வதனையே திடமாக வகத்தாற் பற்றி
     யனவரத முலகில்விளை யாடு வீரா
வெதுசகல விதமான தோற்றங் கட்கு
     மெதார்த்தமதா யகத்துளதோ வதைய றிந்தா
யதனாலப் பார்வையினை யகலா தென்று
     மாசைபோ லுலகில்விளை யாடு வீரா.

vidhavidhamā nilaigaḷelām vicārañ ceydu
     miccaiyaṟu paramapadam yādoṉ ḏṟuṇḍō
vadaṉaiyē diḍhamāha vahattāṯ paṯṟi
     yaṉavarata mulahilviḷai yāḍu vīrā
vedusakala vidhamāṉa tōṯṟaṅ gaṭku
     methārtthamadā yahattuḷadō vadaiya ṟindā
yadaṉālap pārvaiyiṉai yahalā deṉḏṟu
     māśaipō lulahilviḷai yāḍu vīrā.


பதச்சேதம்: விதவிதம் ஆம் நிலைகள் எலாம் விசாரம் செய்து, மிச்சை அறு பரமபதம் யாது ஒன்று உண்டோ, அதனையே திடமாக அகத்தால் பற்றி அனவரதம், உலகில் விளையாடு வீரா. எது சகலவிதமான தோற்றங்கட்கும் எதார்த்தம் அதாய் அகத்து உளதோ, அதை அறிந்தாய் அதனால், அப் பார்வையினை அகலாது என்றும், ஆசை போல் உலகில் விளையாடு வீரா.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): vidha-vidham ām nilaigaḷ elām vicāram seydu, miccai aṟu parama-padam yādu oṉḏṟu uṇḍō, adaṉaiyē diḍham-āha ahattāl paṯṟi aṉavaratam, ulahil viḷaiyāḍu vīrā. edu sakala-vidham-āṉa tōṯṟaṅgaṭkum ethārttham-adāy ahattu uḷadō, adai aṟindāy adaṉāl, a-p-pārvaiyiṉai ahalādu eṉḏṟum, āśai pōl ulahil viḷaiyāḍu vīrā.

அன்வயம்: வீரா, விதவிதம் ஆம் நிலைகள் எலாம் விசாரம் செய்து, யாது பரமபதம் ஒன்று மிச்சை அறு உண்டோ, அதனையே அகத்தால் அனவரதம் திடமாக பற்றி, உலகில் விளையாடு. வீரா, சகலவிதமான தோற்றங்கட்கும் எதார்த்தம் அதாய் எது அகத்து உளதோ, அதை அறிந்தாய் அதனால், அப் பார்வையினை என்றும் அகலாது, ஆசை போல் உலகில் விளையாடு.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): vīrā, vidha-vidham ām nilaigaḷ elām vicāram seydu, yādu parama-padam oṉḏṟu miccai aṟu uṇḍō, adaṉaiyē ahattāl aṉavaratam diḍham-āha paṯṟi, ulahil viḷaiyāḍu. vīrā, sakala-vidham-āṉa tōṯṟaṅgaṭkum ethārttham-adāy edu ahattu uḷadō, adai aṟindāy adaṉāl, a-p-pārvaiyiṉai eṉḏṟum ahalādu, āśai pōl ulahil viḷaiyāḍu.

English translation: Having investigated all states, which are of many kinds, what one exists devoid of falsity, the supreme state, incessantly holding that alone firmly by heart, play in the world, hero. What exists in the heart as the reality for all kinds of appearances, since you have known that, without ever abandoning that view, play in the world, hero, as if desirous.

Explanatory paraphrase: [Vasistha said to Rama:] Having investigated [examined or carefully considered] all states, which are of many kinds, what one [state] exists devoid of falsity [deceit or deception], [namely] paramapadam [the supreme state, which is the one real state of pure being-awareness (sat-cit), which is what shines eternally in the heart as ‘I am’], incessantly holding only that [supreme state of pure being-awareness, ‘I am’] firmly by heart [or mind], play in the world, hero. What exists in the heart as the reality for all kinds of appearances [namely sat-cit, which alone is what actually exists, and which is therefore the one fundamental reality that underlies and supports the appearance or seeming existence of all other things], since you have known that [the one underlying reality], without ever abandoning that view [namely that clear awareness of the one infinite, indivisible and immutable reality that underlies all appearances], play in the world, hero, as if [having] desire [appropriate to whatever role you play in life, such as the desire to uphold dharma or righteousness, which is the duty of a prince or king].

Padavurai (word-explanation): விதவிதம் (vidha-vidham): kind-kind, sort-sort, of many kinds, of various sorts | ஆம் (ām): which are {adjectival participle} | நிலைகள் (nilaigaḷ): states {plural of nilai, ‘state’ or ‘condition’} | எலாம் (elām): all {poetic abbreviation of ellām} | விசாரஞ்செய்து (vicārañ-ceydu): investigating, examining, carefully considering, having investigated, having carefully considered {compound of vicāram, a noun that means ‘investigation’, ‘examination’ or ‘careful consideration’, and seydu, an adverbial participle that means ‘doing’ or ‘having done’} | மிச்சை (miccai): falsity, deceit, deception {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit mithyā} | அறு (aṟu): be severed, be cut off, break, cease, perish {the root of this verb used here in the sense of an adjectival participle meaning ‘in which it [falsity] is cut off’, thereby implying ‘without’ or ‘devoid of’} | பரமபதம் (parama-padam): supreme state, ultimate state {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit paramapada, a compound of parama, ‘supreme’, ‘highest’ or ‘ultimate’, and pada, ‘position’, ‘place’, ‘abode’ or ‘state’} | யாது (yādu): what {interrogative pronoun used to indicate the referent of a subsequent demonstrative, namely adaṉaiyē, ‘that alone’} | ஒன்று (oṉḏṟu): one {noun} | உண்டோ (uṇḍō): is, exists {uṇdu is a finite verb that denotes existence and that is used for all persons, all genders and both singular and plural (so in many cases it can be translated as ‘there is’ or ‘there are’), and the suffix ō serves a syntactic function, marking the end of the clause containing yādu, ‘what’, to which the demonstrative adaṉaiyē, ‘that alone’, in the next clause refers} | அதனையே (adaṉaiyē): that alone, only that {an intensified form of adaṉai, an accusative (second case) form of the singular distal demonstrative pronoun, adu, ‘that’, referring here to ‘yādu oṉḏṟu’, ‘what one’, in the previous clause} | திடமாக (diḍham-āha): firmly {diḍham is a Tamil form of the Sanskrit dṛḍha, ‘fixed’, ‘firm’ or ‘solid’, and āha is an infinitive that is often used as an adverbial suffix} | அகத்தால் (ahattāl): by heart, by mind {an instrumental (third case) form of aham, ‘heart’ or ‘mind’} | பற்றி (paṯṟi): grasping, seizing, holding, clinging {adverbial participle} | அனவரதம் (aṉavaratam): incessantly, uninterruptedly, continuously {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit anavarata} | உலகில் (ulahil): in the world {locative (seventh case) form of ulahu, ‘world’} | விளையாடு (viḷaiyāḍu): play {the root of this verb used here as an imperative} | வீரா (vīrā): hero {a vocative (eighth case) form of vīraṉ [a Tamil form of the Sanskrit vīra], ‘hero’ or ‘warrior’, here used by Vasistha to address Prince Rama} || எது (edu): what {interrogative pronoun used to indicate the referent of a subsequent demonstrative, namely adai, ‘that’} | சகலவிதமான (sakala-vidham-āṉa): which are of all kinds, all kinds of {compound of sakala, ‘all’, vidham [a Tamil form of the Sanskrit vidha], ‘kind’ or ‘sort’, and āṉa, an adjectival participle that means ‘being’, ‘which is’ or ‘which are’} | தோற்றங்கட்கும் (tōṯṟaṅgaṭkum): for all appearances {tōṯṟaṅgaṭku is a dative (fourth case) form of tōṯṟaṅgaḷ, the plural of tōṯṟam, ‘appearance’, and in this context the suffix um implies completeness, totality or entirety, thereby complementing and emphasising the meaning of sakala-vidham-āṉa, ‘all kinds of’} | எதார்த்தம் (ethārttham): real, actual, what is real, reality {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit yathārtha} | அதாய் (adāy): as that {adu is a demonstrative pronoun that means ‘that’, and āy is an adverbial participle that means ‘being’ or ‘as’, but here adāy (as that) is used as a suffix to ethārttham (reality), so ethārttham-adāy means ‘as the reality’} | அகத்து (ahattu): in the heart {the inflectional base of aham, ‘heart’, used here in a locative (seventh case) sense} | உளதோ (uḷadō): is, exists {uḷadu is a poetic abbreviation of uḷḷadu, the neuter third person singular form of the tenseless verb uḷ, ‘be’ or ‘exist’, and the suffix ō serves a syntactic function, marking the end of the clause beginning edu, ‘what’, to which the demonstrative adai, ‘that’, in the next clause refers} | அதை (adai): that {an accusative (second case) form of the singular distal demonstrative pronoun, adu, ‘that’, referring here to edu, ‘what’, the first word of the previous clause} | அறிந்தாய் (aṟindāy): you have known | அதனால் (adaṉāl): by that, because, since {an instrumental (third case) form of adu, ‘that’} | அ (a): that {distal demonstrative prefix} | பார்வையினை (pārvaiyiṉai): look, sight, vision, view, viewpoint, perspective {an accusative (second case) form of pārvai, ‘sight’ or ‘view’} | அகலாது (ahalādu): not leaving, not forsaking, not abandoning {negative adverbial participle of ahal, ‘to leave’ or ‘separate’} | என்றும் (eṉḏṟum): ever, always | ஆசை (āsai): desire, wish, hope {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit āśā} | போல் (pōl): like, resembling, as if | உலகில் (ulahil): in the world | விளையாடு (viḷaiyāḍu): play | வீரா (vīrā): hero.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of Yōga Vāsiṣṭham 5.18.20 and 23:
प्रविचार्य दशः सर्वा यदतुच्छं परं पदम् ।
तदेव भावनालम्ब्य लोके विहर राघव ॥

pravicārya daśaḥ sarvā yadatucchaṁ paraṁ padam |
tadēva bhāvanālambya lōkē vihara rāghava ||

ज्ञातवानसि सर्वेषां भावानां सम्यगन्तरम् ।
यथेच्छसि तथा दृष्ठ्या लोके विहर राघव ॥

jñātavānasi sarvēṣāṁ bhāvānāṁ samyagantaram |
yathēcchasi tathā dṛṣṭhyā lōkē vihara rāghava ||
Verse 27:

போலிமன வெழுச்சிமகிழ் வுற்றோ னாகிப்
     போலிமனப் பதைப்புவெறுப் புற்றோ னாகிப்
போலிமுயல் வாந்தொடக்க முற்றோ னாகிப்
     புரையிலனா யுலகில்விளை யாடு வீரா
மாலெனும்பல் கட்டுவிடு பட்டோ னாகி
     மன்னுசம னாகியெல்லா நிலைமைக் கண்ணும்
வேலைகள்வே டத்தியைவ வெளியிற் செய்து
     வேண்டியவா றுலகில்விளை யாடு வீரா.

pōlimaṉa veṙuccimahiṙ vuṯṟō ṉāhip
     pōlimaṉap padaippuveṟup puṯṟō ṉāhip
pōlimuyal vāndoḍakka muṯṟō ṉāhip
     puraiyilaṉā yulahilviḷai yāḍu vīrā
māleṉumbal kaṭṭuviḍu paṭṭō ṉāhi
     maṉṉusama ṉāhiyellā nilaimaik kaṇṇum
vēlaigaḷvē ḍattiyaiva veḷiyiṯ ceydu
     vēṇḍiyavā ṟulahilviḷai yāḍu vīrā.


பதச்சேதம்: போலி மன எழுச்சி மகிழ்வு உற்றோன் ஆகி, போலி மன பதைப்பு வெறுப்பு உற்றோன் ஆகி, போலி முயல்வு ஆம் தொடக்கம் உற்றோன் ஆகி, புரை இலன் ஆய் உலகில் விளையாடு வீரா. மால் எனும் பல் கட்டு விடுபட்டோன் ஆகி, மன்னு சமன் ஆகி எல்லா நிலைமைக்கண்ணும், வேலைகள் வேடத்து இயைவ வெளியில் செய்து, வேண்டியவாறு உலகில் விளையாடு வீரா.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): pōli maṉa eṙucci mahiṙvu uṯṟōṉ āhi, pōli maṉa padaippu veṟuppu uṯṟōṉ āhi, pōli muyalvu ām toḍakkam uṯṟōṉ āhi, purai ilaṉ āy ulahil viḷaiyāḍu vīrā. māl eṉum pal kaṭṭu viḍupaṭṭōṉ āhi, maṉṉu samaṉ āhi ellā nilaimaikkaṇṇum, vēlaigaḷ vēḍattu iyaiva veḷiyil seydu, vēṇḍiyavāṟu ulahil viḷaiyāḍu vīrā.

