Thursday, 28 December 2017

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā: the extended version of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu

Sri Muruganar had collected twenty-one verses that Bhagavan had composed on various occasions, and in July 1928 he asked Bhagavan to compose some more verses in order to form a work of forty verses (like four ancient Tamil poems each of which consisted of forty verses, namely Iṉṉā Nāṟpadu, Iṉiyavai Nāṟpadu, Kār Nāṟpadu and Kaḷavaṙi Nāṟpadu) elucidating the nature of reality and the means to attain it. Accordingly on the 21st July 1928 Bhagavan began to compose more verses on this subject, and in order to arrange them into a logical order and to form them into coherent text, he and Muruganar would discuss in detail the progress of the work, where gaps needed to be filled, and which of the original twenty-one verses should be retained and which discarded.

In the end only three of the original twenty-one verses were retained in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, namely verses 16, 37 and 40, and of these three the original verse that became verse 16 (which is now included in Upadēśa Taṉippākkaḷ as verse 13) was modified by Bhagavan to form the present verse. The other eighteen of the original verses, along with three new verses that he composed while compiling Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, were not retained because they were not sufficiently germane to the subject, so these twenty-one discarded verses were formed into a separate work called Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham (the appendix or supplement to Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu). In 1931 nine more verses that Bhagavan had composed in the meanwhile were added to this Anubandham, another seven were added in 1938, and finally another four were added in 1940, so it became a work of forty-one verses, the first of which was then treated as a benedictory verse (maṅgalam) to the other forty.

Whereas most of the verses of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Anubandham are ones that Bhagavan translated from Sanskrit or Malayalam, all of the verses of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu are his own original compositions, and most of them were composed between 21st July and 8th August 1928 in answer to Muruganar’s prayer to compose a text explaining the nature of reality and the means to attain it. On 8th August 1928 Bhagavan and Muruganar considered Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu to be completed, and at that time it consisted of a text (nūl) of forty verses in veṇbā metre, each comprised of four lines, with one benedictory verse (maṅgalam), which was a kuṟaḷ veṇbā (a two-line veṇbā) and which is now the last two lines of the first maṅgalam verse.

However three days later, on 11th August 1928, Kavyakantha Ganapati Sastri was informed that Bhagavan had composed a new work, so he asked to see it, and on glancing at it he asked why the maṅgalam verse was not a four-line one like all the others. Bhagavan then explained to him that it was actually composed in the same metre but just a briefer version of it, and that Tirukkuṟaḷ (the best known and one of the most highly revered classics of ancient Tamil literature) consists entirely of such kuṟaḷ veṇbās, because it is particularly suited to expressing aphorisms. However Kavyakantha persisted, saying that since it is the same metre it would be better if it consisted of four lines like all the other verses, so Bhagavan looked at Muruganar, who suggested that the meaning could be made more clear if he were to compose two more lines before these two, and hence Bhagavan composed the first two lines of the first maṅgalam verse, thereby transforming it into a four-line veṇbā.

Kavyakantha then asked Bhagavan to explain the meaning of these four lines, and when he found that they made no direct mention of God, he remarked that a maṅgalam verse should praise God or invoke his blessings and suggested that Bhagavan should therefore compose another verse as the maṅgalam instead of this one. Bhagavan replied, however, that that would not be necessary, because this verse was appropriate to the aim and purpose of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, namely to elucidate the nature of reality and the means to attain it. Kavyakantha then read the whole work and found that only one verse mentioned a name of God, namely Mahēśaṉ (‘the Great Lord’, which is a name of Śiva), so he suggested that that would be a more suitable verse to have as the maṅgalam. Bhagavan and Muruganar then discussed this suggestion and decided that since the existing maṅgalam verse explains the practice of self-investigation (ātma-vicāra) while that other verse describes the practice of complete self-surrender, it would be appropriate to use that as a second maṅgalam verse. Therefore since that left only thirty-nine verses in the main text (nūl), Bhagavan composed and added one more verse, namely verse 31. Thus on that day, 11th August 1928, Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu was completed in its present form.

However, since devotees naturally wanted to include Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu among all his other works that they regularly chanted in his presence, in order to make it easier for them to memorise the verses in the correct order, Bhagavan linked all forty-two of them (the two maṅgalam verses and the forty verses of the main text) together as a single kaliveṇbā, as he did in the case of all the other works that he composed entirely in veṇbā metre, namely Ēkāṉma Pañcakam, Dēvikālōttaram: Jñāṉācāra-Vicāra-Paṭalam, Sarvajñāṉōttaram: Āṉma-Sāṭṣātkāra-p-Pirakaraṇam, Bhagavad Gītā Sāram and Āṉma-Bōdham, except Śrī Aruṇācala Pañcaratnam, which he did not link together as a kaliveṇbā because he had first composed it in Sanskrit, so when it was chanted in his presence each verse was recited first in Sanskrit and then in Tamil. Since உள்ளது நாற்பது (Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu) means ‘Forty Verses on What Is’ and since the kaliveṇbā version of it is not forty verses but just one, Bhagavan named it உபதேசக் கலிவெண்பா (Upadēśa-k-Kaliveṇbā), ‘Teachings in Kaliveṇbā’.

To understand what linking a series of veṇbās together as a kaliveṇbā entails, it is necessary for one to know at least a little about this வெண்பா (veṇbā) metre, which is formed of two or more lines (generally an even number of lines, except in the case of a cintiyal veṇbā, which consists of three lines, or some paḵṟoḍai veṇbās or kaliveṇbās of an iṉṉisai variety), and each line (aḍi) consists of four feet, except for the final line (īṯṟaḍi), which consists of two full feet and one terminating foot, which is of a shorter duration. Each foot (sīr) is formed of units called asai (a term that is often translated as ‘metrical syllable’, but which consists of either one or two actual syllables, as I will explain in more detail below), the plural of which is asaigaḷ, and whereas a full foot in a veṇbā consists of either two or three asaigaḷ, the terminating foot (īṯṟu-c-cīr) consists of just one asai (though according to one way of analysing them, two kinds of terminating foot are considered to consist of two asaigaḷ, though the second one is just a short ‘u’ sound). So for example a kuṟaḷ veṇbā (a ‘dwarf’ or short veṇbā) consists of one line of four feet and a final line of two full feet and one terminating foot, whereas a four-line veṇbā, which is the standard and most commonly occurring variety, consists of three lines of four feet and a final line of two full feet and one terminating foot.

A veṇbā consisting of five to twelve lines is called a பஃறொடை வெண்பா (paḵṟoḍai veṇbā) (a six-line example of which is the final verse of Āṉma-Bōdham, Bhagavan’s Tamil translation of Ātma-Bōdha), whereas one of thirteen or more lines is called a கலிவெண்பா (kaliveṇbā), but however many lines any such veṇbā consists of, each line will consist of four feet except for the final one, which will consist of two full feet and one terminating foot. Therefore when four or more four-line veṇbās are linked together to form a kaliveṇbā, the fourth line of each except the final verse will be transformed into a four-foot line by extending its terminating foot to form a full foot of two or three asaigaḷ (unless the terminating foot is of a type called kāsu or piṟappu, which I will explain below, in which case it may not need to be extended, because in a non-terminal position it would become a two-asai foot of the type called tēmā or puḷimā respectively) and by adding a fourth foot, and the syllables or words in the extension may extend the meaning of either the previous or the following verse, or in many cases both.

For example, when extending the last line of verse 25 to link it to verse 26, Bhagavan changed its terminating foot, யோர் (yōr), to யோர்வாய் (yōrvāy), thereby transforming the imperative ஓர் (ōr), which means ‘investigate’ or ‘know’, into an optative or more polite imperative, ஓர்வாய் (ōrvāy), which means ‘may you investigate’ or ‘may you know’, and then he added a fourth foot, கருவாம் (karuvām), from which the final mute consonant ம் (m) coalesced with the initial vowel அ (a) in the first foot of verse 26. கருவாம் (karuvām) is a euphonic coalescence of two words, ‘கரு ஆம்’ (karu ām), so it is a relative clause that means ‘which is the embryo [womb, efficient cause, inner substance or foundation]’ and that describes the first word of verse 26, அகந்தை (ahandai), ‘the ego’. Therefore when he linked all the forty-two verses of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu to form the one verse of Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā, he added valuable ideas like this to many of the verses.

Though the name வெண்பா (veṇbā) is a compound of two words, ‘வெள் பா’ (veḷ pā), which means a white, pure or simple verse, its unique prosody is actually quite complex, being defined by a set of strict rules of rhythm, rhyme and alliteration (as can be seen from the explanation of some of its rules given in Wikipedia both in Tamil, வெண்பா, and in English, Venpa). The primary, strictest and most complex rules for a veṇbā are those that govern its rhythm, and these apply to all varieties of veṇbā, whereas the rules that govern its rhyme and alliteration are secondary and less complex, and do not apply equally strictly to all varieties of veṇbā. A four-line veṇbā in which all the rules of rhyme and alliteration are strictly adhered to, as in the case of all the verses of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, is called a நேரிசை வெண்பா (nērisai veṇbā), whereas one in which any of these rules are not strictly adhered to is called an இன்னிசை வெண்பா (iṉṉisai veṇbā).

The rules that govern the rhythm of a veṇbā define all the permissible varieties of சீர் (sīr) or metrical foot that can be used, and the type of அசை (asai) that should begin each consecutive foot. There are two principal types of அசை (asai): நேரசை (nēr-asai), which consists one syllable, and நிரையசை (nirai-y-asai), which consists of two syllables, but these are generally referred to as just நேர் (nēr) and நிரை (nirai) respectively. There are also two other types of அசை (asai), which are rarely used except in the terminating foot (īṯṟu-c-cīr) of a veṇbā, namely நேர்பு (nērbu) and நிரைபு (niraibu), which are respectively a நேர் (nēr) or நிரை (nirai) followed by a short ‘u’ sound (as for example in the terminating feet of verses 19 and 27 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, namely சாற்று (sāṯṟu) in both cases, which is a nērbu, and of verses 5, 10 and 34, namely கழறு (kaṙaṟu), யறிவு (yaṟivu) and சழக்கு (caṙakku) respectively, all of which are niraibu).

The first syllable of a nirai must be short (either a short vowel or a consonant combined with a short vowel) and also open (not followed by a mute consonant, that is, one that is not followed by (and hence combined with) a vowel), whereas its second syllable can be either short or long and either open or closed (followed by a mute consonant). Like the second syllable of a nirai, a nēr can be either short or long and either open or closed, so if a foot (sīr) begins with a short open syllable, its first two syllables will form a nirai, or else its first syllable will form a nēr.

As I mentioned above, except the terminating foot (īṯṟu-c-cīr), each foot (sīr) in a veṇbā consists of either two or three asaigaḷ, but the third asai of any foot will always consist of a single syllable, so it will be a nēr. Therefore (excluding the terminating foot) there are eight varieties of sīr that can be used in a veṇbā (namely four each of two asaigaḷ and three asaigaḷ), and each variety is given a name that is easy to remember and is of the same metrical form as the sīr it describes, namely tēmā (nēr-nēr), puḷimā (nirai-nēr), kūviḷam (nēr-nirai), karuviḷam (nirai-nirai), tēmāṅgāy (nēr-nēr-nēr), puḷimāṅgāy (nirai-nēr-nēr), kūviḷaṅgāy (nēr-nirai-nēr) and karuviḷaṅgāy (nirai-nirai-nēr). Likewise there are four varieties of ஈற்றுச்சீர் (īṯṟu-c-cīr) or ‘terminating foot’, which are also given easily remembered names: nāḷ (nēr), malar (nirai), kāsu (nērbu), piṟappu (niraibu).

The varieties of sīr are classified according to their final asai, so there are two varieties of மாச்சீர் (mā-c-cīr), namely tēmā and puḷimā, two varieties of விளச்சீர் (viḷa-c-cīr), namely kūviḷam and karuviḷam, and four varieties of காய்ச்சீர் (kāy-c-cīr), namely tēmāṅgāy, puḷimāṅgāy, kūviḷaṅgāy and karuviḷaṅgāy. This classification is helpful to define தளை (taḷai), the ‘tie’ that binds each sīr to the next one so as to ensure that a rhythmic flow or pattern of sounds is maintained in each veṇbā, because the type of each sīr determines the type of asai that should begin the next sīr. That is, a mā-c-cīr (tēmā or puḷimā) must be followed by a sīr beginning with a nirai (puḷimā, karuviḷam, puḷimāṅgāy, karuviḷaṅgāy, malar or piṟappu), whereas a viḷa-c-cīr (kūviḷam or karuviḷam) or a kāy-c-cīr (tēmāṅgāy, puḷimāṅgāy, kūviḷaṅgāy or karuviḷaṅgāy) must be followed by a sīr beginning with a nēr (tēmā, kūviḷam, tēmāṅgāy, kūviḷaṅgāy, nāḷ or kāsu). These rules are called வெண்டளை (veṇḍaḷai), the தளை (taḷai) that characterises a வெண்பா (veṇbā), and for other types of metres other rules of taḷai apply.

As an example of how this works, let us consider verse 26 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:
அகந்தையுண் டாயி னனைத்துமுண் டாகு
மகந்தையின் றேலின் றனைத்து — மகந்தையே
யாவுமா மாதலால் யாதிதென்று நாடலே
யோவுதல் யாவுமென வோர்.

ahandaiyuṇ ḍāyi ṉaṉaittumuṇ ḍāhu
mahandaiyiṉ ḏṟēliṉ ḏṟaṉaittu — mahandaiyē
yāvumā mādalāl yādideṉḏṟu nādalē
yōvudal yāvumeṉa vōr
.

English translation: If the ego comes into existence, everything comes into existence; if the ego does not exist, everything does not exist. The ego itself is everything. Therefore, know that investigating what this is alone is giving up everything.
The asaigaḷ that form each sīr of this verse are:
nirai-nēr-nēr nēr-nēr nirai-nēr-nēr nēr-nēr
nirai-nēr-nēr nēr-nēr nirai-nēr — nirai-nēr-nēr
nēr-nirai nēr-nirai nēr-nirai-nēr nēr-nirai
nēr-nirai nēr-nirai-nēr nēr
.
Therefore the names of each of these feet (sīrgaḷ) are:
puḷimāṅgāy tēmā puḷimāṅgāy tēmā
puḷimāṅgāy tēmā puḷimā — puḷimāṅgāy
kūviḷam kūviḷam kūviḷaṅgāy kūviḷam
kūviḷam kūviḷaṅgāy nāḷ
.
Here we can see that, in accordance with the principles of veṇḍaḷai, each kāy-c-cīr (in this case each puḷimāṅgāy or kūviḷaṅgāy) and each viḷa-c-cīr (in this case each kūviḷam) is followed by a sīr beginning with a nēr-asai, whereas each mā-c-cīr (in this case each tēmā) is followed by a sīr beginning with a nirai-y-asai.

The principles that govern the rhymes and alliterations within each veṇbā are called தொடை (toḍai), which in this context means ‘connection’ (being derived from the causative form of தொடு (toḍu), which means to connect or link), and which is of two principal kinds, namely எதுகை (edugai), which is ‘rhyming’ or matching of the second letter or group of letters (whether a consonant, a consonant-consonant combination or a consonant-vowel combination) of two or more feet (sīrgaḷ), and மோனை (mōṉai), which is alliteration of the first letter (whether a vowel or a consonant-vowel combination) of two or more feet. Both of these types of toḍai are required in a நேரிசை வெண்பா (nērisai veṇbā), but before I explain how they should be used I should first mention one other feature of such a veṇbā.

That is, the fourth and final foot of the second line of a nērisai veṇbā (and of every alternate line of a nērisai kaliveṇbā) is what is called a தனிச்சொல் (taṉi-c-col) or ‘detached word’, and it is separated from the first three feet of that line by a dash. The reason it is generally called a தனிச்சொல் (taṉi-c-col) or ‘detached word’ rather than a தனிச்சீர் (taṉi-c-cīr) or ‘detached foot’, even though it often includes more than one word, is that it is detached from the preceding feet not only in terms of its intonation but also ideally in terms of its meaning. That is, its meaning is supposed to be separated from that of the preceding feet, such as by being the start of a new sentence (though this is not always the case), so it may either be a separate sentence, as in the case of the taṉi-c-col in verse 16 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, ‘நாமுடம்போ’ (nāmuḍambō), ‘Are we a body?’, or more often a part of the same sentence as the subsequent feet.

In a nērisai veṇbā an edugai connection (a rhyming of the second letter or group of letters) should exist between the first foot of the first and second lines and the taṉi-c-col (the fourth foot of the second line), and another edugai connection should exist between the first foot of the third and fourth lines. The edugai in the last two lines can match that of the first two lines (as in the case of the first maṅgalam verse of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu and verses 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 22, 25, 31, 32, 36, 39 and 40), but it need not do so (as in the case of the other twenty-nine verses). Therefore when Bhagavan extended each verse of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu to form Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā he had to add a new taṉi-c-col to each fourth line, and in each case the taṉi-c-col had to match the edugai of the first foot of that line and the preceding line.

According to the Tamil principles of alliteration (mōṉai) the first letter (which may either be a vowel or a consonant-vowel combination) of two or more feet (sīrgaḷ) must either be identical or belong to the same class (iṉam). The twelve Tamil vowels are divided into three classes: one is அ (a), ஆ (ā), ஐ (ai) and ஔ (au); another is இ (i), ஈ (ī), எ (e) and ஏ (ē), and the semivowel-vowel combination யா () also belongs to this class; and the final one is உ (u), ஊ (ū), ஒ (o), ஓ (ō). Likewise three pairs of consonants each form a class: one is ஞ் (ñ) and ந் (n); another is ம் (m) and வ் (v); and another is த் (t) and ச் (c).

In a nērisai veṇbā alliteration (mōṉai) must occur at a minimum between the first and third foot of each line, but in practice alliteration within each line and between consecutive lines is often more extensive. For example, feet that are linked by edugai are often also linked by mōṉai, and sometimes all the feet in a line or in two consecutive lines alliterate. More rarely, every foot in a veṇbā alliterates, and still more rarely every foot is linked by both mōṉai and edugai, as in the case of the first maṅgalam verse of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:
உள்ளதல துள்ளவுணர் வுள்ளதோ வுள்ளபொரு
ளுள்ளலற வுள்ளத்தே யுள்ளதா — லுள்ளமெனு
முள்ளபொரு ளுள்ளலெவ னுள்ளத்தே யுள்ளபடி
யுள்ளதே யுள்ள லுணர்.

uḷḷadala duḷḷavuṇar vuḷḷadō vuḷḷaporu
ḷuḷḷalaṟa vuḷḷattē yuḷḷadā — luḷḷameṉu
muḷḷaporu ḷuḷḷaleva ṉuḷḷattē yuḷḷapaḍi
yuḷḷadē yuḷḷa luṇar
.

English translation: If what exists did not exist, would existing awareness exist? Since the existing substance exists in the heart without thought, how to think of the existing substance, which is called ‘heart’? Being in the heart as it is alone is thinking. Know.
In this verse the first letter of the initial foot is the vowel ‘உ’ (u), and this is also the first vowel of each subsequent foot, so this forms a mōṉai connection (alliteration) between every foot of the verse (in other words, every foot alliterates). Likewise the second group of letters in the initial foot of this verse is ‘ள்ள’ (ḷḷa), and this is also the second group of letters in each subsequent foot except the terminating one, so this forms an edugai connection between every foot except the last.

Note that though every foot except the first one begins with a consonant, this is not counted from the perspective of mōṉai, because in each case the consonant has coalesced with the initial vowel உ (u) according the principles of puṇarcci or sandhi (euphonic conjoining of consecutive letters, either between two consecutive words or between the units that make up a word such as suffixes and prefixes), so it is either the last letter of the previous word, the last consonant of the previous word if that word ended with a ‘u’, or the letter ‘y’ or ‘v’ added as a euphonic glide if the previous word ended with any other vowel.

However as I mentioned earlier, it is very unusual for every foot in a verse to have the same edugai and mōṉai, as in this verse, so a more usual pattern of edugai and mōṉai occurs in most other verses of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, such as verse 30:
நானா ரெனமனமுண் ணாடியுள நண்ணவே
நானா மவன்றலை நாணமுற — நானானாத்
தோன்றுமொன்று தானாகத் தோன்றினுநா னன்றுபொருள்
பூன்றமது தானாம் பொருள்.

nāṉā reṉamaṉamuṇ ṇāḍiyuḷa naṇṇavē
nāṉā mavaṉḏṟalai nāṇamuṟa — nāṉāṉāt
tōṉḏṟumoṉḏṟu tāṉāhat tōṉḏṟiṉunā ṉaṉḏṟuporuḷ
pūṉḏṟamadu tāṉām poruḷ
.