அன்வயம்: வீரா, மன போலி எழுச்சி மகிழ்வு உற்றோன் ஆகி, மன போலி பதைப்பு வெறுப்பு உற்றோன் ஆகி, போலி முயல்வு ஆம் தொடக்கம் உற்றோன் ஆகி, புரை இலன் ஆய் உலகில் விளையாடு. வீரா, மால் எனும் பல் கட்டு விடுபட்டோன் ஆகி, எல்லா நிலைமைக்கண்ணும் மன்னு சமன் ஆகி, வெளியில் வேடத்து இயைவ வேலைகள் செய்து, வேண்டியவாறு உலகில் விளையாடு.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): vīrā, maṉa pōli eṙucci mahiṙvu uṯṟōṉ āhi, maṉa pōli padaippu veṟuppu uṯṟōṉ āhi, pōli muyalvu ām toḍakkam uṯṟōṉ āhi, purai ilaṉ āy ulahil viḷaiyāḍu. vīrā, māl eṉum pal kaṭṭu viḍupaṭṭōṉ āhi, ellā nilaimaikkaṇṇum maṉṉu samaṉ āhi, veḷiyil vēḍattu iyaiva vēlaigaḷ seydu, vēṇḍiyavāṟu ulahil viḷaiyāḍu.

English translation: Being one who has seeming rising of mind and delight, being one who has seeming agitation of mind and aversion, being one who has seeming effortful initiative, being one who is devoid of defects, play in the world, hero. Being one who is freed from the many ties called delusion, being one who is steadily equanimous in all circumstances, doing actions on the outside to suit the disguise, play in the world as required, hero.

Explanatory paraphrase: [Vasistha continued:] Being one who seemingly has rising of mind and delight [joy or pleasure in worldly matters], being one who seemingly has agitation [anxiety or impatience] of mind and aversion [dislike, disgust, hatred or enmity], [and] being one who seemingly has effortful initiative [that is, one who seemingly initiates and strives with persistent effort in worldly undertakings], [but nevertheless] being one who is [actually] devoid of [all such] defects, play in the world, hero. Being one who is freed from the many ties called delusion [that is, the many ties, attachments or bondages that give rise to delusion, confusion, darkness (lack of clarity of mind and heart) and consequently desire], [and] being one who is steadily [or permanently] equanimous [equal, impartial, even, calm, tranquil or dispassionate] in all circumstances, [but nevertheless] doing actions on the outside to suit the disguise [that is, outwardly engaging in activities appropriate to your disguise or external roles in this life], play in the world as required [in accordance with each situation], hero.

Padavurai (word-explanation): போலி (pōli): seeming, imitated, feigned, false, spurious {a noun used here as an adjective derived from pōl, a verb that means ‘resemble’ or ‘be like’} | மனவெழுச்சிமகிழ்வு (maṉa-v-eṙucci-mahiṙvu ): mind-rising-delight, rising and delight of mind, rising of mind and delight {compound of maṉam (a Tamil form of the Sanskrit manas), ‘mind’, eṙucci, ‘rising’, and mahiṙvu, ‘joy’, ‘pleasure’ or ‘delight’} | உற்றோன் (uṯṟōṉ): one who experiences, one who undergoes, one to whom [something] happens, one who is associated with, one who has {third person singular participial noun} | ஆகி (āhi): being, as {adverbial participle} | போலி (pōli): seeming | மனப்பதைப்புவெறுப்பு (maṉa-p-padaippu-veṟupp ): mind-agitation-aversion, agitation and aversion of mind, agitation of mind and aversion, mental agitation and aversion {compound of maṉam, ‘mind’, padaippu, ‘agitation’, ‘anxiety’ or ‘impatience’, and veṟuppu, ‘dislike’, ‘aversion’, ‘disgust’, ‘hatred’ or ‘enmity’} | உற்றோன் (uṯṟōṉ): one who has | ஆகி (āhi): being | போலி (pōli): seeming | முயல்வாம் (muyalvām): effortful, striving, persistent {an adjective formed from muyalvu, a noun that means ‘effort’, ‘endeavour’, ‘striving’ or ‘perseverance’, and ām, an adjectival participle that means ‘being’ or ‘which is’} | தொடக்கம் (toḍakkam): beginning, commencing, undertaking, attempting, initiative | உற்றோன் (uṯṟōṉ): one who has | ஆகி (āhi): being | புரை (purai): defect, blemish, fault, falsehood | இலன் (ilaṉ): one who is without, one who is devoid of | ஆய் (āy): being, as {adverbial participle} | உலகில் (ulahil): in the world | விளையாடு (viḷaiyāḍu): play | வீரா (vīrā): hero || மால் (māl): delusion, confusion, darkness, desire | எனும் (eṉum): called {adjectival participle, a poetic abbreviation of eṉṉum} | பல் (pal): many | கட்டு (kaṭṭu): tie, binding, bondage | விடுபட்டோன் (viḍupaṭṭōṉ): one who is freed, liberated, released {third person singular participial noun} | ஆகி (āhi): being | மன்னு (maṉṉu): enduring, permanent, steady, stable {the root of a verb that means ‘be permanent’, ‘endure’, ‘stay’, ‘persevere’ or ‘be steady’, but that is used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, thereby serving as an adjective to the next word} | சமன் (samaṉ): one who is equanimous, calm, detached {a Tamil personal noun formed from either of two Sanskrit nouns, sama or śama, so it can mean either ‘one who is sama [equal, impartial, even or equanimous]’ or ‘one who is śama [calm, tranquil, peaceful, dispassionate or detached]’} | ஆகி (āhi): being | எல்லா (ellā): all | நிலைமைக்கண்ணும் (nilaimaikkaṇṇum): in all circumstances {nilaimaikkaṇ is a locative (seventh case) form of nilaimai, ‘state’, ‘condition’, ‘situation’ or ‘circumstance’, and in this context the suffix um implies completeness, totality or entirety, thereby complementing and emphasising the meaning of ellā, ‘all’, so ‘ellā nilaimaikkaṇṇum’ means ‘in all circumstances’} | வேலைகள் (vēlaigaḷ): tasks, actions, activities {plural of vēlai, ‘work’, ‘labour’, ‘task’ or ‘business’} | வேடத்து (vēḍattu): clothes, dress, attire, costume, disguise {inflectional base of vēḍam (a Tamil form of the Sanskrit vēṣa), used here as an oblique or indefinite case} | இயைவ (iyaiva): to agree, to harmonise, to suit, to be compatible, to be appropriate {infinitive} | வெளியில் (veḷiyil): outside, in the outside, on the outside {a locative (seventh case) form of veḷi, ‘outside’, ‘space’ or ‘open space’} | செய்து (seydu): doing {adverbial participle} | வேண்டியவாறு (vēṇḍiyavāṟu): in the way required, as required, as needed, as necessary {compound of vēṇḍiya, an adjectival participle that means ‘needed’, ‘required’ or ‘necessary’, and āṟu, a noun that means ‘river’, ‘way’, ‘road’ or ‘path’, but that is often used as an adverbial suffix meaning ‘in the way’, ‘in the manner’ or ‘as’, as in this case} | உலகில் (ulahil): in the world | விளையாடு (viḷaiyāḍu): play | வீரா (vīrā): hero.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of Yōga Vāsiṣṭham 5.18.24 and 26:
कृत्रिमोल्लास हर्षस्थः कृ कृत्रिमोद्वेगगर्हणः ।
कृत्रिमारम्भसंरम्भो लोके विहर राघव ॥

kṛtrimōllāsa harṣasthaḥ kṛtrimōdvēgagarhaṇaḥ |
kṛtrimārambhasaṁrambhō lōkē vihara rāghava ||

आशापाशशतोन्मुक्तः समः सर्वासु वृत्तिषु ।
बहिः प्रकृतिकार्यस्थो लोके विहर राघव ॥

āśāpāśaśatōnmuktaḥ samaḥ sarvāsu vṛttiṣu |
bahiḥ prakṛtikāryasthō lōkē vihara rāghava ||
(வெண்பா: veṇbā)

Verse 28:

அறிவுண்மை நிட்டனா மான்மவித் தாவா
னறிவாற் புலன்செற்றா னார்தா — னறிவங்கி
யாவனறி வாங்குலிசத் தான்கால காலனவன்
சாவினைமாய் வீரனெனச் சாற்று.

aṟivuṇmai niṭṭaṉā māṉmavit tāvā
ṉaṟivāṟ pulaṉceṯṟā ṉārtā — ṉaṟivaṅgi
yāvaṉaṟi vāṅkuliśat tāṉkāla kālaṉavaṉ
cāviṉaimāy vīraṉeṉac cāṯṟu.


பதச்சேதம்: அறிவு உண்மை நிட்டன் ஆம் ஆன்ம வித்து ஆவான் அறிவால் புலன் செற்றான் ஆர் தான்; அறிவு அங்கி ஆவன்; அறிவு ஆம் குலிசத்தான்; காலகாலன் அவன் சாவினை மாய் வீரன் என சாற்று.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): aṟivu uṇmai niṭṭaṉ ām āṉma-vittu āvāṉ aṟivāl pulaṉ seṯṟāṉ ār tāṉ; aṟivu aṅgi āvaṉ; aṟivu ām kuliśattāṉ; kāla-kālaṉ avaṉ sāviṉai māy vīraṉ eṉa sāṯṟu.

அன்வயம்: அறிவால் புலன் செற்றான், உண்மை அறிவு நிட்டன் ஆம் ஆர் தான் ஆன்ம வித்து ஆவான்; அறிவு அங்கி ஆவன்; அறிவு ஆம் குலிசத்தான்; காலகாலன் அவன் சாவினை மாய் வீரன் என சாற்று.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): aṟivāl pulaṉ seṯṟāṉ, uṇmai aṟivu niṭṭaṉ ām ār tāṉ āṉma-vittu āvāṉ; aṟivu aṅgi āvaṉ; aṟivu ām kuliśattāṉ; kāla-kālaṉ avaṉ sāviṉai māy vīraṉ eṉa sāṯṟu.

English translation: Whoever is one who has destroyed the senses by knowledge, one who is fixed firmly as existence-awareness, is a self-knower; he is the fire of knowledge; one who wields the thunderbolt that is knowledge; declare that he, Kalakalan, is the hero who has killed death.

Explanatory paraphrase: Whoever is one who has destroyed [killed, conquered or vanquished] the [five] senses by aṟivu [knowledge, awareness or jñāna, namely clear awareness of oneself as one actually is], one who is [thereby] fixed firmly as uṇmai-aṟivu [existence-awareness or sat-cit], is ātma-vid [a self-knower, namely one who knows oneself as one actually is]; he is aṟivaṅgi [aṟivu-aṅgi, the fire of knowledge or jñānāgni]; [he is] one who wields the thunderbolt that is knowledge [namely jñāna-vajrāyudha, the divine weapon of jñāna, which destroys ignorance (namely ego) and all its effects]; declare that he, Kalakalan [Lord Siva, who is kāla-kāla, ‘death to death’], is the hero who has killed death.