English translation: As soon as the mind reaches the heart inwardly investigating who am I, when he who is ‘I’ dies, one thing appears spontaneously as ‘I am I’. Though it appears, it is not ‘I’. It is the entire substance, the substance that is oneself.
The edugai in the first two lines of this verse is ‘னா’ (ṉā), a consonant-vowel combination, which is the second letter (or syllable as we would say in English) in the first foot of each of these two lines and of the taṉi-c-col, whereas the edugai in the last two lines is ‘ன்று’ (ṉṟu) and ‘ன்ற’ (ṉṟa), which are consonant-consonant combinations, which are respectively the second group of letters in the first foot of each of these two lines. In each of the four lines the first and third feet alliterate: in the first line the mōṉai or alliterated letter is ‘நா’ () and ‘ணா’ (ṇā); in the second line it is again ‘நா’ (), but in this line it is the initial letter not only of the first and third feet but also of the fourth; in the third line it is ‘தோ’ (); and in the fourth line it is ‘பூ’ () and ‘பொ’ (po), in which the vowels are considered to be matching for the purposes of alliteration (mōṉai).

What I have explained here is just the basic rules of சீர் (sīr), தளை (taḷai) and தொடை (toḍai) that define a வெண்பா (veṇbā), enough to give at least a rough idea of what a highly sophisticated form of poetry it is, but there is more to it than just these basic rules. For example, the type of sīr and the combination of them used in a veṇbā determine its rhythm, which is called ஓசை (ōsai) in Tamil, and though the rhythm of all veṇbās is what is called செப்பலோசை (seppal-ōsai), which means ‘replying rhythm’ or ‘declaring rhythm’ (in the sense of replying or declaring in a majestic, dignified or authoritative manner), there are different kinds of this rhythm, which depend on whether a veṇbā consists entirely or mostly of இயற்சீர்கள் (iyaṟ-cīrgaḷ: feet consisting of two asaigaḷ), entirely or mostly of வெண்சீர்கள் (veṇ-cīrgaḷ: feet consisting of three asaigaḷ), or a more or less even mixture of both. Each kind of rhythm has a certain tone and thereby expresses a particular bhāva (feeling, emotion, mood or attitude), so since the type of sīr used (and consequently the type of taḷai formed between consecutive sīrgaḷ) sets the tone of each veṇbā, and since its tone should be appropriate its meaning, a skilful poet will naturally compose veṇbās in which the tone matches the meaning. Therefore the ability to compose veṇbās is both a science and an art, and it is considered to be the benchmark that defines a poet in Tamil.

However, for poets who are not familiar with classical Tamil literature, composing a veṇbā is extremely challenging and in some cases insurmountably so, as Kavyakantha Ganapati Sastri discovered when he tried to do so, because though he was considered by many to be the most talented Sanskrit poet of his time and had been awarded the title ‘kāvyakaṇṭha’ (one who has poetry in his throat) because of his poetic skill and ability to compose extempore verses in Sanskrit, he found that he was not able to compose even one veṇbā. How he discovered this is that, since he did not know much about the sophistication of Tamil poetry, he was once talking in Bhagavan’s presence about the greatness of Sanskrit poetry, saying that no other language in the world has such intricate, sublime and beautiful metres, so Bhagavan asked him whether there is any metre in Sanskrit comparable to veṇbā in Tamil. He therefore asked Bhagavan to explain the rules of veṇbā, saying that even if no such metre existed in Sanskrit he could compose Sanskrit verses in it. However when Bhagavan explained to him all the rules, he struggled to compose a veṇbā in Sanskrit, but each time he attempted Bhagavan pointed out errors that disqualified it, so he eventually gave up. Bhagavan then suggested that he could instead try to compose a veṇbā in Telugu, his mother tongue, but though he tried he did not succeed.

Soon after he composed Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu Bhagavan asked Lakshmana Sarma whether he had read it, but he replied that it was difficult for him understand such classical Tamil poetry, because at school he had opted to study Sanskrit instead of Tamil as his second language (since in those days English was the primary language of instruction in most Indian schools, and as a second language children could choose to study either their native language or Sanskrit, so like most other brahmins, Lakshmana Sarma had chosen to study Sanskrit). However, since Bhagavan had asked him, he took this opportunity to ask Bhagavan to teach him the meaning of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, and when Bhagavan agreed and began to do so he became so entranced by it that he wanted Bhagavan to translate it into Sanskrit, and since Bhagavan had told him that Kavyakantha had been unable to compose any veṇbā in Sanskrit, he asked Bhagavan to translate Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu into Sanskrit in veṇbā metre.

Bhagavan declined, however, saying that he (Sarma) was more proficient in Sanskrit than himself, and therefore suggested that he should try to translate it himself. Lakshmana Sarma replied that since even Kavyakantha was not able to compose any veṇbās, he would not be able to do so, and hence only Bhagavan could do so, but Bhagavan told him that composing veṇbās is not actually so difficult if one is familiar with their natural rhythm and their simple rules of rhyme and alliteration, so he agreed to try if Bhagavan would help him. He accordingly began by trying to translate the first verse as a veṇbā in Sanskrit, but he was not able to do so, so he asked Bhagavan to show him how it could be done, and hence Bhagavan composed the following translation of it in veṇbā:
सद्विना सद्ज्ञान मस्ति किमुसत्यम्
वृत्तिरहि तम्हृदिवि भात्यतः — तत्तृदयम्
ध्यायतिक थम्हृदित दात्मभा वस्थितिर्
ध्यानम्स द्वस्तुनस् स्यात् ॥

sadvinā sadjñāna masti kimusatyam
vṛttirahi tamhṛdivi bhātyataḥ — tattṛdayam
dhyāyatika thamhṛdita dātmabhā vasthitir
dhyānamsa dvastunas syāt
.

पदच्छेद: सत् विना सत् ज्ञानम् अस्ति किमु? सत्यम् वृत्ति रहितम् हृदि विभाति. अतस् तत् हृदयम् ध्यायति कथम्? हृदि तदात्म भाव स्थितिर् ध्यानम् सत् वस्तुनः. स्यात्.

Padacchēda (word-separation): sat vinā sat-jñānam asti kimu? satyam vṛtti rahitam hṛdi vibhāti. atas tat hṛdayam dhyāyati katham? hṛdi tadātma-bhāva sthitir dhyānam sat-vastunaḥ. syāt.

English translation: Without sat [existence, being or reality], could sat-jñānam [awareness of being] exist? The reality shines in the heart free of thoughts. Therefore how to meditate on it, the heart? Standing [staying, remaining or abiding] in the heart as it is [that is, as thought-free being] is contemplation of [or meditation on] sat-vastu [the real substance or essence, which is being]. May [you] be [as it is].
Lakshmana Sarma was very happy when Bhagavan composed this verse, so he again asked him to translate all the verses of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu in this manner, but Bhagavan replied that it would be more useful for him (Sarma) if he were to compose his own translation, so he began to translate it in a simpler Sanskrit metre. After completing all the verses, he began again, this time choosing a different metre, and in this way he composed several translations in different metres until he had one he was satisfied with. Since he sought Bhagavan’s help each time, not only to assist him in composing the verses but also to explain the meaning and implication of the original Tamil verses, he had a unique opportunity to study Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu repeatedly under the close guidance of Bhagavan.

Many years later, in February 1947, Bhagavan mentioned to Suri Nagamma that Kavyakantha had not been able to compose any veṇbā in either Sanskrit or Telugu, so she asked him to compose some veṇbās in Telugu, and though he initially declined, the next day he composed three Telugu veṇbās, which he immediately translated into Tamil, and a few days later he wrote two more in both Telugu and Tamil, and then he named the Tamil version of these five verses Ēkāṉma Pañcakam. How he came to compose these verses is recorded by Suri Nagamma in more detail in letters 95 and 96 (dated 15th and 20th February 1947) of Letters from Ramanasramam (2006 edition, pages 191-5).

I once asked Sadhu Om why, when Kavyakantha’s skill as a poet was of such high repute, he was not able to compose any veṇbā, to which he replied, ‘Yes, it is a wonder. Perhaps Bhagavan’s silent grace prevented him in order to subdue his pride, but it may also be partly because he was not familiar with Tamil literature in general and with veṇbās in particular’. He then explained that the best way to learn to write poetry in any metre is to read, recite or listen to verses of that metre, and he said that in his case, for example, he was able to compose veṇbās even before he learnt any of the rules of sīr, taḷai and toḍai and without analysing or even thinking about them, and that he had learnt to do so simply because he had heard and read many veṇbās and was therefore able to recognise their natural pattern and flow.

I then asked him if it would be possible to compose veṇbās in any language, such as in English, even though it is so unlike Tamil, and he replied, ‘Yes, it would be very easy’, and then immediately composed an English veṇbā:
When you are | knowing all | when you are | almighty
When you are | all love | verily Lord — then all my
Asking | anything more | undoubted | ly betrays
Loss of | the whole of my | love.
When written or printed, lines of Tamil poetry are always divided according to feet (sīrgaḷ) rather than words (that is, space is left between each two consecutive feet, but not between words within any foot), even though part of a word may belong to one foot while the rest may belong to the next one, and also though one foot may contain two or more words coalesced. Accordingly the first line of this verse would be written or printed as ‘Whenyouare knowingall whenyouare almighty’, but to make it easier to read I left each word separated and typed a vertical line between each two consecutive feet within a line, even though that meant dividing one word in two, namely ‘undoubtedly’, which is split here between the last two feet of the third line.

If we analyse this verse, we can see that it complies with all the rules of sīr, taḷai and toḍai that define a veṇbā. The type of each sīr is:
tēmāṅgāy tēmāṅgāy tēmāṅgāy tēmāṅgāy
tēmāṅgāy tēmā puḷimāṅgāy — tēmāṅgāy
tēmā puḷimāṅgāy tēmāṅgāy tēmāṅgāy
tēmā puḷimāṅgāy nāḷ
.
In accordance with the principles of veṇḍaḷai, each kāy-c-cīr (tēmāṅgāy or puḷimāṅgāy) is followed by a foot beginning with a nēr (tēmāṅgāy, tēmā or nāḷ) and each mā-c-cīr (tēmā) is followed by a foot beginning with a nirai (puḷimāṅgāy).

In the first line the alliteration (mōṉai) is the syllable ‘whe’ that begins the first and third feet; in the second line it is ‘whe’ in the first foot and ‘ve’ in the third foot; in the third line it is ‘a’ in the first foot, which in ‘ask’ is pronounced like ஆ (ā) in Tamil, and ‘u’ in the third foot, which in the prefix ‘un’ is pronounced like அ (a) in Tamil and therefore belongs to the same class as the ‘a’ in ‘ask’; and in the final line it is the syllable ‘lo’ that begins the first and third feet.

In the first two lines the rhyme (edugai) is the syllable ‘en’ in ‘when’ and ‘then’, which occurs not only in the first foot of the first line and the first and last feet of the second line, as required, but also coincidentally in the third foot of the first line. In the last two lines the edugai is the ‘s’ in the first foot of the third line, ‘asking’, and in the first foot of the last line, ‘loss of’. However, one of the requirements of edugai is that in each case the preceding vowel (the one in the first syllable of the foot) should be of the same length and hence the same duration, so since the ‘a’ in ‘ask’ is pronounced as a long vowel, like ஆ (ā) in Tamil, the ‘o’ in ‘loss’ needs to be lengthened so that it sounds somewhat like ‘aw’ in ‘law’ or ‘awful’, much as the present British Queen and an earlier generation of British aristocrats might pronounce it if they were to say, ‘Oh, what a terrible loss’ (pronounced ‘lauss’) or ‘It was lost’ (pronounced ‘laust’), or as they might pronounce the usually short ‘o’ in ‘God’ as ‘Gawd’ (a somewhat more exaggerated form of which is also widely used for emphasis in expressions such as ‘Oh my Gawd’ or ‘Gawd help us’). Such lengthening of a vowel for metrical purposes is permissible and quite common in classical Tamil poetry, such as in the first word of verse 28 of Upadēśa Undiyār, தனாது (taṉādu), in which for the purpose of edugai Bhagavan lengthened the usually short second syllable in தனது (taṉadu), which means ‘one’s own’ or ‘of oneself’, and also in the third foot of the second line of verse 32 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, in which he lengthened the already long second syllable in இராது (irādu), which means ‘not being’, ‘without being’ or in this case ‘instead of being’, making it இராஅது (irāadu), in order to transform what would otherwise have been just one nirai, namely ‘திரா’ (dirā), into a full foot of two asaigaḷ, a nirai and a nēr, namely ‘திராஅ’ (dirāa).

After I posted my previous article, Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation, I decided that my translation of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu would be incomplete if I did not also post a translation of Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā, because the meaning of many of the verses of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu is enhanced by the extensions that Bhagavan added to them in Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā. As far as I know the first English translation of Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā was one that Sadhu Om and I made together, which was first published on pages 217-22 of the October 1981 issue of The Mountain Path under the title ‘Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu – Kaliveṇbā’, and which David Godman later reproduced on his blog. A variation of that translation along with a word-for-word meaning was also included in the book Sri Ramanopadesa Noonmalai, but the translation of it that I give below is an entirely fresh one and more accurate than all my previous translations of it. The core of this translation is the same as the translation of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu in my previous article, together with a fresh translation of the extensions that Bhagavan added when composing Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā.

When I began to write this article I intended to write a brief explanation about each of these extensions, but when doing so I found myself explaining other words and ideas in each verse, since they seemed in need of explanation at least as much if not more than the extensions, so I then decided to write a more detailed explanation of each verse, until I found that doing so was taking so long that it would take me several months to complete, and would make this article into the size of a book of several hundred pages. Therefore I decided to include in this article only my translation and explanatory paraphrase of each verse, and to post my detailed explanations of them as a series of separate articles over the coming months.

Though I have now written a detailed explanation for many of these verses, my explanations of some of them are more detailed than others, so I need to revise (and in most case elaborate) each of them before posting them. However, though I expect to post the first of them soon, I will not be able to write more explanations for a while, because I need to devote some time to revising and editing the English translation of Sādhanai Sāram, which I should have done earlier because it is long overdue for republication. I will also soon have to do at least some minimal editing on The Path of Sri Ramana, which is likewise due for republication, so while I am working on these I will have less time to write anything for this blog, but I will try to post at least some short articles from time to time, such as ones adapted from recent emails I have written in reply to friends who have written asking me about various aspects of Bhagavan’s teachings.
  1. Pāyiram verse 1 (introduction to Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu)
  2. Pāyiram verse 2 (introduction to Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā)
  3. நூல் (nūl): Text
  4. Translation
  5. Lines 1-4: extended version of the first maṅgalam verse of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  6. Lines 4-8: extended version of the second maṅgalam verse of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  7. Lines 8-12: extended version of verse 1 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  8. Lines 12-16: extended version of verse 2 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  9. Lines 16-20: extended version of verse 3 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  10. Lines 20-24: extended version of verse 4 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  11. Lines 24-28: extended version of verse 5 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  12. Lines 28-32: extended version of verse 6 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  13. Lines 32-36: extended version of verse 7 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  14. Lines 36-40: extended version of verse 8 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  15. Lines 40-44: extended version of verse 9 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  16. Lines 44-48: extended version of verse 10 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  17. Lines 48-52: extended version of verse 11 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  18. Lines 52-56: extended version of verse 12 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  19. Lines 56-60: extended version of verse 13 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  20. Lines 60-64: extended version of verse 14 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  21. Lines 64-68: extended version of verse 15 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  22. Lines 68-72: extended version of verse 16 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  23. Lines 72-76: extended version of verse 17 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  24. Lines 76-80: extended version of verse 18 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  25. Lines 80-84: extended version of verse 19 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  26. Lines 84-88: extended version of verse 20 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  27. Lines 88-92: extended version of verse 21 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  28. Lines 92-96: extended version of verse 22 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  29. Lines 96-100: extended version of verse 23 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  30. Lines 101-104: verse 24 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  31. Lines 104-108: extended version of verse 25 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  32. Lines 108-112: extended version of verse 26 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  33. Lines 112-116: extended version of verse 27 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  34. Lines 116-120: extended version of verse 28 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  35. Lines 120-124: extended version of verse 29 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  36. Lines 124-128: extended version of verse 30 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  37. Lines 128-132: extended version of verse 31 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  38. Lines 132-136: extended version of verse 32 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  39. Lines 136-140: extended version of verse 33 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  40. Lines 140-144: extended version of verse 34 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  41. Lines 144-148: extended version of verse 35 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  42. Lines 148-152: extended version of verse 36 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  43. Lines 152-156: extended version of verse 37 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  44. Lines 156-160: extended version of verse 38 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  45. Lines 160-164: extended version of verse 39 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  46. Lines 164-168: extended version of verse 40 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu
  47. Lines 168-170: concluding lines of the kaliveṇbā
உபதேசக் கலிவெண்பா (Upadēśa-k-Kaliveṇbā): Teachings in a Kaliveṇbā Verse

பாயிரம் (pāyiram): Introductory Verses (composed by Sri Muruganar)

Pāyiram verse 1 (introduction to Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu):

மெய்யி னியல்புமதை மேவுந் திறனுமெமக்
குய்யும் படிமுருக னோதுகெனப் — பொய்யுலகின்
கள்ளமறு மாற்றாற் கனரமணன் கட்டுரைத்தா
னுள்ளது நாற்ப துவந்து.

meyyi ṉiyalbumadai mēvun tiṟaṉumemak
kuyyum paḍimuruga ṉōdukeṉap — poyyulahiṉ
kaḷḷamaṟu māṯṟāṯ gaṉaramaṇaṉ kaṭṭuraittā
ṉuḷḷadu nāṟpa duvandu
.

பதச்சேதம்: மெய்யின் இயல்பும், அதை மேவும் திறனும், எமக்கு உய்யும்படி முருகன் ஓதுக என, பொய் உலகின் கள்ளம் அறும் ஆற்றால் கன ரமணன் கட்டுரைத்தான் உள்ளது நாற்பது உவந்து.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): meyyiṉ iyalbum, adai mēvum tiṟaṉum, emakku uyyumpaḍi murugaṉ ōduka eṉa, poy ulahiṉ kaḷḷam aṟum āṯṟāl gaṉa ramaṇaṉ kaṭṭuraittāṉ uḷḷadu nāṟpadu uvandu.

அன்வயம் (பதம் பிரித்துக் கொண்டு கூட்டல்): முருகன் ‘மெய்யின் இயல்பும், அதை மேவும் திறனும், உய்யும்படி எமக்கு ஓதுக’ என, கன ரமணன் பொய் உலகின் கள்ளம் அறும் ஆற்றால் உவந்து ‘உள்ளது நாற்பது’ கட்டுரைத்தான்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): murugaṉ ‘meyyiṉ iyalbum, adai mēvum tiṟaṉum, uyyumpaḍi emakku ōduka’ eṉa, gaṉa ramaṇaṉ poy ulahiṉ kaḷḷam aṟum āṯṟāl uvandu uḷḷadu nāṟpadu kaṭṭu uraittāṉ.

English translation: When Muruganar asked, ‘So that we may be saved, reveal to us the nature of reality and the means by which to reach [attain or join] it’, the noble Ramana, because he is free from the delusion of the unreal world, joyfully and with certainty composed Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu.

Pāyiram verse 2 (introduction to Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā):

உள்ளதொன் றன்றுபல வென்பார்க ளுட்கொளுமா
றுள்ளதொன் றென்றேதா னோதியவவ் — வுள்ளது
நாற்பதுவெண் பாக்களையோர் நற்கலிவெண் பாவாக்கி
யேற்பவளித் தான்ரமண னெண்.

uḷḷadoṉ ḏṟaṉḏṟupala veṉbārga ḷuṭkoḷumā
ṟuḷḷadoṉ ḏṟeṉḏṟētā ṉōdiyavav — vuḷḷadu
nāṟpaduveṇ bākkaḷaiyōr naṯkaliveṇ bāvākki
yēṯpavaḷit tāṉramaṇa ṉeṇ
.

பதச்சேதம்: ‘உள்ளது ஒன்று அன்று, பல’ என்பார்கள் உட்கொளுமாறு, ‘உள்ளது ஒன்று’ என்றே தான் ஓதிய அவ் ‘வுள்ளது நாற்பது’ வெண்பாக்களை ஓர் நல் கலிவெண்பா ஆக்கி ஏற்ப அளித்தான் ரமணன்; எண்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ‘uḷḷadu oṉḏṟu aṉḏṟu, pala’ eṉbārgaḷ uṭkoḷumāṟu, ‘uḷḷadu oṉḏṟu’ eṉḏṟē tāṉ ōdiya a-vv-uḷḷadu nāṟpadu veṇbākkaḷai ōr nal kaliveṇbā ākki ēṯpa aḷittāṉ ramaṇaṉ; eṇ.

அன்வயம்: ‘உள்ளது ஒன்று அன்று, பல’ என்பார்கள் உட்கொளுமாறு, ரமணன் தான் ‘உள்ளது ஒன்று’ என்றே ஓதிய அவ் ‘வுள்ளது நாற்பது’ வெண்பாக்களை ஓர் நல் கலிவெண்பா ஆக்கி ஏற்ப அளித்தான்; எண்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ‘uḷḷadu oṉḏṟu aṉḏṟu, pala’ eṉbārgaḷ uṭkoḷumāṟu, ramaṇaṉ tāṉ ‘uḷḷadu oṉḏṟu’ eṉḏṟē ōdiya a-vv-uḷḷadu nāṟpadu veṇbākkaḷai ōr nal kaliveṇbā ākki ēṯpa aḷittāṉ; eṇ.