Padavurai (word-explanation): அறிவு (aṟivu): knowledge, awareness | உண்மை (uṇmai): is-ness, being, existence, reality {an abstract noun derived from the tenseless verb uḷ, ‘be’ or ‘exist’, and the suffix mai, which means the same as the English suffix ‘ness’, so uḷ-mai (which becomes uṇmai according to the Tamil rules of puṇarcci [euphonic coalescence or sandhi]) etymologically means ‘be-ness’, ‘is-ness’ or ‘existence’, and is therefore used to mean what is real, actual or true} | நிட்டன் (niṭṭaṉ): one who is fixed, firm, steady, steadfast {a personal noun formed from niṭṭai, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit niṣṭhā, ‘fixity’, ‘firmness’, ‘steadiness’ or ‘steadfastness’} | ஆம் (ām): is {third person neuter singular future form of ā, ‘to be’ (see explanation of āvāṉ below)} | ஆன்மவித்து (āṉma-vittu): self-knower, one who knows themself as they actually are {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit ātma-vid} | ஆவான் (āvāṉ): will be, is {third person masculine singular future form of ā, ‘to be’, but in Tamil the ‘future’ tense can be understood more accurately to be a predictive mode, because it is used broadly to express what is to be expected as being typically, predictably or certainly the case, not only in future but also at present, so it is often used in cases where the present tense would be used in English} | அறிவால் (aṟivāl): by knowledge, by awareness {instrumental (third case) form of aṟivu, ‘knowledge’ or ‘awareness’} | புலன் (pulaṉ): sense {a singular noun but referring here to all five senses collectively} | செற்றான் (seṯṟāṉ): one who has killed, destroyed | ஆர்தான் (ār-tāṉ): who, whoever {ār means ‘who’ and tāṉ is used here as an intensifier} || அறிவங்கி (aṟivaṅgi): knowledge-fire, fire of knowledge {compound of aṟivu, ‘knowledge’ or ‘awareness’, and aṅgi [a Tamil form of the Sanskrit agni], ‘fire’} | ஆவன் (āvāṉ): he is || அறிவு (aṟivu): knowledge, awareness | ஆம் (ām): which is {adjectival participle} | குலிசத்தான் (kulisattāṉ): one who wields the thunderbolt {a personal noun formed from kulisam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit kuliśa, the thunderbolt of Indra, the king of the gods and wielder of the thunderbolt} || காலகாலன் (kāla-kālaṉ): Kalakalan {a name of Lord Siva, meaning ‘one who is death-death’, implying ‘one who is death to death’, the destroyer of death (or destroyer of time), because kāla means ‘time’ or ‘death’, and is therefore a name of Yama, the god of death} | அவன் (avaṉ): he | சாவினை (sāviṉai): death {an accusative (second case) form of sāvu, ‘death’} | மாய் (māy): kill, destroy {the root of this verb used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, ‘who has killed’ or ‘who has destroyed’} | வீரன் (vīraṉ): hero, warrior, brave man, powerful man {a personal noun formed from vīram, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit vīra, ‘hero’}| என (eṉa): that {literally ‘to say’, an infinitive that is often used in an adverbial sense as an alternative to the adverbial participle eṉḏṟu, ‘saying’, which generally serves the same function as ‘that’, ‘thus’, ‘as’ or inverted commas in English} | சாற்று (sāṯṟu): say, announce, declare {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: This verse, which is also included in Guru Vācaka Kōvai as verse B20, is Bhagavan’s adaptation of the following verse, which according to some accounts is from Yōga Vāsiṣṭham, though I have not been able to verify this:
विषयप्रतिसंहारं यः करोति विवेकतः
मृत्योर्मृत्युरितिख्यातः सविद्वानात्मवित्कविः ।
ज्ञानसद्भावसंस्थानः ज्ञानाग्निः ज्ञानवज्रभृत्
मृत्युहन्तेतिविख्यातः महावीरो विमत्सरः ॥

viṣayapratisaṁhāraṁ yaḥ karōti vivēkataḥ
mṛtyōrmṛtyuritikhyātaḥ savidvānātmavitkaviḥ
|
jñānasadbhāvasaṁsthānaḥ jñānāgniḥ jñānavajrabhṛt
mṛtyuhantētivikhyātaḥ mahāvīrō vimatsaraḥ
||
One day (sometime between 1928 and 1931) Bhagavan explained the implication of this Sanskrit verse, and Muruganar recorded his explanation in verse 1030 of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, on seeing which Bhagavan composed this verse.

Verse 29:

தத்துவங் கண்டவற்குத் தாமே வளருமொளி
புத்திவலு வும்வசந்தம் போந்ததுமே — யித்தரையிற்
றாருவழ காதி சகல குணங்களுஞ்
சேர விளங்கலெனத் தேர்.

tattuvaṅ gaṇḍavaṯkut tāmē vaḷarumoḷi
buddhivalu vumvasantam pōndadumē — yittaraiyiṯ
ṟāruvaṙa hādi sakala guṇaṅgaḷuñ
cēra viḷaṅgaleṉat tēr.


பதச்சேதம்: தத்துவம் கண்டவற்கு தாமே வளரும் ஒளி, புத்தி வலுவும், வசந்தம் போந்ததுமே இத் தரையில், தாரு அழகு ஆதி சகல குணங்களும் சேர விளங்கல் என. தேர்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): tattuvam kaṇḍavaṯku tāmē vaḷarum oḷi, buddhi valuvum, vasantam pōndadumē, i-t-dharaiyil dāru aṙahu ādi sakala guṇaṅgaḷum sēra viḷaṅgal eṉa. tēr.

அன்வயம்: இத் தரையில் வசந்தம் போந்ததுமே, தாரு அழகு ஆதி சகல குணங்களும் சேர விளங்கல் என, தத்துவம் கண்டவதற்கு ஒளி, புத்தி வலுவும் தாமே வளரும். தேர்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): i-t-dharaiyil vasantam pōndadumē, dāru aṙahu ādi sakala guṇaṅgaḷum sēra viḷaṅgal eṉa, tattuvam kaṇḍavaṯku oḷi, buddhi valuvum tāmē vaḷarum. tēr.

English translation: Brightness and strength of intellect will increase automatically for those who have seen the reality, just like trees shining with all good qualities such as beauty as soon as spring arrives on this earth. Know.

Explanatory paraphrase: Brightness [brilliance, clarity or wisdom] and strength [power, ability or skill] of intellect will increase automatically [or spontaneously] for those who have seen tattva [what is real, namely ātma-svarūpa, the real nature of oneself], just like trees shining with all good qualities such as beauty as soon as spring arrives on this earth. Know [or understand this].

Padavurai (word-explanation): தத்துவம் (tattuvam): the reality, what is real, what is actual {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit tattva, ‘thatness’ or ‘reality’} | கண்டவற்கு (kaṇḍavaṯku): for those who have seen {a dative (fourth case) form of kaṇḍavar, ‘those who have seen’} | தாமே (tāmē): by themselves, automatically, spontaneously {an intensified form of tām, ‘they’ or ‘themselves’, the plural equivalent of the generic pronoun tāṉ, ‘oneself’ or ‘itself’} | வளரும் (vaḷarum): will grow, will increase | ஒளி (oḷi): light, brightness, brilliance, clarity | புத்திவலுவும் (buddhi-valuvum): and intellect-strength, and strength of intellect {compound of buddhi, ‘intellect’, valu, ‘strength’, ‘power’, ‘ability’ or ‘skill’, and the suffix um, which in this context means ‘and’} | வசந்தம் (vasantam): spring | போந்ததுமே (pōndadumē): as soon as it goes forth, emerges, is born, arrives, surges, spreads | இ (i): this {proximal demonstrative prefix} | தரையில் (dharaiyil): on earth, in the world {a locative (seventh case) form of dharai, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit dharā, ‘earth’ or ‘world’} | தாரு (dāru): tree {though singular in form, dāru is used here as a collective noun, so it is plural in sense} | அழகு (aṙahu): beauty | ஆதி (ādi): beginning with, such as | சகல (sakala): all | குணங்களும் (guṇaṅgaḷum): all good qualities (guṇaṅgaḷ is the plural of guṇam, ‘quality’ or ‘good quality’, and um is a suffix that in this context implies completeness, totality or entirety, thereby complementing and emphasising the meaning of sakala) | சேர (sēra): with {infinitive of sēr, ‘join together’, ‘become united’, ‘become mixed’ or ‘become blended’, used as an adverb, ‘with’, ‘together with’ or ‘along with’} | விளங்கல் (viḷaṅgal): shining, glowing | என (eṉa): like, just like {literally ‘to say’, an infinitive that is sometimes used as a sign of comparison} || தேர் (tēr): investigate, understand, know {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of Yōga Vāsiṣṭham 5.76.20:
बलं बुद्धिश्च तेजश्च दृष्टतत्त्वस्य वर्धते ।
सवसन्तस्य वृक्षस्य सौन्दर्याद्यागुणा इव ॥

balaṁ buddhiśca tējaśca dṛṣṭatattvasya vardhatē |
savasantasya vṛkṣasya saundaryādyāguṇā iva ||
Verse 30:

சேய்மையுளஞ் சென்றுகதை கேட்பார்போல் வாதனைக
டேய்மனஞ்செய் துஞ்செய்யா தேயவைக — டோய்மனஞ்செய்
தின்றேனுஞ் செய்ததே யிங்கசைவற் றுங்கனவிற்
குன்றேறி வீழ்வார் குழி.

sēymaiyuḷañ ceṉḏṟukadai kēṭpārpōl vādaṉaiga
ṭēymaṉañcey duñceyyā dēyavaiga — ṭōymaṉañcey
diṉḏṟēṉuñ ceydadē yiṅgasaivaṯ ṟuṅgaṉaviṯ
kuṉḏṟēṟi vīṙvār kuṙi.


பதச்சேதம்: சேய்மை உளம் சென்று கதை கேட்பார் போல், வாதனைகள் தேய் மனம் செய்தும் செய்யாதே. அவைகள் தோய் மனம் செய்து இன்று ஏனும், செய்ததே; இங்கு அசைவு அற்றும் கனவில் குன்று ஏறி வீழ்வார் குழி.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): sēymai uḷam seṉḏṟu kadai kēṭpār pōl, vādaṉaigaḷ tēy maṉam seydum seyyādē. avaigaḷ tōy maṉam seydu iṉḏṟu ēṉum, seydadē; iṅgu asaivu aṯṟum kaṉavil kuṉḏṟu ēṟi vīṙvār kuṙi.

அன்வயம்: உளம் சேய்மை சென்று கதை கேட்பார் போல், வாதனைகள் தேய் மனம் செய்தும் செய்யாதே. அவைகள் தோய் மனம் செய்து இன்று ஏனும், செய்ததே; இங்கு அசைவு அற்றும் கனவில் குன்று ஏறி குழி வீழ்வார்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): uḷam sēymai seṉḏṟu kadai kēṭpār pōl, vādaṉaigaḷ tēy maṉam seydum seyyādē. avaigaḷ tōy maṉam seydu iṉḏṟu ēṉum, seydadē; iṅgu asaivu aṯṟum kaṉavil kuṉḏṟu ēṟi kuṙi vīṙvār.

English translation: Like those who hear a story, the mind going far away, the mind in which vāsanās have been erased is actually not doing even though doing. The mind that those soak is actually doing even though not doing; even though movement has ceased here, in dream climbing a hill one falls in a pit.

Explanatory paraphrase: Like those who [seemingly] hear a story [even though their] mind [is actually] going far away [and therefore not hearing the story at all], the mind in which [all] vāsanās have been erased is actually not doing [any action at all] even though [in the view of others it seems to be] doing [any number of actions]. [On the other hand] the mind that those soak [that is, the mind that is soaked or drenched with vāsanās] is actually doing [action] even though [it is seemingly] not doing [any action], [just as] even though movement has ceased here [that is, even though in the waking world they seem to be lying without movement in bed], in dream climbing a hill they fall in a pit.

Padavurai (word-explanation): சேய்மை (sēymai): distance, remoteness, far away | உளம் (uḷam): heart, mind | சென்று (seṉḏṟu): going, flowing, traversing, wandering {adverbial participle of sel} | கதை (kadai): story {though nominative (first case) in form, kadai (a Tamil form of the Sanskrit kathā) is used here in an accusative (second case) sense} | கேட்பார் (kēṭpār): those who hear, listen to {personal noun formed from the verb kēḷ} | போல் (pōl): like | வாதனைகள் (vādaṉaigaḷ): vāsanās, inclinations {plural of vādaṉai, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit vāsanā} | தேய் (tēy): wear away, be rubbed off, be erased, be effaced, be destroyed, die {the root of this verb, used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, ‘erased’ or ‘in which they are erased’} | மனம் (maṉam): mind {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit manas} | செய்தும் (seydum): though doing, even though doing {seydu is an adverbial participle that means ‘doing’, and when appended to such a participle the suffix um means ‘though’, ‘although’ or ‘even though’} | செய்யாதே (seyyādē): is actually not doing, is certainly not doing {an intensified form or seyyādu, ‘is not doing’} || அவைகள் (avaigaḷ): those, they {plural distal demonstrative pronoun, referring here to vādaṉaigaḷ, ‘vāsanās’ or ‘inclinations’} | தோய் (tōy): bathe, become wet, be soaked, be drenched {the root of this verb, used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, ‘soaked’ or ‘in which they are soaked’} | மனம் (maṉam): mind | செய்து (seydu): doing {adverbial participle} | இன்று (iṉḏṟu): not | ஏனும் (ēṉum): though | செய்ததே (seydadē): is actually doing, is certainly doing {an intensified form or seydadu, ‘is doing’} || இங்கு (iṅgu): here | அசைவு (asaivu): moving, movement | அற்றும் (aṯṟum): even though it has ceased {aṯṟu is an adverbial participle that means ‘being severed’, ‘being removed’, ‘ceasing’ or ‘perishing’, and when appended to such a participle the suffix um means ‘though’, ‘although’ or ‘even though’} | கனவில் (kaṉavil): in dream | குன்று (kuṉḏṟu): hill | ஏறி (ēṟi): climbing, ascending, going up {adverbial participle of ēṟu} | வீழ்வார் (vīṙvār): they fall, descend, go down | குழி (kuṙi): pit, hole, hollow {though nominative (first case) in form, kuṙi is used here in an locative (seventh case) sense, ‘in a pit’}.