English translation: To say that what exists is one so that those who say that what exists is not one but many may understand, consider that Ramana aptly gave [this Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā by] making those forty veṇbās on what exists into one fine kaliveṇbā.

நூல் (nūl): Text

உள்ளதல துள்ளவுணர் வுளளதோ வுள்ளபொரு
ளுள்ளலற வுள்ளத்தே யுள்ளதா — லுள்ளமெனு
முள்ளபொரு ளுள்ளலெவ னுள்ளத்தே யுள்ளபடி
யுள்ளதே யுள்ள லுணர்வாயே — உள்ளே                                            4
மரணபய மிக்குளவம் மக்களர ணாக
மரணபவ மில்லா மகேசன் — சரணமே
சார்வர்தஞ் சார்வொடுதாஞ் சாவுற்றார் சாவெண்ணஞ்
சார்வரோ சாவா தவர்நித்தர் — பார்வைசேர்                                     8
நாமுலகங் காண்டலா னானாவாஞ் சத்தியுள
வோர்முதலை யொப்ப லொருதலையே — நாமவுருச்
சித்திரமும் பார்ப்பானுஞ் சேர்படமு மாரொளியு
மத்தனையுந் தானா மவனுலகு — கர்த்தனுயிர்                                12
மும்முதலை யெம்மதம முற்கொள்ளு மோர்முதலே
மும்முதலாய் நிற்குமென்று மும்முதலு — மும்முதலே
யென்னலகங் கார மிருக்குமட்டே யான்கெட்டுத்
தன்னிலையி னிற்ற றலையாகுங் — கொன்னே                              16
யுலகுமெய்பொய்த் தோற்ற முலகறிவா மன்றென்
றுலகுசுக மன்றென் றுரைத்தெ — னுலகுவிட்டுத்
தன்னையோர்ந் தொன்றிரண்டு தானற்று நானற்ற
வந்நிலையெல் லார்க்குமொப் பாமூனே — துன்னு                           20
முருவந்தா னாயி னுலகுபர மற்றா
முருவந்தா னன்றே லுவற்றி — னுருவத்தைக்
கண்ணுறுதல் யாவனெவன் கண்ணலாற் காட்சியுண்டோ
கண்ணதுதா னந்தமிலாக் கண்ணாமே — யெண்ணி                       24
லுடல்பஞ்ச கோச வுருவதனா லைந்து
முடலென்னுஞ் சொல்லி லொடுங்கு — முடலன்றி
யுண்டோ வுலக முடல்விட் டுலகத்தைக்
கண்டா ருளரோ கழறுவாய் — கண்ட                                             28
வுலகைம் புலன்க ளுருவேறன் றவ்வைம்
புலனைம் பொறிக்குப் புலனா — முலகைமன
மொன்றைம் பொறிவாயா லோர்ந்திடுத லான்மனத்தை
யன்றியுல குண்டோ வறைநேரே — நின்ற                                       32
வுலகறிவு மொன்றா யுதித்தொடுங்கு மேனு
முலகறிவு தன்னா லொளிரு — முலகறிவு
தோன்றிமறை தற்கிடனாய்த் தோன்றிமறை யாதொளிரும்
பூன்றமா மஃதே பொருளாமா — லேன்றதா                                     36
மெப்பெயரிட் டெவ்வுருவி லேத்தினுமார் பேருருவி
லப்பொருளைக் காண்வழிய தாயினுமம் — மெய்ப்பொருளி
னுண்மையிற்ற னுண்மையினை யோர்ந்தொடுங்கி யொன்றுதலே
யுண்மையிற் காண லுணர்ந்திடுக — விண்மை                               40
யிரட்டைகண் முப்புடிக ளென்றுமொன்று பற்றி
யிருப்பவா மவ்வொன்றே தென்று — கருத்தினுட்
கண்டாற் கழலுமவை கண்டவ ரேயுண்மை
கண்டார் கலங்காரே காணிருள்போன் — மண்டு                            44
மறியாமை விட்டறிவின் றாமறிவு விட்டவ்
வறியாமை யின்றாகு மந்த — வறிவு
மறியா மையுமார்க்கென் றம்முதலாந் தன்னை
யறியு மறிவே யறிவா — மறிப                                                        48
வறிவுறுந் தன்னை யறியா தயலை
யறிவ தறியாமை யன்றி — யறிவோ
வறிவயற் காதாரத் தன்னை யறிய
வறிவறி யாமை யறுமே — யறவே                                                   52
யறிவறி யாமையு மற்றதறி வாமே
யறியும துண்மையறி வாகா — தறிதற்
கறிவித்தற் கன்னியமின் றாயவிர்வ தாற்றா
னறிவாகும் பாழன் றறிவாய் — செறிவாய                                      56
ஞானமாந் தானேமெய் நானாவா ஞானமஞ்
ஞானமாம் பொய்யாமஞ் ஞானமுமே — ஞானமாந்
தன்னையன்றி யின்றணிக டாம்பலவும் பொய்மெய்யாம்
பொன்னையன்றி யுண்டோ புகலுடனா — னென்னுமத்                    60
தன்மையுண்டேன் முன்னிலைப டர்க்கைக டாமுளவாந்
தன்மையி னுண்மையைத் தானாய்ந்து — தன்மையறின்
முன்னிலைப டர்க்கை முடிவுற்றொன் றாயொளிருந்
தன்மையே தன்னிலைமை தானிதமு — மன்னு                               64
நிகழ்வினைப் பற்றி யிறப்பெதிர்வு நிற்ப
நிகழ்கா லவையு நிகழ்வே — நிகழ்வொன்றே
யின்றுண்மை தேரா திறப்பெதிர்வு தேரவுன
லொன்றின்றி யெண்ண வுனலுணர — நின்றபொரு                        68
ணாமன்றி நாளேது நாடேது நாடுங்கா
னாமுடம்பே னாணாட்டு ணாம்படுவ — நாமுடம்போ
நாமின்றன் றென்றுமொன்று நாடிங்கங் கெங்குமொன்றா
னாமுண்டு நாணாடி னாமூன — மாமிவ்                                         72
வுடனானே தன்னை யுணரார்க் குணர்ந்தார்க்
குடலளவே நான்ற னுணரார்க் — குடலுள்ளே
தன்னுணர்ந்தார்க் கெல்லையறத் தானொளிரு நானிதுவே
யின்னவர்தம் பேதமென வெண்ணுவாய் — முன்னா                        76
முலகுண்மை யாகு முணர்வில்லார்க் குள்ளார்க்
குலகளவா முண்மை யுணரார்க் — குலகினுக்
காதார மாயுருவற் றாருமுணர்ந் தாருண்மை
யீதாகும் பேதமிவர்க் கெண்ணுக — பேத                                         80
விதிமதி மூல விவேக மிலார்க்கே
விதிமதி வெல்லும் விவாதம் — விதிமதிகட்
கோர்முதலாந் தன்னை யுணர்ந்தா ரவைதணந்தார்
சார்வரோ பின்னுமவை சாற்றுவாய் — சார்பவை                            84
காணுந் தனைவிட்டுத் தான்கடவு ளைக்காணல்
காணு மனோமயமாங் காட்சிதனைக் — காணுமவன்
றான்கடவுள் கண்டானாந் தன்முதலைத் தான்முதல்போய்த்
தான்கடவு ளன்றியில தாலுயிராத் — தான்கருதுந்                            88
தன்னைத்தான் காண றலைவன் றனைக்காண
லென்னும்பன் னூலுண்மை யென்னையெனின் — றன்னைத்தான்
காணலெவன் றானொன்றாற் காணவொணா தேற்றலைவற்
காணலெவ னூணாதல் காணெவையுங் — காணு                            92
மதிக்கொளி தந்தம் மதிக்கு ளொளிரு
மதியினை யுள்ளே மடக்கிப் — பதியிற்
பதித்திடுத லன்றிப் பதியை மதியான்
மதித்திடுத லெங்ஙன் மதியாய் — மதியிலதா                                 96
னானென்றித் தேக நவிலா துறக்கத்து
நானின்றென் றாரு நவில்வதிலை — நானொன்
றெழுந்தபி னெல்லா மெழுமிந்த நானெங்
கெழுமென்று நுண்மதியா லெண்ண — நழுவுஞ்                            100
சடவுடனா னென்னாது சச்சித் துதியா
துடலளவா நானொன் றுதிக்கு — மிடையிலிது
சிச்சடக்கி ரந்திபந்தஞ் சீவனுட்ப மெய்யகந்தை
யிச்சமு சாரமன மெண்ணென்னே — விச்சை                               104
யுருப்பற்றி யுண்டா முருப்பற்றி நிற்கு
முருப்பற்றி யுண்டுமிக வோங்கு — முருவிட்
டுருப்பற்றுந் தேடினா லோட்டம் பிடிக்கு
முருவற்ற பேயகந்தை யோர்வாய் — கருவா                                 108
மகந்தையுண் டாயி னனைத்துமுண் டாகு
மகந்தையின் றேலின் றனைத்து — மகந்தையே
யாவுமா மாதலால் யாதிதென்று நாடலே
யோவுதல் யாவுமென வோர்முதல்போன் — மேவுமிந்த                  112
நானுதியா துள்ளநிலை நாமதுவா யுள்ளநிலை
நானுதிக்குந் தானமதை நாடாம — னானுதியாத்
தன்னிழப்பைச் சார்வதெவன் சாராமற் றானதுவாந்
தன்னிலையி னிற்பதெவன் சாற்றுதி — முன்ன                             116
ரெழும்பு மகந்தை யெழுமிடத்தை நீரில்
விழுந்த பொருள்காண வேண்டி — முழுகுதல்போற்
கூர்ந்தமதி யாற்பேச்சு மூச்சடக்கிக் கொண்டுள்ளே
யாழ்ந்தறிய வேண்டு மறிபிணம்போற் — றீர்ந்துடல                     120
நானென்று வாயா னவிலாதுள் ளாழ்மனத்தா
னானென்றெங் குந்துமென நாடுதலே — ஞான நெறி
யாமன்றி யன்றிதுநா னாமதுவென் றுன்னறுணை
யாமதுவி சாரமா மாவதனான் — மீமுறையே                                124
நானா ரெனமனமுண் ணாடியுள நண்ணவே
நானா மவன்றலை நாணமுற — நானானாத்
தோன்றுமொன்று தானாகத் தோன்றினுநா னன்றுபொருள்
பூன்றமது தானாம் பொருள்பொங்கித் — தோன்றவே                    128
தன்னை யழித்தெழுந்த தன்மயா னந்தருக்
கென்னை யுளதொன் றியற்றுதற்குத் — தன்னையலா
தன்னிய மொன்று மறியா ரவர்நிலைமை
யின்னதென் றுன்ன லெவன்பரமாப் — பன்னு                               132
மதுநீயென் றம்மறைக ளார்திடவுந் தன்னை
யெதுவென்று தான்றேர்ந் திராஅ — ததுநா
னிதுவன்றென் றெண்ணலுர னின்மையினா லென்று
மதுவேதா னாயமர்வ தாலே — யதுவுமலா                                    136
தென்னை யறியேனா னென்னை யறிந்தேனா
னென்ன னகைப்புக் கிடனாகு — மென்னை
தனைவிடய மாக்கவிரு தானுண்டோ வொன்றா
யனைவரனு பூதியுண்மை யாலோர் — நினைவறவே                     140
யென்று மெவர்க்கு மியல்பா யுளபொருளை
யொன்று முளத்து ளுணர்ந்துநிலை — நின்றிடா
துண்டின் றுருவருவென் றொன்றிரண் டன்றென்றே
சண்டையிடன் மாயைச் சழக்கொழிக — வொண்டியுளஞ்              144
சித்தமா யுள்பொருளைத் தேர்ந்திருத்தல் சித்திபிற
சித்தியெலாஞ் சொப்பனமார் சித்திகளே — நித்திரைவிட்
டோர்ந்தா லவைமெய்யோ வுண்மைநிலை நின்றுபொய்ம்மை
தீர்ந்தார் தியங்குவரோ தேர்ந்திருநீ — கூர்ந்துமய                         148
னாமுடலென் றெண்ணினல நாமதுவென் றெண்ணுமது
நாமதுவா நிற்பதற்கு நற்றுணையே — யாமென்று
நாமதுவென் றெண்ணுவதே னான்மனித னென்றெணுமோ
நாமதுவா நிற்குமத னாலறியா — தேமுயலுஞ்                              152
சாதகத்தி லேதுவிதஞ் சாத்தியத்தி லத்துவித
மோதுகின்ற வாதமது முண்மையல — வாதரவாய்த்
தான்றேடுங் காலுந் தனையடைந்த காலத்துந்
தான்றசம னன்றியார் தான்வித்துப் — போன்ற                             156
வினைமுதனா மாயின் விளைபயன் றுய்ப்போம்
வினைமுதலா ரென்று வினவித் — தனையறியக்
கர்த்தத் துவம்போய்க் கருமமூன் றுங்கழலு
நித்தமா முத்தி நிலையீதே — மத்தனாய்ப்                                    160
பத்தனா னென்னுமட்டே பந்தமுத்தி சிந்தனைகள்
பத்தனா ரென்றுதன்னைப் பார்க்குங்காற் — சித்தமாய்
நித்தமுத்தன் றானிற்க நிற்காதேற் பந்தசிந்தை
முத்திசிந்தை முன்னிற்கு மோமனத்துக் — கொத்தாங்                  164
குருவ மருவ முருவருவ மூன்றா
முறுமுத்தி யென்னி லுரைப்ப — னுருவ
மருவ முருவருவ மாயு மகந்தை
யுருவழிதன் முத்தி யுணரீ — தருள்ரமண                                      168
னுள்ளது நாற்பது மொன்றுகலி வெண்பாவா
முள்ளது காட்டு மொளி.                                                                170

Translation

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 1-4: the extended version of the first maṅgalam verse of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

உள்ளதல துள்ளவுணர் வுள்ளதோ வுள்ளபொரு
ளுள்ளலற வுள்ளத்தே யுள்ளதா — லுள்ளமெனு
முள்ளபொரு ளுள்ளலெவ னுள்ளத்தே யுள்ளபடி
யுள்ளதே யுள்ள லுணர்வாயே. [...]

uḷḷadala duḷḷavuṇar vuḷḷadō vuḷḷaporu
ḷuḷḷalaṟa vuḷḷattē yuḷḷadā — luḷḷameṉu
muḷḷaporu ḷuḷḷaleva ṉuḷḷattē yuḷḷapaḍi
yuḷḷadē yuḷḷa luṇarvāyē
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: உள்ளது அலது உள்ள உணர்வு உள்ளதோ? உள்ள பொருள் உள்ளல் அற உள்ளத்தே உள்ளதால், உள்ளம் எனும் உள்ள பொருள் உள்ளல் எவன்? உள்ளத்தே உள்ளபடி உள்ளதே உள்ளல். உணர்வாயே.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): uḷḷadu aladu uḷḷa-v-uṇarvu uḷḷadō? uḷḷa-poruḷ uḷḷal-aṟa uḷḷattē uḷḷadāl, uḷḷam eṉum uḷḷa-poruḷ uḷḷal evaṉ? uḷḷattē uḷḷapaḍi uḷḷadē uḷḷal. uṇarvāyē.

அன்வயம்: உள்ளது அலது உள்ள உணர்வு உள்ளதோ? உள்ள பொருள் உள்ளல் அற உள்ளத்தே உள்ளதால், உள்ளம் எனும் உள்ள பொருள் எவன் உள்ளல்? உள்ளத்தே உள்ளபடி உள்ளதே உள்ளல்; உணர்வாயே.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): uḷḷadu aladu uḷḷa-v-uṇarvu uḷḷadō? uḷḷa-poruḷ uḷḷal-aṟa uḷḷattē uḷḷadāl, uḷḷam eṉum uḷḷa-poruḷ evaṉ uḷḷal? uḷḷattē uḷḷapaḍi uḷḷadē uḷḷal; uṇarvāyē.

English translation: If what exists were not, would existing awareness exist? Since the existing substance exists in the heart without thought, how to think of the existing substance, which is called ‘heart’? Being in the heart as it is alone is thinking. May you actually know.

Explanatory paraphrase: If uḷḷadu [what is or what exists] were not, would uḷḷa-v-uṇarvu [existing awareness, actual awareness or awareness of what is] exist? [Or: (1) Except as uḷḷadu, does uḷḷa-v-uṇarvu exist? (2) Other than uḷḷadu, is there awareness to think [of it, meditate on it or investigate it]?] Since uḷḷa-poruḷ [the existing substance or reality] exists in the heart without thought, how to [or who can] think of [meditate on or investigate] uḷḷa-poruḷ, which is called uḷḷam [the heart]? Being in the heart as it is [that is, as pure thought-free self-awareness] alone is thinking [of it, meditating on it, contemplating it, investigating it or revering it]. May you actually know [or be aware] [of it as it is].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 4-8: the extended version of the second maṅgalam verse of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — உள்ளே
மரணபய மிக்குளவம் மக்களர ணாக
மரணபவ மில்லா மகேசன் — சரணமே
சார்வர்தஞ் சார்வொடுதாஞ் சாவுற்றார் சாவெண்ணஞ்
சார்வரோ சாவா தவர்நித்தர். [...]

                              […] — uḷḷē
maraṇabhaya mikkuḷavam makkaḷara ṇāha
maraṇabhava millā mahēśaṉ — caraṇamē
sārvartañ cārvoḍutāñ cāvuṯṟār sāveṇṇañ
cārvarō sāvā davarnittar
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: உள்ளே மரணபயம் மிக்கு உள அம் மக்கள் அரண் ஆக மரண பவம் இல்லா மகேசன் சரணமே சார்வர். தம் சார்வு ஒடு தாம் சாவு உற்றார். சாவு எண்ணம் சார்வரோ சாவாதவர்? நித்தர்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): uḷḷē maraṇa-bhayam mikku uḷa am makkaḷ araṇ-āha maraṇa-bhavam-illā mahēśaṉ caraṇamē sārvar. tam sārvu oḍu tām sāvu uṯṟār. sāvu eṇṇam sārvarō sāvādavar? nittar.

அன்வயம்: உள்ளே மரணபயம் மிக்கு உள அம் மக்கள் அரண் ஆக மரண பவம் இல்லா மகேசன் சரணமே சார்வர். தம் சார்வு ஒடு தாம் சாவு உற்றார். சாவாதவர் சாவு எண்ணம் சார்வரோ? நித்தர்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): uḷḷē maraṇa-bhayam mikku uḷa am makkaḷ araṇ-āha maraṇa-bhavam-illā mahēśaṉ caraṇamē sārvar. tam sārvu oḍu tām sāvu uṯṟār. sāvādavar sāvu eṇṇam sārvarō? nittar.

English translation: Pure-hearted people who have intense fear of death within will take refuge at the feet of God, who is devoid of death and birth, as a fortress. By their refuge, they undergo death. Will those who are deathless be associated with the thought of death? Eternal.

Explanatory paraphrase: Pure-hearted people who have intense fear of death within [in their heart] will take refuge at [or surrender to] the feet of Mahēśaṉ [the Great Lord, Śiva or God], who is devoid of death and birth, [depending upon him] as [their protective] fortress. By their [taking] refuge [or as soon as they take refuge], their ego dies [and what remains is only their real nature, which is immortal awareness]. Will those who are [thereby] deathless be associated [ever again] with the thought of death? [They are] eternal.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 8-12: the extended version of verse 1 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — பார்வைசேர்
நாமுலகங் காண்டலா னானாவாஞ் சத்தியுள
வோர்முதலை யொப்ப லொருதலையே — நாமவுருச்
சித்திரமும் பார்ப்பானுஞ் சேர்படமு மாரொளியு
மத்தனையுந் தானா மவன். […]

                              […] — pārvaisēr
nāmulahaṅ kāṇḍalā ṉāṉāvāñ cattiyuḷa
vōrmudalai yoppa lorutalaiyē — nāmavuruc
cittiramum pārppāṉuñ cērpaḍamu māroḷiyu
mattaṉaiyun tāṉā mavaṉ
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: பார்வை சேர் நாம் உலகம் காண்டலால், நானா ஆம் சத்தி உள ஓர் முதலை ஒப்பல் ஒருதலையே. நாம உரு சித்திரமும், பார்ப்பானும், சேர்படமும், ஆர் ஒளியும் — அத்தனையும் தான் ஆம் அவன்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): pārvai sēr nām ulaham kāṇḍalāl, nāṉā ām śatti uḷa ōr mudalai oppal orutalaiyē. nāma uru cittiramum, pārppāṉum, sērpaḍamum, ār oḷiyum — attaṉaiyum tāṉ ām avaṉ.