Note: This verse, which is also included in Guru Vācaka Kōvai as verse B22, is Bhagavan’s adaptation of Yōga Vāsiṣṭham 5.56.13 and 14:
अकर्तृ कुर्वदप्येतच्छेतः प्रतनुवासनम् ।
दूरण्गतमनाजन्तुः कथा संश्रवणे यथा ॥

akartṛ kurvadapyētacchētaḥ pratanuvāsanam |
dūraṇgatamanājantuḥ kathā saṁśravaṇē yathā ||

अकुर्वदपि कर्त्रेव चेतः प्रघनवासनम् ।
निष्पन्दाण्गमपि स्वप्ने श्वभ्रपातस्थिताविव ॥

akurvadapi kartrēva cētaḥ praghanavāsanam |
niṣpandāṇgamapi svapnē śvabhrapātasthitāviva ||
One day (sometime between 1928 and 1931) Bhagavan discussed these two Sanskrit verses, and Muruganar recorded the meaning of them as explained by him in verses 1133 and 1134 of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, on seeing which Bhagavan composed this verse, summarising the meaning of them more succinctly.

Explanations and discussions:
2023-11-08: We can put a permanent end to all karma only by destroying all viṣaya-vāsanās, because so long as they survive, they will continue to immerse us in the ocean of action. Until all viṣaya-vāsanās are completely erased, the only respite we can have from doing karma is in sleep and other states of manōlaya, but such respite is not real freedom from action, because sooner or later we will rise from manōlaya along with all our viṣaya-vāsanās, under whose sway we will continue doing karma
2011-10-07: In the clear, undefiled experience of a jñāni, nothing exists other than self, so there is no mind, body or world, and therefore nothing to do any action

Verse 31:

வண்டிதுயில் வானுக்கவ் வண்டிசெல னிற்றிலொடு
வண்டிதனி யுற்றிடுதன் மானுமே — வண்டியா
மூனவுட லுள்ளே யுறங்குமெய்ஞ் ஞானிக்கு
மானதொழி னிட்டையுறக் கம்.

vaṇḍiduyil vāṉukkav vaṇḍisela ṉiṯṟiloḍu
vaṇḍidaṉi yuṯṟiḍudaṉ māṉumē — vaṇḍiyā
mūṉavuḍa luḷḷē yuṟaṅgumeyñ ñāṉikku
māṉadoṙi ṉiṭṭhaiyuṟak kam
.

பதச்சேதம்: வண்டி துயில்வானுக்கு அவ் வண்டி செலல், நிற்றல் ஒடு, வண்டி தனி உற்றிடுதல் மானுமே, வண்டி ஆம் ஊன உடல் உள்ளே உறங்கும் மெய்ஞ்ஞானிக்கும் ஆன தொழில், நிட்டை, உறக்கம்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): vaṇḍi tuyilvāṉukku a-v-vaṇḍi selal, ṉiṯṟal oḍu, vaṇḍi taṉi uṯṟiḍudal māṉumē, vaṇḍi ām ūṉa uḍal uḷḷē uṟaṅgum meyññāṉikkum āṉa toṙil, niṭṭhai, uṟakkam.

English translation: To the knower of reality, who is asleep within the fleshy body, which is like a cart, activity, niṣṭhā and sleep are just like, to a person sleeping in a cart, that cart moving, standing or the cart remaining alone.

Explanatory paraphrase: To the mey-jñāni [the knower of reality], who is asleep within the fleshy body, which is like a cart, activity [of mind or body], niṣṭhā [firmness, fixity, steadiness, motionlessness, inactivity or samādhi] and sleep are just like, to a person sleeping in a cart, that cart moving, standing or the cart remaining alone [separated from the bullocks that were yoked to it]. [That is, just as the various states of a cart are not experienced by a person who is sleeping in it, the various states of body and mind are not experienced by the jñāni.]

Padavurai (word-explanation): வண்டி (vaṇḍi): cart, wagon, carriage {though nominative (first case) in form, vaṇḍi is used here in a locative (seventh case) sense, ‘in a cart’ or ‘on a cart’} | துயில்வானுக்கு (tuyilvāṉukku): to one who is asleep, for one who is asleep {dative (fourth case) form of tuyilvāṉ, ‘one who is asleep’} | அ (a): that {distal demonstrative prefix} | வண்டி (vaṇḍi): cart | செலல் (selal): going, flowing, moving {verbal noun} | நிற்றல் (ṉiṯṟal): standing, stopping, staying, remaining still {verbal noun} | ஒடு (oḍu): with, and {a sociative (third case) ending meaning ‘with’, and also a connective particle meaning ‘and’} | வண்டி (vaṇḍi): cart | தனி (taṉi): singleness, solitude, seclusion, aloneness, alone, separate | உற்றிடுதல் (uṯṟiḍudal): being, existing, remaining {verbal noun} | மானுமே (māṉumē): resembles exactly, equals exactly, is just like {an intensified form of māṉum, ‘resembles’, ‘equals’ or ‘is like’} | வண்டி (vaṇḍi): cart | ஆம் (ām): which is, which is like {adjectival participle of the verb ā, ‘be’, ‘become’, ‘be like’ or ‘be equal’} | ஊன (ūṉa): flesh, fleshy, physical | உடல் (uḍal): body | உள்ளே (uḷḷē): within | உறங்கும் (uṟaṅgum): who sleeps, who is asleep {adjectival participle of the verb uṟaṅgu, ‘sleep’} | மெய்ஞ்ஞானிக்கும் (meyññāṉikkum): to the knower of reality, for the knower of reality {meyññāṉikku is a dative (fourth case) form of meyññāṉi (a compound of mey, ‘reality’ or ‘what is real’, and ñāṉi, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit jñāni, ‘knower’ or ‘one who knows’), ‘knower of reality’, and in this case the suffix um is a poetic expletive} | ஆன (āṉa): which is, which are, that are {in this context this adjectival participle is in effect a poetic expletive, because though it could be interpreted as making ‘meyññāṉikkum āṉa’ into an adjectival (or relative) clause modifying the next three words, in which case ‘meyññāṉikkum āṉa toṙil, niṭṭhai, uṟakkam’ would mean ‘activity, niṣṭhā and sleep that are for the knower of reality’, this meaning would not fit well with the overall meaning of this verse} | தொழில் (toṙil): work, action, activity | நிட்டை (niṭṭhai): firmness, fixity, steadiness, motionlessness, inactivity, samādhi {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit niṣṭhā} | உறக்கம் (uṟakkam): sleep.

Note: This verse, which is also included in Guru Vācaka Kōvai as verse B21, is an original composition by Bhagavan. One day (sometime between 1928 and 1931) he expressed this idea orally, and Muruganar recorded what he said in verse 1105 of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, on seeing which Bhagavan composed this verse.

Explanations and discussions:
2020-01-06: It is only in our self-ignorant view that Bhagavan seemed to be human, because in his clear view he is nothing other than pure awareness, which is immutable and therefore unaffected by the appearance of ego and whatever appears in ego’s view, so he was never aware of anything other than himself, not even the body and mind that he seemed to be in our view
2019-03-25: Because we mistake ourself to be a body, we mistake even Bhagavan to be a body, but in his clear view there is neither body nor world but only pure awareness, so it is only in our view, and not in his view, that he seemed to have a body and to function in the world
2019-03-05: The mind of the ātma-jñāni and its activity or inactivity seem to exist only in the self-ignorant view of ego, which sees the ātma-jñāni as if it were a person, and not in the view of the ātma-jñāni, who is nothing other than ātma-svarūpa, which is just pure awareness and alone exists
2016-12-27: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham verse 31: like someone who is asleep, the jñāni is not at all aware of the body or any other phenomena
2016-03-16: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham verse 31: the ātma-jñāni is aware of no difference between waking, dream and sleep
2015-04-28: When we experience what we actually are, there will be nothing else for us to observe or witness, because whatever else now seems to exist does so only in the self-ignorant view of ego
2014-11-20: So long as we experience ourself as a person, an ātma-jñāni will seem to us to be a person with a body and mind, just like us, but according to Bhagavan the body and mind that seem to be the ātma-jñāni exist only in the deluded view of the ajñāni (the person who is self-ignorant and therefore experiences himself or herself as a body and mind), because in the clear view of the ātma-jñāni no mind or body exists at all
2011-10-07: In the clear, undefiled experience of a jñāni, nothing exists other than self, so there is no mind, body or world, and therefore nothing to do any action

Verse 32:

நனவு கனவுதுயி னாடுவார்க் கப்பா
னனவு துயிற்றுரிய நாமத் — தெனுமத்
துரிய மதேயுளதாற் றோன்றுமூன் றின்றாற்
றுரிய வதீதந் துணி.

naṉavu kaṉavuduyi ṉāḍuvārk kappā
ṉaṉavu tuyiṯṟuriya nāmat — teṉumat
turiya madēyuḷadāṯ ṟōṉḏṟumūṉ ḏṟiṉḏṟāṟ
ṟuriya vatītan tuṇi
.

பதச்சேதம்: நனவு, கனவு, துயில் நாடுவார்க்கு, அப்பால் நனவுதுயில் ‘துரிய’ நாமத்து எனும். அத் துரியம் அதே உளதால், தோன்றும் மூன்று இன்றால், துரிய அதீதம். துணி.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): naṉavu, kaṉavu, tuyil nāḍuvārkku, appal naṉavu-tuyil ‘turiya’ nāmattu eṉum. a-t-turiyam adē uḷadāl, tōṉḏṟum mūṉḏṟu iṉḏṟāl, turiya atītam. tuṇi.

English translation: For those who experience waking, dream and sleep, waking-sleep, beyond, is called by the name ‘turya’. Since that turya alone exists, since the three that appear do not exist, turya-v-atīta. Be assured.

Explanatory paraphrase: For those who experience waking, dream and sleep, waking-sleep [the eternal and immutable state of pure awareness, in which one is awake to (or clearly aware of) oneself as one actually is and therefore asleep to (or unaware of) everything else whatsoever], [which is] beyond [those other three states], is called by the name ‘turya’ [or turīya, the ‘fourth’]. [However] since that turya alone exists, [and] since the three [states] that appear [or seem to exist] [namely waking, dream and sleep] do not exist, [what is called ‘turya’ is actually] turya-v-atīta [turīyātīta, what transcends or is beyond the ‘fourth’]. Be assured.

Padavurai (word-explanation): நனவு (naṉavu): waking | கனவு (kaṉavu): dream | துயில் (tuyil): sleep | நாடுவார்க்கு (nāḍuvārkku): for those who know, experience {a dative (fourth case) form of nāḍuvār, ‘those who know [or experience]’} | அப்பால் (appal): that side, beyond | நனவுதுயில் (naṉavu-tuyil): waking-sleep {compound of naṉavu, ‘waking’, and tuyil, ‘sleep’} | துரிய (turiya): the ‘fourth’ {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit turya, an alternative spelling of turīya} | நாமத்து (nāmattu): name {the inflectional base of nāmam, ‘name’, used here as an oblique or indefinite case implying ‘by the name’} | எனும் (eṉum): is said, is called || அ (a): that {distal demonstrative prefix} | துரியம் (turiyam): turya, the ‘fourth’ | அதே (adē): that alone {an intensified form of adu, ‘that’, used here as an suffix intensifying turiyam, so a-t-turiyam-adē means ‘that turya alone’ | உளதால் (uḷadāl): by being, because of being, since [it] is, since [it] exists {a poetic abbreviation of uḷḷadāl, an instrumental (third case) form of uḷḷadu, ‘being’}| தோன்றும் (tōṉḏṟum): appearing, which appear, that appear {adjectival participle} | மூன்று (mūṉḏṟu): three | இன்றால் (iṉḏṟāl): since [they] are not, since [they] do not exist | துரியவதீதம் (turiya-v-atītam): turīyātīta, what is beyond the fourth, what transcends the fourth {compound of turiyam, ‘the fourth’, and atītam, ‘what has gone beyond’, ‘what has risen above’ or ‘what has transcended’} || துணி (tuṇi): be assured, know clearly, conclude {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: This verse, which is also included in Guru Vācaka Kōvai as verse B18, is an original composition by Bhagavan. One day (sometime between 1928 and 1931) he expressed this idea orally, and Muruganar recorded what he said in verses 937, 938 and 939 of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, on seeing which Bhagavan summarised the meaning of them as this verse.

What he implies in the final sentence of this verse, ‘அத்துரியமதே உளதால், தோன்றும் மூன்று இன்றால், துரிவதீதம்’ (a-t-turiyam-adē uḷadāl, tōṉḏṟum mūṉḏṟu iṉḏṟāl, turiya-v-atītam), ‘Since that turya alone exists, since the three that appear do not exist, turya-v-atīta’, is that since what is called ‘the fourth’ (turīya) alone exists, it is way beyond anything that could be correctly called ‘the fourth’, and hence it is sometimes referred to as turīyātīta, ‘beyond the fourth’, so contrary to popular belief, the name ‘turīyātīta’ does not refer to a fifth state but to the plurality-transcending nature of the one and only state, the so-called ‘fourth’.

Explanations and discussions:
2022-09-23: Some texts use the term ‘turīyātīta’, which literally means ‘beyond the fourth’ or ‘transcending the fourth’, but many people misunderstand and misinterpret this term, claiming that it refers to another state that is beyond turīya, so in this verse Bhagavan clarifies that what is called turīyātīta is actually the same state that is called turīya, and that it is called turīyātīta because it is the only state that actually exists, and hence it transcends not only the other three states but also any need for it to be called ‘the fourth’
2019-12-01: If we investigate ourself keenly enough to see what we actually are, ego will thereby be eradicated and along with it waking, dream and sleep will also disappear, so what will then remain is just turya, the ‘fourth’, but though named thus, it is not actually the fourth state but the only existing state, and it is eternal and is therefore present even now, because it is the pure awareness that underlies the appearance of waking, dream and sleep
2019-05-10: Though turīya is sometimes said to be the ‘witness’, Bhagavan clarified that in this context ‘witness’ means presence, so it does not mean that turīya is aware of anything else but only that it is that in whose presence other things seem to appear and disappear
2017-06-28: Just as our one real state seems to be a ‘fourth’ state only so long as the three states of waking, dream and sleep seem to exist, sleep seems to be a third state only so long as waking and dream seem to exist, but when the ego and its ‘beginningless filthy propensities’ (anādi mala vāsanās), which give rise to the appearance of waking and dream, are eradicated, what will remain is only sleep, which will be found to be the one real and all-transcending state called turīya, the ‘fourth’
2017-06-08: The only difference between sleep and turīya is that turīya is eternal and immutable whereas we seem to come out of sleep, but this difference is not real, since it is only from the perspective of the ego in waking or dream that we seem to have come out of sleep, because if we investigate ourself keenly enough we will find that we have never come out of sleep, and that sleep is therefore our only state and the one real state, otherwise known as turīya or turīyātīta
2016-12-27: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham verse 32: in the clear view of the jñāni what exists is not waking, dream or sleep but only ‘wakeful sleep’
2011-10-07: In the clear, undefiled experience of a jñāni, nothing exists other than self, so there is no mind, body or world, and therefore nothing to do any action

Verse 33:

சஞ்சிதவா காமியங்கள் சாராவா ஞானிக்கூழ்
விஞ்சுமெனல் வேற்றார்கேள் விக்குவிளம் — புஞ்சொல்லாம்
பர்த்தாபோய்க் கைம்மையுறாப் பத்தினியெஞ் சாததுபோற்
கர்த்தாபோ மூவினையுங் காண்.

sañcitavā gāmiyaṅgaḷ sārāvā ñāṉikkūṙ
viñcumeṉal vēṯṟārkēḷ vikkuviḷam — buñcollām
bharttāpōyk kaimmaiyuṟāp pattiṉiyeñ jādadupōṟ
karttāpō mūviṉaiyuṅ gāṇ.


பதச்சேதம்: ‘சஞ்சித ஆகாமியங்கள் சாராவாம் ஞானிக்கு; ஊழ் விஞ்சும்’ எனல் வேற்றார் கேள்விக்கு விளம்பும் சொல் ஆம். பர்த்தா போய் கைம்மை உறா பத்தினி எஞ்சாதது போல், கர்த்தா [போய்] போம் மூவினையும். காண்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ‘sañcita āgāmiyaṅgaḷ sārāvām ñāṉikku; ūṙ viñcum’ eṉal vēṯṟār kēḷvikku viḷambum sol ām. bharttā pōy kaimmai uṟā pattiṉi eñjādadu pōl, karttā [pōy] pōm mūviṉaiyum. kāṇ.

அன்வயம்: ‘ஞானிக்கு சஞ்சித ஆகாமியங்கள் சாராவாம்; ஊழ் விஞ்சும்’ எனல் வேற்றார் கேள்விக்கு விளம்பும் சொல் ஆம். பர்த்தா போய் கைம்மை உறா பத்தினி எஞ்சாதது போல், கர்த்தா [போய்] மூவினையும் போம். காண்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ‘ñāṉikku sañcita āgāmiyaṅgaḷ sārāvām; ūṙ viñcum’ eṉal vēṯṟār kēḷvikku viḷambum sol ām. bharttā pōy kaimmai uṟā pattiṉi eñjādadu pōl, karttā [pōy] mūviṉaiyum pōm. kāṇ.

English translation: Saying ‘sañcita and āgāmya do not adhere to the jñāni; prārabdha does remain’ is an answer told to the questions of others. Like, the husband dying, an unwidowed wife not remaining, the doer [dying], all the three karmas will cease. See.

Explanatory paraphrase: Saying ‘sañcita and āgāmya do not adhere to the jñāni [but] prārabdha does remain [for the jñāni to experience]’ is [just] an answer told [as a concession] to the questions of others [namely those who are unwilling or unable to understand and accept the deeper teachings and implications of advaita]. Just as [among the several wives of one husband] an unwidowed wife does not remain when [their] husband dies, all the three karmas will cease [when] the doer [namely ego, who is the doer of āgāmya and the experiencer of its fruit] [dies]. See.

Padavurai (word-explanation): சஞ்சித (sañcita): pile, heap [the heap of fruits of past āgāmya karmas that have not yet been allotted for ego to experience] {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit saṁcita} | ஆகாமியங்கள் (āgāmiyaṅgaḷ): āgāmya [actions done by ego under the sway of its viṣaya-vāsanās (inclinations to seek happiness in things other than itself) in its current life, the fruits of which are stored in sañcita and may later be allotted as prārabdha] {āgāmiyaṅgaḷ is the plural of āgāmiyam, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit āgāmya, but the plural ending gaḷ applies here to the compound term sañcita-v-āgāmiyaṅgaḷ, ‘sañcita and āgāmya’, which is plural because it is a pair of things} | சாராவாம் (sārāvām): will not reach, connect, join, adhere {a compound of sārā, a negative neuter third person plural form of sār, ‘reach’, and ām, ‘is’ or ‘will be’} | ஞானிக்கு (ñāṉikku): to the jñāni, for the jñāni {a dative (fourth case) form of ñāṉi, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit jñāni, ‘one who knows’, which in this context means one who has dissolved forever in and as jñāna, ‘awareness’ (in the sense of pure awareness)} || ஊழ் (ūṙ): destiny, fate, prārabdha [the fruits of past āgāmya karmas that have been allotted for ego to experience in its current life] | விஞ்சும் (viñcum): will remain | எனல் (eṉal): saying {verbal noun} | வேற்றார் (vēṯṟār): others, strangers, aliens, those who do not belong [in this case implying those who are unwilling or unable to understand and accept the deeper teachings and implications of advaita] {though nominative (first case) in form, vēṯṟār (a personal noun formed from vēṟu, ‘other’ or ‘what is different’) is used here in a genitive (sixth case) sense, ‘of others’} | கேள்விக்கு (kēḷvikku): to the question {a dative (fourth case) form of kēḷvi, ‘question’, which, though singular in form, is used here as a collective noun and is therefore plural in sense} | விளம்பும் (viḷambum): said, told, spoken, revealed, proclaimed, propagated, spread {adjectival participle} | சொல் (sol): word, saying, statement, assurance, teaching, answer, reply | ஆம் (ām): is || பர்த்தா (bharttā): husband {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit bhartā, nominative singular of bhartṛ} | போய் (pōy): going, having gone, departing, ceasing, perishing, dying {adverbial participle} | கைம்மையுறா (kaimmai-y-uṟā): unwidowed {kaimmai means ‘widowhood’ or ‘widow’, and uṟā is a negative adjectival participle that means ‘not being’, ‘not joining’, ‘not experiencing’, ‘not suffering’, ‘not undergoing’ or ‘who does not undergo’} | பத்தினி (pattiṉi): wife {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit patnī} | எஞ்சாதது (eñjādadu): not remaining, not being left behind, not surviving {participial noun} | போல் (pōl): like | கர்த்தா (karttā): doer, agent {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit kartā, nominative singular of kartṛ} | போம் (pōm): will go, depart, cease, perish, die | மூவினையும் (mūviṉaiyum): all three karmas { means ‘three’; viṉai means ‘action’ or ‘karma’; and in this context the suffix um implies completeness, totality or entirety, so it means ‘all’} || காண் (kāṇ): see {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: This verse is an original composition by Bhagavan. One day when he expressed this idea orally, Muruganar recorded what he said in verse 1145 of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, on seeing which Bhagavan summarised it as the last two lines of this verse, which are also included in Guru Vācaka Kōvai as verse B23:
பர்த்தாபோய்க் கைம்மையுறாப் பத்தினியெஞ் சாததுபோற்
கர்த்தாபோ மூவினையுங் காண்.

English translation: Like, the husband dying, an unwidowed wife not remaining, the doer [dying], all the three karmas will cease. See.
Subsequently, when Muruganar suggested that they should include this verse in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham, Bhagavan composed the first two lines in order to make the meaning of this analogy clear.

Explanations and discussions:
2018-04-18: The idea that actions or suffering can happen without ego is ‘a reply said to the questions of others’, so we each have to decide for ourself whether we want to be one of those வேற்றார் (vēṯṟār), ‘others’ or ‘strangers’, who have only a partial, incomplete and consequently incoherent understanding of his teachings, or whether we are instead willing to accept all the core principles of his teachings, which are very simple and together form a single and logically coherent whole, and which are therefore extremely easy to understand (yet very difficult for most of us to accept in all their raw and powerful simplicity)
2016-11-23: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham verse 33: though in the self-ignorant view of ego the jñāni seems to be a person experiencing some prārabdha, it is not actually a person and therefore does not experience any prārabdha
2016-03-06: ‘வேற்றார் கேள்விக்கு விளம்பும் சொல்’ (vēṯṟār kēḷvikku viḷambum sol) means ‘a reply said to the questions of others’, which is how he often used to describe any of his replies that were not consistent with his fundamental teachings. That is, when answering questions asked by people who were unwilling or unable to grasp his actual teachings, he often had to dilute the truth in order to give them a reply that they could understand and would be willing to accept, so he would sometimes later explain to those who understood and accepted his actual teachings that what he had said was suited to the needs of such questioners, whom he referred to as ‘others’, implying that they were not yet ready to accept and follow his real teachings
2011-10-07: In the clear, undefiled experience of a jñāni, nothing exists other than self, so there is no mind, body or world, and therefore nothing to do any action

Verse 34:

மக்கண் மனைவிமுதன் மற்றவர்க ளற்பமதி
மக்கட் கொருகுடும்ப மானவே — மிக்ககல்வி
யுள்ளவர்த முள்ளத்தே யொன்றலபன் னூற்குடும்ப
முள்ளதுயோ கத்தடையா யோர்.

makkaṇ maṉaivimudaṉ maṯṟavarga ḷaṯpamati
makkaṭ korukuṭumba māṉavē — mikkakalvi
yuḷḷavarta muḷḷattē yoṉḏṟalapaṉ ṉūṟkuṭumba
muḷḷaduyō gattaḍaiyā yōr.