English translation: Because we, who have become sight-joined, see the world, accepting one fundamental that has a power that becomes many is certainly the one best option. The picture of names and forms, the one who sees, the cohesive screen, and the pervading light – all these are he, who is oneself.

Explanatory paraphrase: Because we, who [by rising as the ego] have become joined with sight, see the world, accepting one mudal [first thing, origin, source, base or fundamental reality] that has a power that becomes many [appearances, namely ourself as the ego, the seer or perceiver, and all the manifold phenomena that constitute this or any other world that we may see or perceive] is certainly the one best option. The picture of names and forms [namely the world and whatever other phenomena appear in the mind], the one who sees [this picture] [namely the ego], the cohesive screen [namely the mind as the background on which it appears], and the pervading light [namely the mind as the reflected light of awareness, which is what illumines its appearance] — all these are he [the one original thing], who is oneself [one’s real nature].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 12-16: the extended version of verse 2 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] உலகு — கர்த்தனுயிர்
மும்முதலை யெம்மதம முற்கொள்ளு மோர்முதலே
மும்முதலாய் நிற்குமென்று மும்முதலு — மும்முதலே
யென்னலகங் கார மிருக்குமட்டே யான்கெட்டுத்
தன்னிலையி னிற்ற றலையாகும். […]

                              […] ulahu — karttaṉuyir
mummudalai yemmatamu muṟkoḷḷu mōrmudalē
mummudalāy niṟkumeṉḏṟu mummudalu — mummudalē
yeṉṉalahaṅ kāra mirukkumaṭṭē yāṉkeṭṭut
taṉṉilaiyi ṉiṯṟa ṯalaiyāhum
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: உலகு, கர்த்தன், உயிர், மும் முதலை எம் மதமும் முன் கொள்ளும். ‘ஓர் முதலே மும் முதலாய் நிற்கும்’, ‘என்றும் மும் முதலும் மும் முதலே’ என்னல் அகங்காரம் இருக்கும் மட்டே. யான் கெட்டு, தன் நிலையில் நிற்றல் தலை ஆகும்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ulahu, karttaṉ, uyir, mum mudalai e-m-matamum muṉ koḷḷum. ‘ōr mudalē mum mudalāy niṟkum’, ‘eṉḏṟum mum mudalum mum mudalē’ eṉṉal ahaṅkāram irukkum maṭṭē. yāṉ keṭṭu, taṉ nilaiyil niṯṟal talai āhum.

அன்வயம்: எம் மதமும் உலகு, கர்த்தன், உயிர், மும் முதலை முன் கொள்ளும். ‘ஓர் முதலே மும் முதலாய் நிற்கும்’, ‘மும் முதலும் என்றும் மும் முதலே’ என்னல் அகங்காரம் இருக்கும் மட்டே. யான் கெட்டு, தன் நிலையில் நிற்றல் தலை ஆகும்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): e-m-matamum ulahu, karttaṉ, uyir, mum mudalai muṉ koḷḷum. ‘ōr mudalē mum mudalāy niṟkum’, ‘eṉḏṟum mum mudalum mum mudalē’ eṉṉal ahaṅkāram irukkum maṭṭē. yāṉ keṭṭu, taṉ nilaiyil niṯṟal talai āhum.

English translation: Each religion initially accepts three fundamentals, the world, God and soul. Contending ‘Only one fundamental stands as three fundamentals’, ‘Three fundamentals are always actually three fundamentals’, is only so long as the ego exists. Destroying ‘I’, standing in the state of oneself is best.

Explanatory paraphrase: Each religion [or theistic system of belief] initially accepts three fundamentals, the soul, world and God. Contending that only one fundamental stands as [these] three fundamentals or that [these] three fundamentals are always actually three fundamentals is [possible] only so long as the ego exists. [By] destroying ‘I’ [the ego], standing in the [real] state of oneself is best.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 16-20: the extended version of verse 3 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — கொன்னே
யுலகுமெய்பொய்த் தோற்ற முலகறிவா மன்றென்
றுலகுசுக மன்றென் றுரைத்தெ — னுலகுவிட்டுத்
தன்னையோர்ந் தொன்றிரண்டு தானற்று நானற்ற
வந்நிலையெல் லார்க்குமொப் பாம். […]

                              […] — koṉṉē
yulahumeypoyt tōṯṟa mulahaṟivā maṉḏṟeṉ
ḏṟulahusukha maṉḏṟeṉ ḏṟuraitte — ṉulahuviṭṭut
taṉṉaiyōrn doṉḏṟiraṇḍu tāṉaṯṟu nāṉaṯṟa
vannilaiyel lārkkumop pām
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: கொன்னே ‘உலகு மெய்’, ‘பொய் தோற்றம்’, ‘உலகு அறிவு ஆம்’, ‘அன்று’ என்று, ‘உலகு சுகம்’, ‘அன்று’ என்று உரைத்து என்? உலகு விட்டு, தன்னை ஓர்ந்து, ஒன்று இரண்டு தான் அற்று, ‘நான்’ அற்ற அந் நிலை எல்லார்க்கும் ஒப்பு ஆம்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): koṉṉē ‘ulahu mey’, ‘poy tōṯṟam’, ‘ulahu aṟivu ām’, ‘aṉḏṟu’ eṉḏṟu, ‘ulahu sukham’, ‘aṉḏṟu’ eṉḏṟu uraittu eṉ? ulahu viṭṭu, taṉṉai ōrndu, oṉḏṟu iraṇḍu tāṉ aṯṟu, ‘nāṉ’ aṯṟa a-n-nilai ellārkkum oppu ām.

அன்வயம்: ‘உலகு மெய்’, ‘பொய்த் தோற்றம்’, ‘உலகு அறிவு ஆம்’, ‘அன்று’ என்று, ‘உலகு சுகம்’, ‘அன்று’ என்று கொன்னே உரைத்து என்? உலகு விட்டு, தன்னை ஓர்ந்து, ஒன்று இரண்டு தான் அற்று, ‘நான்’ அற்ற அந் நிலை எல்லார்க்கும் ஒப்பு ஆம்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ‘ulahu mey’, ‘poy-t tōṯṟam’, ‘ulahu aṟivu ām’, ‘aṉḏṟu’ eṉḏṟu, ‘ulahu sukham’, ‘aṉḏṟu’ eṉḏṟu koṉṉē uraittu eṉ? ulahu viṭṭu, taṉṉai ōrndu, oṉḏṟu iraṇḍu tāṉ aṯṟu, ‘nāṉ’ aṯṟa a-n-nilai ellārkkum oppu ām.

English translation: What is the use of disputing futilely: ‘The world is real’, ‘An unreal appearance’; ‘The world is sentient’, ‘It is not’; ‘The world is happiness’, ‘It is not’? Leaving the world and investigating oneself, one and two ceasing, that state in which ‘I’ has perished is agreeable to all.

Explanatory paraphrase: What is the use of disputing futilely: ‘The world is real’, ‘[No, it is] an unreal appearance’; ‘The world is sentient’, ‘It is not’; ‘The world is happiness’, ‘It is not’? Leaving [all thought about] the world and investigating [or knowing] oneself, [thereby] putting an end to [all disputes about] one and two [non-duality and duality], that state in which ‘I’ [the ego] has [thereby] perished is agreeable to all.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 20-24: the extended version of verse 4 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] ஊனே — துன்னு
முருவந்தா னாயி னுலகுபர மற்றா
முருவந்தா னன்றே லுவற்றி — னுருவத்தைக்
கண்ணுறுதல் யாவனெவன் கண்ணலாற் காட்சியுண்டோ
கண்ணதுதா னந்தமிலாக் கண்ணாமே. […]

                              […] ūṉē — tuṉṉu
muruvantā ṉāyi ṉulahupara maṯṟā
muruvantā ṉaṉḏṟē luvaṯṟi — ṉuruvattaik
kaṇṇuṟudal yāvaṉevaṉ kaṇṇalāṯ kāṭciyuṇḍō
kaṇṇadutā ṉantamilāk kaṇṇāmē
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: ஊனே துன்னும் உருவம் தான் ஆயின், உலகு பரம் அற்று ஆம்; உருவம் தான் அன்றேல், உவற்றின் உருவத்தை கண் உறுதல் யாவன்? எவன்? கண் அலால் காட்சி உண்டோ? கண் அது தான் அந்தம் இலா கண் ஆமே.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ūṉē tuṉṉum uruvam tāṉ āyiṉ, ulahu param aṯṟu ām; uruvam tāṉ aṉḏṟēl, uvaṯṟiṉ uruvattai kaṇ uṟudal yāvaṉ? evaṉ? kaṇ alāl kāṭci uṇḍō? kaṇ adu tāṉ antam-ilā kaṇ āmē.

அன்வயம்: தான் ஊனே துன்னும் உருவம் ஆயின், உலகு பரம் அற்று ஆம்; தான் உருவம் அன்றேல், உவற்றின் உருவத்தை யாவன் கண் உறுதல்? எவன்? கண் அலால் காட்சி உண்டோ? கண் அது தான் அந்தம் இலா கண் ஆமே.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): tāṉ ūṉē tuṉṉum uruvam āyiṉ, ulahu param aṯṟu ām; tāṉ uruvam aṉḏṟēl, uvaṯṟiṉ uruvattai yāvaṉ kaṇ uṟudal? evaṉ? kaṇ alāl kāṭci uṇḍō? kaṇ adu tāṉ antam-ilā kaṇ āmē.

English translation: If oneself is a form, which is composed of flesh, the world and God will be likewise; if oneself is not a form, who can see their forms? How? Can the seen be otherwise than the eye? The eye is actually oneself, the infinite eye.