பதச்சேதம்: மக்கள் மனைவி முதல் மற்றவர்கள் அற்ப மதி மக்கட்கு ஒரு குடும்பம் ஆனவே. மிக்க கல்வி உள்ளவர் தம் உள்ளத்தே ஒன்று அல, பல் நூல் குடும்பம் உள்ளது யோக தடை ஆய். ஓர்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): makkaḷ maṉaivi mudal maṯṟavargaḷ aṯpa mati makkaṭku oru kuṭumbam āṉavē. mikka kalvi uḷḷavar tam uḷḷattē oṉḏṟu ala, pal nūl kuṭumbam uḷḷadu yōga taḍai āy. ōr.

அன்வயம்: அற்ப மதி மக்கட்கு மனைவி, மக்கள் முதல் மற்றவர்கள் ஒரு குடும்பம் ஆனவே. மிக்க கல்வி உள்ளவர் தம் உள்ளத்தே ஒன்று அல, பல் நூல் குடும்பம் யோக தடை ஆய் உள்ளது. ஓர்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): aṯpa mati makkaṭku maṉaivi, makkaḷ mudal maṯṟavargaḷ oru kuṭumbam āṉavē. mikka kalvi uḷḷavar tam uḷḷattē oṉḏṟu ala, pal nūl kuṭumbam yōga taḍai āy uḷḷadu. ōr.

English translation: For people of little knowledge, others beginning with wife and children are just one family. In the heart of those who have much learning not one, many book-families exist as obstacles to yōga. Consider.

Explanatory paraphrase: For people of little knowledge [intellect, understanding or learning], others beginning with wife and children are just one family. In the heart [or mind] of those who have much [abundant or excessive] learning not [just] one [but] many book-families [namely families in the form of all the books they have studied, which thereby fill and cloud their minds with a dense fog of intense and ceaseless thinking] exist as obstacles [hindrances or impediments] to yōga [meaning not only meditation or spiritual practice more generally, but also achievement of the aim of all such practices]. Consider [or know].

Padavurai (word-explanation): மக்கள் (makkaḷ): human beings, people, children | மனைவி (maṉaivi): wife | முதல் (mudal): beginning, beginning with [in this context implying ‘such as’] | மற்றவர்கள் (maṯṟavargaḷ): others {plural of maṯṟavar, a personal noun formed from maṯṟu, ‘other’ or ‘another’} | அற்ப (aṯpa): small, little, trifling, insignificant {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit alpa} | மதி (mati): mind, intellect, understanding, knowledge [in this context implying ‘learning’] | மக்கட்கு (makkaṭku): for people {a dative (fourth case) form of makkaḷ, ‘people’} | ஒரு (oru): one {determiner} | குடும்பம் (kuṭumbam): family, household | ஆனவே (āṉavē): are merely, are just || மிக்க (mikka): great, much, abundant, excessive | கல்வி (kalvi): learning, erudition | உள்ளவர் (uḷḷavar): those who have | தம் (tam): their {inflectional base and genitive (sixth case) form of tām, ‘they’, serving here as a case-marking suffix to uḷḷavar, so uḷḷavar-tam means ‘of those who have’} | உள்ளத்தே (uḷḷattē): in [their] heart, in [their] mind {uḷḷattu is the inflectional base of uḷḷam, ‘heart’ or ‘mind’, used here in a locative (seventh case) sense, and the suffix ē is an intensifier but is appended here for euphony} | ஒன்று (oṉḏṟu): one {noun} | அல (ala): not | பல் (pal): many | நூல் (nūl): book, text, treatise | குடும்பம் (kuṭumbam): family {though singular in form, kuṭumbam is used here in a plural sense, ‘families’} | உள்ளது (uḷḷadu): is, exists {neuter third person singular form of the tenseless verb uḷ, ‘be’ or ‘exist’} | யோகத்தடையாய் (yōga-taḍai-y-āy): as yōga-obstacle, as obstacles to yōga {compound of yōga, ‘meditation’, ‘spiritual practice’ or ‘spiritual achievement’, taḍai, ‘obstacle’, ‘obstruction’, ‘hindrance’ or ‘impediment’, and āy, an adverbial participle that means ‘being’ or ‘as’} || ஓர் (ōr): consider, know {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of the following Sanskrit verse, the source of which is unknown:
पुत्रदारादिसंसारा तद्भवन्त्यल्पचेतसाम् ।
विदुषां शास्त्रसंसारो योगाभ्यासस्य विघ्नकृत् ॥

putradārādisaṁsārā tadbhavantyalpacētasām |
viduṣāṁ śāstrasaṁsārō yōgābhyāsasya vighnakṛt ||
Verse 35:

எழுத்தறிந்த தாம்பிறந்த தெங்கேயென் றெண்ணி
யெழுத்தைத் தொலைக்க வெணாதோ — ரெழுத்தறிந்தென்
சத்தங்கொ ளெந்திரத்தின் சால்புற்றார் சோணகிரி
வித்தகனே வேறார் விளம்பு.

eṙuttaṟinda tāmpiṟanda deṅgēyeṉ ḏṟeṇṇi
yeṙuttait tolaikka veṇādō — reṙuttaṟindeṉ
sattaṅgo ḷentirattiṉ sālbuṯṟār śōṇagiri
vittakaṉē vēṟār viḷambu.


பதச்சேதம்: எழுத்து அறிந்த தாம் பிறந்தது எங்கே என்று எண்ணி, எழுத்தை தொலைக்க எணாதோர் எழுத்து அறிந்து என்? சத்தம் கொள் எந்திரத்தின் சால்பு உற்றார், சோணகிரி வித்தகனே, வேறு ஆர்? விளம்பு.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): eṙuttu aṟinda tām piṟandadu eṅgē eṉḏṟu eṇṇi, eṙuttai tolaikka eṇādōr eṙuttu aṟindu eṉ? sattam koḷ entirattiṉ sālbu uṯṟār, śōṇagiri vittakaṉē, vēṟu ār? viḷambu.

அன்வயம்: எழுத்து அறிந்த தாம் பிறந்தது எங்கே என்று எண்ணி, எழுத்தை தொலைக்க எணாதோர் எழுத்து அறிந்து என்? சோணகிரி வித்தகனே, சத்தம் கொள் எந்திரத்தின் சால்பு உற்றார் வேறு ஆர்? விளம்பு.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): eṙuttu aṟinda tām piṟandadu eṅgē eṉḏṟu eṇṇi, eṙuttai tolaikka eṇādōr eṙuttu aṟindu eṉ? śōṇagiri vittakaṉē, sattam koḷ entirattiṉ sālbu uṯṟār, vēṟu ār? viḷambu.

English translation: Those who do not intend to erase the writing, investigating where they were born who have known the writing, knowing the writing for what? Sonagiri, the wise, they have acquired the nature of a sound-recording machine, who else? Say.

Explanatory paraphrase: [For] those who do not intend to erase the writing [namely the writing of fate, which must be experienced by ego so long as it rises, and which can therefore be erased only by eradication of ego], [which cannot be achieved except by] investigating where they were born who have known the writing [namely what is written in books], for what [purpose or benefit is their] knowing the writing [namely what is written in books]? Sonagiri vittaka [the wise one, namely the one whose nature is real knowledge or pure awareness], who else [are] they [but those who] have acquired the nature of a sound-recording machine? [That is, though they can repeat what they have learnt, like a sound-recording machine, they do not truly understand the practical implications of it.] Say.

Padavurai (word-explanation): எழுத்து (eṙuttu): letter (of the alphabet), writing (in this case implying what is written in books) {though nominative (first case) in form, eṙuttu is used here in an accusative (second case) sense}| அறிந்த (aṟinda): who have known {adjectival participle} | தாம் (tām): they | பிறந்தது (piṟandadu): were born | எங்கே (eṅgē): where, where exactly {an intensified form of eṅgu, ‘where’} | என்று (eṉḏṟu): saying {an adverbial participle implying ‘that’, ‘thus’ or ‘as’} | எண்ணி (eṇṇi): thinking, considering, meditating [in this case implying ‘investigating’] {adverbial participle} | எழுத்தை (eṙuttai): letter, writing, fate (which is believed to be written on the forehead) {an accusative (second case) form of eṙuttu} | தொலைக்க (tolaikka): to destroy, kill, exterminate, remove, wipe off, erase {infinitive of tolai} | எணாதோர் (eṇādōr): those who do not think, those who do not intend {poetic abbreviation of eṇṇādōr } | எழுத்து (eṙuttu): letter, writing (in this case implying what is written in books) {though nominative (first case) in form, eṙuttu is used here in an accusative (second case) sense} | அறிந்து (aṟindu): knowing {adverbial participle} | என் (eṉ): why, wherefore, for what, for what purpose, for what benefit, of what avail {interrogative pronoun or adverb} || சத்தம் (sattam): sound, noise {a Tamil form of the śabda} | கொள் (koḷ): seize, grasp, hold, gather, receive [in this case implying ‘record’] {the root of this verb, used here in the sense of an adjectival participle, ‘grasping’, ‘gathering’ or ‘recording’} | எந்திரத்தின் (entirattiṉ): of a machine {an inflectional base and genitive (sixth case) form of entiram, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit yantra, ‘machine’, ‘device’ or ‘instrument’} | சால்பு (sālbu): nature {though nominative (first case) in form, sālbu is used here in an accusative (second case) sense} | உற்றார் (uṯṟār): they have acquired, those who have acquired | சோணகிரி (śōṇagiri): Sonagiri, ‘red hill’ [an alternative name of Arunachala] | வித்தகனே (vittakaṉē): wise one, one whose nature is real knowledge or pure awareness {a vocative (eighth case) form of vittakaṉ, a personal form of vittakam, ‘wisdom’ or ‘knowledge’, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit vittaka, which comes from the root vid, ‘to know’} | வேறு (vēṟu): other, different, else | ஆர் (ār): who {interrogative pronoun} || விளம்பு (viḷambu): say, speak, tell {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: This verse is an original composition by Bhagavan.

Verse 36:

கற்று மடங்காரிற் கல்லாதா ரேயுய்ந்தார்
பற்று மதப்பேயின் பாலுய்ந்தார் — சுற்றுபல
சிந்தைவாய் நோயுய்ந்தார் சீர்தேடி யோடலுய்ந்தா
ருய்ந்ததொன் றன்றென் றுணர்.

kaṯṟu maḍaṅgāriṟ kallādā rēyuyndār
paṯṟu madappēyiṉ bāluyndār — suṯṟupala
cintaivāy nōyuyndār sīrtēḍi yōḍaluyndā
ruyndadoṉ ḏṟaṉḏṟeṉ ḏṟuṇar.


பதச்சேதம்: கற்றும் அடங்காரில் கல்லாதாரே உய்ந்தார்: பற்றும் மத பேயின்பால் உய்ந்தார்; சுற்று பல சிந்தைவாய் நோய் உய்ந்தார்; சீர் தேடி ஓடல் உய்ந்தார். உய்ந்தது ஒன்று அன்று என்று உணர்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): kaṯṟum aḍaṅgāril kallādārē uyndār: paṯṟum mada pēyiṉbāl uyndār; suṯṟu pala cintaivāy nōy uyndār; sīr tēḍi ōḍal uyndār. uyndadu oṉḏṟu aṉḏṟu eṉḏṟu uṇar.

English translation: Rather than those who have not subsided though learned, those who are not learned are saved: they are saved from the grasping demon of pride; they are saved from the disease of many whirling thoughts; they are saved from running seeking fame. Know that what they are saved from is not one.

Explanatory paraphrase: Rather than those who have not subsided though learned [that is, those who have not humbly subsided back within in spite of studying, learning and mastering a vast range of spiritual and philosophical texts], those who are not learned are saved: they are saved from the demon of pride, which grasps [seizes or possesses] [the mind and heart of anyone who is not willing to humbly subside back within]; they are saved from the disease of many whirling thoughts [which infects the mind of anyone who has learnt a lot but does not turn back within to subside forever in the inmost depth of the heart]; they are saved from running [out towards the world] seeking fame [glory, reputation, esteem and high regard]. Know that what they are saved from is not [just] one [but many such perils and evils].

Padavurai (word-explanation): கற்றும் (kaṯṟum): though having learnt, though learned, in spite of learning {kaṯṟu is an adverbial participle that means ‘learning’ or ‘having learnt’, and the suffix um when appended to an adverbial participle means ‘though’, ‘even though’ or ‘in spite of’} | அடங்காரில் (aḍaṅgāril): rather than those who have not yielded, been subdued, shrunk, subsided, settled or ceased [implying those whose ego has not ceased or at least to a significant extent subsided and who are therefore not humble] {a locative (seventh case) form of aḍaṅgār, ‘those who have not subsided’, used here in a comparative sense, thereby implying not ‘in’ but ‘in comparison to’, ‘rather than’ or ‘more than’} | கல்லாதாரே (kallādārē): those who are unlearned {an intensified form of kallādār, ‘those who are not learned’, the intensifying suffix ē implying ‘certainly’, ‘indeed’ or ‘alone’ and thereby serving to emphasise the contrast between the unlearned and the learned who have not yet learnt to subside and be humble} | உய்ந்தார் (uyndār): [they] are saved, are redeemed, are relieved, escape || பற்றும் (paṯṟum): grasping, seizing, holding, possessing {adjectival participle} | மதப்பேயின்பால் (mada-p-pēyiṉbāl): from the pride-demon, from the demon of pride {compound of madam (a Tamil form of the Sanskrit mada), ‘pride’, ‘arrogance’ or ‘conceit’, and pēyiṉbāl [a locative (seventh case) form of pēy, ‘demon’, but used here in an ablative (fifth case) sense], ‘from the demon’} | உய்ந்தார் (uyndār): they are saved || சுற்று (suṯṟu): revolve, spin, whirl, wander, roam {the root of this verb used here as an adjectival participle, ‘whirling’ } | பல (pala): many | சிந்தைவாய் (cintaivāy): from thoughts {a locative (seventh case) form of cintai (a Tamil form of the Sanskrit cintā, ‘thought’), but used here in an ablative (fifth case) sense; though singular in form, cintai is used here as a collective noun and is therefore plural in sense} | நோய் (nōy): disease, sickness, malady, ailment | உய்ந்தார் (uyndār): they are saved || சீர் (sīr): fame, glory, reputation, esteem, high regard | தேடி (tēḍi): seeking {adverbial participle} | ஓடல் (ōḍal): running {verbal noun, which, though nominative in form, is used here in an ablative (fifth case) sense, ‘from running’} | உய்ந்தார் (uyndār): they are saved || உய்ந்தது (uyndadu): what [they] are saved from | ஒன்று (oṉḏṟu): one | அன்று (aṉḏṟu): not | என்று (eṉḏṟu): saying {an adverbial participle implying ‘that’, ‘thus’ or ‘as’} | உணர் (uṇar): know {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: This verse is an original composition by Bhagavan.

Verse 37:

எல்லா வுலகுந் துரும்பா யினுமறைக
ளெல்லாமே கைக்கு ளிருந்தாலும் — பொல்லாப்
புகழ்ச்சியாம் வேசிவசம் புக்கா ரடிமை
யகலவிட லம்மா வரிது.

ellā vulahun turumbā yiṉumaṟaiga
ḷellāmē kaikku ḷirundālum — pollāp
puhaṙcciyām vēśivaśam pukkā raḍimai
yahalaviḍa lammā varidu.


பதச்சேதம்: எல்லா உலகும் துரும்பு ஆயினும், மறைகள் எல்லாமே கைக்குள் இருந்தாலும், பொல்லா புகழ்ச்சி ஆம் வேசி வசம் புக்கார் அடிமை அகல விடல், அம்மா, அரிது.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ellā ulahum turumbu āyiṉum, maṟaigaḷ ellāmē kaikkuḷ irundālum, pollā puhaṙcci ām vēśi vaśam pukkār aḍimai ahala viḍal, ammā, aridu.

அன்வயம்: எல்லா உலகும் துரும்பு ஆயினும், மறைகள் எல்லாமே கைக்குள் இருந்தாலும், புகழ்ச்சி ஆம் பொல்லா வேசி வசம் புக்கார் அடிமை அகல விடல், அம்மா, அரிது.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ellā ulahum turumbu āyiṉum, maṟaigaḷ ellāmē kaikkuḷ irundālum, puhaṙcci ām pollā vēśi vaśam pukkār aḍimai ahala viḍal, ammā, aridu.

English translation: Though all the worlds are straw, though all the sacred texts are within hand, those who have come under the sway of the wicked whore who is praise, escaping slavery is, ah, what is difficult.

Explanatory paraphrase: Though all the worlds [together with all the other pleasures that they offer] are [considered by them to be mere] straw, [and] though all the sacred texts [the Vēdas, vēdānta and so on] are within [their] hand [or grasp] [having been thoroughly studied and mastered by them], [for] those who have come under the sway of the wicked whore who is puhaṙcci [praise, admiration, adulation, fame or glory], escaping [their] slavery [to her] is, ah, [extremely] difficult [or rare].

Padavurai (word-explanation): எல்லா (ellā): all | உலகும் (ulahum): all worlds {ulahu means ‘world’, and in this context the suffix um implies completeness, totality or entirety, thereby complementing and emphasising the meaning of ellā, ‘all’} | துரும்பு (turumbu): straw | ஆயினும் (āyiṉum): though [they] are | மறைகள் (maṟaigaḷ): those that are secret, hidden, shrouded or concealed, namely the Vēdas and other such sacred texts {plural of maṟai, ‘concealment’ or ‘secret’} | எல்லாமே (ellāmē): all {intensified form of ellām, ‘all’} | கைக்குள் (kaikkuḷ): within hand | இருந்தாலும் (irundālum): though [they] are | பொல்லா (pollā): wicked, evil, bad, vicious | புகழ்ச்சி (puhaṙcci): praise, admiration, adulation, fame, glory, renown, esteem, celebrity | ஆம் (ām): who is | வேசி (vēśi): whore, prostitute, courtesan | வசம் (vasam): sway, control, power, domination {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit vaśa} | புக்கார் (pukkār): those who have entered, come under | அடிமை (aḍimai): slavery | அகலவிடல் (ahala-viḍal): leaving, withdrawing, escaping {verbal noun, an emphatic compound of ahala, the infinitive (used here adverbially) of an intransitive verb that means ‘leave’, ‘depart’ or ‘separate’, and viḍal, a verbal noun that means ‘leaving’, ‘letting go’, ‘renouncing’, ‘giving up’, ‘abandoning’, ‘releasing’ or ‘freeing’} | அம்மா (ammā): ah {exclamation} | அரிது (aridu): what is difficult, rare, unattainable.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of the following Sanskrit verse:
तृणतुलिताखिलजगतां करकलिताखिल निगम रहस्यानाम् ।
श्लाघावारवधूटी घटदासत्वं सुदुर्निरसम् ॥

tṛṇatulitākhilajagatāṁ karakalitākhila nigama rahasyānām |
ślāghāvāravadhūṭī ghaṭadāsatvaṁ sudurnirasam ||
The source of this verse is unknown, but it is associated with the life of Sadasiva Brahmendra, a renowned sage of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. During the early years of his life, he was once visibly elated when a fellow student praised him, and when the other student asked him how such an elevated soul could be pleased by praise, he replied by quoting (or perhaps composing) this verse.

Verse 38:

தானன்றி யாருண்டு தன்னையா ரென்சொலினென்
றான்றன்னை வாழ்த்துகினுந் தாழ்த்துகினுந் — தானென்ன
தான்பிறரென் றோராமற் றன்னிலையிற் பேராமற்
றானென்று நின்றிடவே தான்.

tāṉaṉḏṟi yāruṇḍu taṉṉaiyā reṉcoliṉeṉ
ḏṟāṉḏṟaṉṉai vāṙttugiṉun tāṙttugiṉun — tāṉeṉṉa
tāṉbiṟareṉ ḏṟōrāmaṯ ṟaṉṉilaiyiṯ pērāmaṯ
ṟāṉeṉḏṟu niṉḏṟiḍavē tāṉ.


பதச்சேதம்: தான் அன்றி யார் உண்டு? தன்னை யார் என் சொலின் என்? தான் தன்னை வாழ்த்துகினும், தாழ்த்துகினும் தான் என்ன? ‘தான்’, ‘பிறர்’ என்று ஓராமல், தன்னிலையில் பேராமல் தான் என்றும் நின்றிடவே தான்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): tāṉ aṉḏṟi yār uṇḍu? taṉṉai yār eṉ soliṉ eṉ? tāṉ taṉṉai vāṙttugiṉum, tāṙttugiṉum tāṉ eṉṉa? ‘tāṉ’, ‘piṟar’ eṉḏṟu ōrāmal, taṉṉilaiyil pērāmal tāṉ eṉḏṟum niṉḏṟiḍavē tāṉ.

அன்வயம்: ‘தான்’, ‘பிறர்’ என்று ஓராமல், தன்னிலையில் பேராமல் தான் என்றும் நின்றிடவே தான், தான் அன்றி யார் உண்டு? தன்னை யார் என் சொலின் என்? தான் தன்னை வாழ்த்துகினும், தாழ்த்துகினும் தான் என்ன?

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ‘tāṉ’, ‘piṟar’ eṉḏṟu ōrāmal, taṉṉilaiyil pērāmal tāṉ eṉḏṟum niṉḏṟiḍavē tāṉ, tāṉ aṉḏṟi yār uṇḍu? taṉṉai yār eṉ soliṉ eṉ? tāṉ taṉṉai vāṙttugiṉunm, tāṙttugiṉum tāṉ eṉṉa?

English translation: When oneself always stands without departing in the state of oneself, without knowing as ‘oneself’ and ‘others’, who is there besides oneself? If who says what about oneself, what? Even if oneself praises oneself, even if disparages, so what?

Explanatory paraphrase: When oneself always stands [stays or remains] without departing [that is, without ever rising as ego] in the state of oneself [the real and natural state of oneself, in which one exists and shines as pure being-awareness (sat-cit), as one always actually is], without knowing as ‘oneself’ and ‘others’ [that is, without ever experiencing any distinction such as ‘this is myself’ and ‘those are others’], who is there besides oneself? If whoever says whatever about oneself [whether they praise or disparage oneself], [so] what [or what does it matter]? Even if oneself praises oneself, or even if [oneself] disparages [oneself], so what [or what indeed does it matter]?

Padavurai (word-explanation): தான் (tāṉ): oneself {nominative (first case) form of this generic pronoun, which can refer either to oneself or to any other thing, depending on the context, but which Bhagavan generally uses to mean ‘oneself’, like ātman in Sanskrit} | அன்றி (aṉḏṟi): besides, except | யார் (yār): who {interrogative pronoun} | உண்டு (uṇḍu): exists, there is {a special indeclinable form of the tenseless verb uḷ, ‘be’ or ‘exist’, used for all persons and genders and both singular and plural, and therefore conveying the same meaning as the English phrases ‘there is’ or ‘there are’} || தன்னை (taṉṉai): oneself {accusative (second case) form of tāṉ} | யார் (yār): who | என் (eṉ): what | சொலின் (soliṉ): if saying, if [who] says {conditional form of sol, ‘say’ or ‘speak’} | என் (eṉ): what {interrogative pronoun or adverb, used here in the sense of ‘so what’ or ‘what does it matter’} || தான் (tāṉ): oneself {as explained above} | தன்னை (taṉṉai): oneself {as explained above} | வாழ்த்துகினும் (vāṙttugiṉum): even if (or although) praising, applauding, eulogising, extolling {vāṙttugiṉ, a conditional form of vāṙttu, means ‘if praising’ or ‘if [one] praises’, and when the suffix um is added to a conditional, it changes the meaning ‘if’ to ‘even if’ or ‘although’} | தாழ்த்துகினும் (tāṙttugiṉum): even if (or although) disparaging, deriding, ridiculing, belittling, debasing, demeaning, putting down {tāṙttugiṉ, a conditional form of tāṙttu, means ‘if disparaging’ or ‘if [one] disparages’, and when the suffix um is added to a conditional, it changes the meaning ‘if’ to ‘even if’ or ‘although’} | தானென்ன (tāṉ-eṉṉa): so what, indeed what {compound of tāṉ, which is used here as an intensifier, and eṉṉa, an interrogative pronoun that means ‘what’, used here in the sense of ‘so what’ or ‘what does it matter’, so in this context tāṉ implies ‘so’ in ‘so what’ or ‘indeed’ in ‘what indeed does it matter’} || தான் (tāṉ): oneself | பிறர் (piṟar): others | என்று (eṉḏṟu): saying {an adverbial participle implying ‘that’, ‘thus’ or ‘as’} | ஓராமல் (ōrāmal): not knowing, without knowing {negative adverbial participle} | தன்னிலையில் (taṉṉilaiyil): in the self-state, in the state of oneself, in one’s own state {a locative (seventh case) form of taṉṉilai, a compound of taṉ (the inflectional base and a genitive [sixth case] form of tāṉ), which as the first word in a compound means ‘self-’, ‘of oneself’ or ‘one’s own’, and nilai, which means ‘state’ or ‘condition’; taṉṉilai, ‘the self-state’ or ‘the state of oneself’, therefore implies the real and natural state of ourself, in which we exist and shine as pure being-awareness (sat-cit), as we always actually are} | பேராமல் (pērāmal): not separating, not departing, not going away, not changing, not moving {negative adverbial participle} | தான் (tāṉ): oneself | என்றும் (eṉḏṟum): always, permanently, forever | நின்றிடவே (niṉḏṟiḍavē): when [one] stands, stays, stops, remains {an intensified form of niṉḏṟiḍa, an infinitive that means ‘to stand’, ‘to stay’, to stop’ or ‘to remain’, but that is used here idiomatically to mean ‘when standing’ or ‘when [one] stands’} | தான் (tāṉ): itself {used here either as a poetic expletive or as an intensifier implying ‘indeed’ or ‘actually’}.

Note: This verse is an original composition by Bhagavan.

Explanations and discussions:
2020-08-24: To the extent that we go deep in the practice of self-investigation and self-surrender, not only will we not be inclined to praise or disparage others, but we will be equally unconcerned about and unaffected by whatever praise or abuse may be directed at us by others
2014-11-20: If anyone claims to be self-realised yet takes offence when others do not recognise or believe them to be self-realised, they are clearly still experiencing differences between ‘myself’ and ‘others’, and hence they have not actually experienced the non-dual and otherless state of true self-experience
2014-03-28: A visitor once praised Bhagavan, saying to him, ‘Your realisation is unique in the spiritual history of the world’, to which he replied in English: ‘What is real in me is real in you and in everyone else. Where is the room for any difference?’ (as told to me by someone who was present at the time). Since in his experience the only thing that actually exists is self, ‘I am’, he did not see any difference between himself and others, so he never claimed to know anything that was not known by others, and he often said that in his view there is no one who is ignorant of self

Verse 39:

அத்துவித மென்று மகத்துறுக வோர்போது
மத்துவிதஞ் செய்கையி லாற்றற்க — புத்திரனே
யத்துவித மூவுலகத் தாகுங் குருவினோ
டத்துவித மாகா தறி.

attuvita meṉḏṟu mahattuṟuha vōrpōdu
mattuvitañ ceygaiyi lāṯṟaṯga — puttiraṉē
yattuvita mūvulahat tāhuṅ guruviṉō
ḍattuvita māhā daṟi.


பதச்சேதம்: அத்துவிதம் என்றும் அகத்து உறுக; ஓர் போதும் அத்துவிதம் செய்கையில் ஆற்றற்க. புத்திரனே, அத்துவிதம் மூ உலகத்து ஆகும்; குருவினோடு அத்துவிதம் ஆகாது. அறி.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): attuvitam eṉḏṟum ahattu uṟuha; ōr pōdum attuvitam seygaiyil āṯṟaṯga. puttiraṉē, attuvitam mū ulahattu āhum; guruviṉōḍu attuvitam āhādu. aṟi.

English translation: Always experience advaita in the heart; do not even once perform advaita in action. O son, advaita is appropriate in the three worlds; advaita is not appropriate with guru. Know.

Explanatory translation: Always experience [or cherish] advaita [non-duality] in [your] heart, [but] do not even once perform [display or parade] advaita in action. O son, advaita is appropriate in the three worlds, [but] advaita is not appropriate with guru [this is, even though it may be appropriate for one to claim a non-dual status with any of the three Gods, Brahma, Vishnu or Siva, in their respective worlds by asserting ‘You and I are one’, it is never appropriate for one to claim a non-dual status with guru]. Know [this clearly].

Padavurai (word-explanation): அத்துவிதம் (attuvitam): non-duality {a Tamil form of the Sanskrit advaita} | என்றும் (eṉḏṟum): always, permanently, forever | அகத்து (ahattu): in the heart {inflectional base of aham, a Tamil word that means ‘inside’, ‘heart’ or ‘mind’, used here in a locative (seventh case) sense} | உறுக (uṟuha): experience, cherish, may [you] experience, may [you] cherish {optative form of uṟu} || ஓர்போதும் (ōr-pōdum): even one time, even once {compound of ōr, a determiner that means ‘one’, pōdu, ‘time’, ‘moment’ or ‘occasion’, and the suffix um, which in this context means ‘even’} | அத்துவிதம் (attuvitam): advaita | செய்கையில் (seygaiyil): in action {a locative (seventh case) form of seygai, a verbal noun that means ‘action’, ‘deed’ or ‘doing’} | ஆற்றற்க (āṯṟaṯga): do not do, do not perform, do not enact, may [you] not do, may [you] not perform, may [you] not enact {negative optative form of āṯṟu, ‘do’, ‘perform’ or ‘enact’} || புத்திரனே (puttiraṉē): O son {a vocative (eighth case) form of puttiraṉ, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit putra, ‘son’} | அத்துவிதம் (attuvitam): advaita | மூவுலகத்து (mū-v-ulahattu): in the three worlds {compound of , ‘three’, and ulahattu, the inflectional base of ulaham, ‘world’, used here in a locative (seventh case) sense} | ஆகும் (āhum): is appropriate, is fit, is proper || குருவினோடு (guruviṉōḍu): with guru {a sociative (third case) form of guru} | அத்துவிதம் (attuvitam): advaita | ஆகாது (āhādu): is not appropriate, is not fit, is not proper || அறி (aṟi): know {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: This verse, which is also included in Guru Vācaka Kōvai as verse B14, is Bhagavan’s adaptation of verse 87 of Adi Sankara’s Tattvōpadēśa:
भावाद्वैतं सदा कुर्यात्क्रियाद्वैतं न कर्हिचित् ।
अद्वैतं त्रिषु लोकेषु नाद्वैतं गुरुणा सह ॥

bhāvādvaitaṁ sadā kuryātkriyādvaitaṁ na karhicit |
advaitaṁ triṣu lōkēṣu nādvaitaṁ guruṇā saha ||
On 16th February 1938 Bhagavan referred to this verse and explained its meaning, so Muruganar recorded what he said in verse 801 of Guru Vācaka Kōvai, on seeing which Bhagavan composed this verse, expressing the same meaning in different words.

Verse 40:

அகிலவே தாந்தசித் தாந்தசா ரத்தை
யகமுண்மை யாக வறைவ — னகஞ்செத்
தகமது வாகி லறிவுரு வாமவ்
வகமதே மிச்ச மறி.

akhilavē dāntasid dhāntasā rattai
yahamuṇmai yāha vaṟaiva — ṉahañcet
tahamadu vāhi laṟivuru vāmav
vahamadē micca maṟi.


பதச்சேதம்: அகில வேதாந்த சித்தாந்த சாரத்தை அகம் உண்மையாக அறைவன்: அகம் செத்து அகம் அது ஆகில், அறிவு உரு ஆம் அவ் அகம் அதே மிச்சம். அறி.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): akhila vēdānta siddhānta sārattai aham uṇmaiyāha aṟaivaṉ: aham settu aham adu āhil, aṟivu uru ām a-vv-aham-adē miccam. aṟi.

English translation: I shall proclaim truly the essence of the final conclusion of all vēdānta: if, I dying, I become that, that I, which is the form of awareness, alone is what remains. Know.

Explanatory paraphrase: I shall proclaim truly akhila-vēdānta-siddhānta-sāram [the essence or core of the final conclusion of all vēdānta]: if, I dying, I become that [that is, if ego dies by our knowing and being what we always actually are, namely ‘that’, brahman, the one infinite space of sat-cit, pure being-awareness, ‘I am’], that I, which is the form of awareness [cit-svarūpa or jñāna-svarūpa, the actual form or real nature of pure awareness, meaning awareness as it actually is], alone is what remains. Know [or be aware of] [this one I that exists and shines eternally as sat-cit].

Padavurai (word-explanation): அகில (akhila): whole, entire, complete, all | வேதாந்த (vēdānta): vēdānta, the anta [end or final conclusion] of the Vēdas | சித்தாந்த (siddhānta): accomplished end, established conclusion | சாரத்தை (sārattai): essence, substance, core {accusative (second case) form of sāram, a Tamil form of the Sanskrit sāra} | அகம் (aham): I {Sanskrit nominative singular first person pronoun} | உண்மையாக (uṇmaiyāha): truly {uṇmai means ‘isness’, ‘existence’, ‘reality’ or ‘truth’, and āha is an infinitive that is often used as an adverbial suffix} | அறைவன்: (aṟaivaṉ): [I] shall say, tell, speak, declare, proclaim || அகம் (aham): I | செத்து (settu): dying {adverbial participle} | அகம் (aham): I | அது (adu): that {singular distal demonstrative pronoun, here referring to brahman} | ஆகில் (āhil): if becoming, if being, if [I] become, if [I] am {conditional form of āhu, ‘be’ or ‘become’} | அறிவுரு (aṟivuru): awareness-form, awareness-nature, the form (or nature) of awareness {a compound of aṟivu, ‘knowledge’ or ‘awareness’ (implying here pure awareness), and uru, ‘form’ (used here in the sense of svarūpa, ‘actual form’ or ‘real nature’), so aṟivuru implies cit-svarūpa or jñāna-svarūpa} | ஆம் (ām): being, which is {adjectival participle} | அ (a): that {distal demonstrative prefix} | அகம் (aham): I | அதே (adē): only that, that alone {an intensified form of the singular distal demonstrative pronoun, adu, used here as an intensifying suffix appended to aham, so a-vv-aham-adē means ‘only that I’ or ‘that I alone’} | மிச்சம் (miccam): remnant, remainder, what remains || அறி (aṟi): know, be aware {root of this verb used here as an imperative}.

Note: This verse is Bhagavan’s adaptation of the forty-seventh and final verse of the Kaṭharudra Upaniṣad (also known as the Kaṭhaśruti Upaniṣad):
सर्ववेदान्तसिद्धान्तसारं वच्मि यथार्थतः ।
स्वयं मृत्वा स्वयं भूत्वा स्वयमेवावसिश्यते ॥

sarvavēdāntasiddhāntasāraṁ vacmi yathārthataḥ |
svayaṁ mṛtvā svayaṁ bhūtvā svayamēvāvasiśyatē ||
When he composed this verse, sometime prior to July 1928, he did so along with verses 9 and 25 (which are respectively translations of verses 46 and 47 of Dēvikālōttara – Jñāṉācāra-Vicāra-Paṭalam) to form a separate three-verse poem:
அகக்கம லத்தே யமல வசல
வகமுருவ மாகு மறிவே — தகத்தை
யகற்றிடுவ தாலவ் வகமா மறிவே
யகவீ டளிப்ப தறி.

Verse 9: What awareness is the blemishless, motionless ‘I’-form [the svarūpa or real nature of ‘I’] in the heart-lotus, only that awareness, which is ‘I’ [namely ‘I’ as it actually is, devoid of all adjuncts], is what will give inner liberation by removing ‘I’ [namely ego, which is ‘I’ mixed and conflated with adjuncts]. Know.

அகில வுபாதி யகன்ற வறிவே
தகமச் சிவமென் றனிச — மகத்தே
யகலாத் தியான மதனா லகத்தி
னகிலவா சத்தி யகற்று.

Verse 25: By incessantly uninterrupted meditation in the heart, ‘What awareness is devoid of every upādhi [adjunct, namely everything that one mistakes oneself to be], that śivam is I’, dispel every attachment of the mind.

அகிலவே தாந்தசித் தாந்தசா ரத்தை
யகமுண்மை யாக வறைவ — னகஞ்செத்
தகமது வாகி லறிவுரு வாமவ்
வகமதே மிச்ச மறி.

Verse 40: I shall proclaim truly akhila-vēdānta-siddhānta-sāram [the essence or core of the final conclusion of all vēdānta]: if, I dying, I become that, that I, which is the form of awareness [cit-svarūpa or jñāna-svarūpa, namely awareness as it actually is], alone is what remains. Know.

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