Explanatory paraphrase: If oneself is a form [namely a body], which is composed of [or packed tight with] flesh, the world and God will be likewise [that is, they will also be forms]; if oneself is not a form, who can see their forms, and how [to do so]? Can what is seen be otherwise [or of a different nature] than the eye [the awareness that sees or perceives it]? [Therefore forms can be perceived only by an ‘eye’ or awareness that perceives itself as a form, namely the ego or mind, which always perceives itself as the form of a body.] The [real] eye is actually oneself [one’s real nature, which is pure self-awareness], the infinite [and hence formless] eye [so it can never see any forms or phenomena, which are all finite].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 24-28: the extended version of verse 5 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — எண்ணி
லுடல்பஞ்ச கோச வுருவதனா லைந்து
முடலென்னுஞ் சொல்லி லொடுங்கு — முடலன்றி
யுண்டோ வுலக முடல்விட் டுலகத்தைக்
கண்டா ருளரோ கழறுவாய். […]

                              […] — eṇṇi
luḍalpañca kōśa vuruvadaṉā laindu
muḍaleṉṉuñ colli loḍuṅgu — muḍalaṉḏṟi
yuṇḍō vulaha muḍalviṭ ṭulahattaik
kaṇḍā ruḷarō kaṙaṟuvāy
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: எண்ணில், உடல் பஞ்ச கோச உரு. அதனால், ஐந்தும் ‘உடல்’ என்னும் சொல்லில் ஒடுங்கும். உடல் அன்றி உண்டோ உலகம்? உடல் விட்டு, உலகத்தை கண்டார் உளரோ? கழறுவாய்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): eṇṇil, uḍal pañca kōśa uru. adaṉāl, aindum ‘uḍal’ eṉṉum sollil oḍuṅgum. uḍal aṉḏṟi uṇḍō ulaham? uḍal viṭṭu, ulahattai kaṇḍār uḷarō? kaṙaṟuvāy.

அன்வயம்: எண்ணில், உடல் பஞ்ச கோச உரு. அதனால், ‘உடல்’ என்னும் சொல்லில் ஐந்தும் ஒடுங்கும். உடல் அன்றி உலகம் உண்டோ? உடல் விட்டு, உலகத்தை கண்டார் உளரோ? கழறுவாய்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): eṇṇil, uḍal pañca kōśa uru. adaṉāl, ‘uḍal’ eṉṉum sollil aindum oḍuṅgum. uḍal aṉḏṟi ulaham uṇḍō? uḍal viṭṭu, ulahattai kaṇḍār uḷarō? kaṙaṟuvāy.

English translation: If one considers, the body is a form of five sheaths. Therefore all five are included in the term ‘body’. Without a body, is there a world? May you say, leaving the body, is there anyone who has seen a world?

Explanatory paraphrase: If one considers, the body is pañca-kōśa-uru [a form composed of five sheaths, namely a physical structure, life, mind, intellect and what is described both as the darkness of self-ignorance and as the will, the totality of the ego’s vāsanās (propensities, inclinations or urges), which are the seeds that sprout as its likes, dislikes, desires, fears and so on]. Therefore all five [sheaths] are included in the term ‘body’. Without a body [composed of these five sheaths], is there a world? May you say, without [experiencing oneself as such] a body, is there anyone who has seen a world?

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 28-32: the extended version of verse 6 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — கண்ட
வுலகைம் புலன்க ளுருவேறன் றவ்வைம்
புலனைம் பொறிக்குப் புலனா — முலகைமன
மொன்றைம் பொறிவாயா லோர்ந்திடுத லான்மனத்தை
யன்றியுல குண்டோ வறை. […]

                              […] — kaṇḍa
vulahaim pulaṉga ḷuruvēṟaṉ ḏṟavvaim
pulaṉaim poṟikkup pulaṉā — mulahaimaṉa
moṉḏṟaim poṟivāyā lōrndiḍuda lāṉmaṉattai
yaṉḏṟiyula kuṇḍō vaṟai
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: கண்ட உலகு ஐம் புலன்கள் உரு; வேறு அன்று. அவ் ஐம் புலன் ஐம் பொறிக்கு புலன் ஆம். உலகை மனம் ஒன்று ஐம் பொறிவாயால் ஓர்ந்திடுதலால், மனத்தை அன்றி உலகு உண்டோ? அறை.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): kaṇḍa ulahu aim pulaṉgaḷ uru; vēṟu aṉḏṟu. a-vv-aim pulaṉ aim poṟikku pulaṉ ām. ulahai maṉam oṉḏṟu aim poṟi-vāyāl ōrndiḍudalāl, maṉattai aṉḏṟi ulahu uṇḍō? aṟai.

அன்வயம்: கண்ட உலகு ஐம் புலன்கள் உரு; வேறு அன்று. அவ் ஐம் புலன் ஐம் பொறிக்கு புலன் ஆம். மனம் ஒன்று உலகை ஐம் பொறிவாயால் ஓர்ந்திடுதலால், மனத்தை அன்றி உலகு உண்டோ? அறை.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): kaṇḍa ulahu aim pulaṉgaḷ uru; vēṟu aṉḏṟu. a-vv-aim pulaṉ aim poṟikku pulaṉ ām. maṉam oṉḏṟu ulahai aim poṟi-vāyāl ōrndiḍudalāl, maṉattai aṉḏṟi ulahu uṇḍō? aṟai.

English translation: The world that one has seen is a form of five sense-impressions, not anything else. Those five sense-impressions are impressions to the five sense organs. Since the mind alone perceives the world by way of the five sense organs, say, is there a world besides the mind?

Explanatory paraphrase: The world that one has seen [or perceived] is a form [composed] of five [kinds of] sense-impressions [sights, sounds, tastes, smells and tactile sensations], not anything else. Those five [kinds of] sense-impressions are impressions [respective] to the five sense organs. Since the mind alone [or since one thing, the mind] perceives the world by way of the five sense organs, say, is there [any] world besides [excluding, if not for, apart from, other than or without] the mind?

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 32-36: the extended version of verse 7 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] நேரே — நின்ற
வுலகறிவு மொன்றா யுதித்தொடுங்கு மேனு
முலகறிவு தன்னா லொளிரு — முலகறிவு
தோன்றிமறை தற்கிடனாய்த் தோன்றிமறை யாதொளிரும்
பூன்றமா மஃதே பொருளாமால். […]

                              […] nērē — niṉḏṟa
vulahaṟivu moṉḏṟā yudittoḍuṅgu mēṉu
mulahaṟivu taṉṉā loḷiru — mulahaṟivu
tōṉḏṟimaṟai daṟkiḍaṉāyt tōṉḏṟimaṟai yādoḷirum
pūṉḏṟamā maḵdē poruḷāmāl
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: நேரே நின்ற உலகு அறிவும் ஒன்றாய் உதித்து ஒடுங்கும் ஏனும், உலகு அறிவு தன்னால் ஒளிரும். உலகு அறிவு தோன்றி மறைதற்கு இடன் ஆய் தோன்றி மறையாது ஒளிரும் பூன்றம் ஆம் அஃதே பொருள் ஆம்; ஆல்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): nērē niṉḏṟa ulahu aṟivum oṉḏṟāy udittu oḍuṅgum ēṉum, ulahu aṟivu-taṉṉāl oḷirum. ulahu aṟivu tōṉḏṟi maṟaidaṟku iḍaṉ-āy tōṉḏṟi maṟaiyādu oḷirum pūṉḏṟam ām aḵdē poruḷ ām; āl.

அன்வயம்: நேரே நின்ற உலகு அறிவும் ஒன்றாய் உதித்து ஒடுங்கும் ஏனும், உலகு அறிவு தன்னால் ஒளிரும். உலகு அறிவு தோன்றி மறைதற்கு இடன் ஆய் தோன்றி மறையாது ஒளிரும் அஃதே பூன்றம் ஆம் பொருள் ஆம்; ஆல்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): nērē niṉḏṟa ulahu aṟivum oṉḏṟāy udittu oḍuṅgum ēṉum, ulahu aṟivu-taṉṉāl oḷirum. ulahu aṟivu tōṉḏṟi maṟaidaṟku iḍaṉ-āy tōṉḏṟi maṟaiyādu oḷirum aḵdē pūṉḏṟam ām poruḷ ām; āl.

English translation: Though the world, which has stood in front, and awareness arise and subside simultaneously, the world shines by awareness. Only that which shines without appearing or disappearing as the place for the appearing and disappearing of the world and awareness is the substance, which is the whole.

Explanatory paraphrase: Though the world, which has stood in front, and awareness [the awareness that perceives the world, namely the ego or mind] arise and subside simultaneously, the world shines by [that rising and subsiding] awareness [the mind]. Only that which shines without appearing or disappearing as the place [space, expanse, location, site or ground] for the appearing and disappearing of the world and [that] awareness is poruḷ [the real substance or vastu], which is pūṉḏṟam [the infinite whole or pūrṇa].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 36-40: the extended version of verse 8 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — ஏன்றதா
மெப்பெயரிட் டெவ்வுருவி லேத்தினுமார் பேருருவி
லப்பொருளைக் காண்வழிய தாயினுமம் — மெய்ப்பொருளி
னுண்மையிற்ற னுண்மையினை யோர்ந்தொடுங்கி யொன்றுதலே
யுண்மையிற் காண லுணர்ந்திடுக. […]

                              […] — ēṉḏṟadā
meppeyariṭ ṭevvuruvi lēttiṉumār pēruruvi
lapporuḷaik kāṇvaṙiya dāyiṉumam — meypporuḷi
ṉuṇmaiyiṯṟa ṉuṇmaiyiṉai yōrndoḍuṅgi yoṉḏṟudalē
yuṇmaiyiṯ kāṇa luṇarndiḍuka
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: ஏன்றது ஆம்; எப் பெயர் இட்டு எவ் வுருவில் ஏத்தினும் ஆர், பேர் உருவில் அப் பொருளை காண் வழி அது. ஆயினும், அம் மெய்ப் பொருளின் உண்மையில் தன் உண்மையினை ஓர்ந்து, ஒடுங்கி ஒன்றுதலே உண்மையில் காணல். உணர்ந்திடுக.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ēṉḏṟadu ām; e-p-peyar iṭṭu e-vv-uruvil ēttiṉum ār, pēr-uruvil a-p-poruḷai kāṇ vaṙi adu. āyiṉum, a-m-mey-p-poruḷiṉ uṇmaiyil taṉ uṇmaiyiṉai ōrndu, oḍuṅgi oṉḏṟudalē uṇmaiyil kāṇal. uṇarndiḍuha.

அன்வயம்: ஆர் எப் பெயர் இட்டு எவ் வுருவில் ஏத்தினும், அது அப் பொருளை பேர் உருவில் காண் வழி; ஏன்றது ஆம். ஆயினும், தன் உண்மையினை ஓர்ந்து, அம் மெய்ப் பொருளின் உண்மையில் ஒடுங்கி ஒன்றுதலே உண்மையில் காணல். உணர்ந்திடுக.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ār e-p-peyar iṭṭu e-vv-uruvil ēttiṉum, adu a-p-poruḷai pēr-uruvil kāṇ vaṙi; ēṉḏṟadu ām. āyiṉum, taṉ uṇmaiyiṉai ōrndu, a-m-mey-p-poruḷiṉ uṇmaiyil oḍuṅgi oṉḏṟudalē uṇmaiyil kāṇal. uṇarndiḍuha.

English translation: Whoever worships in whatever form giving whatever name, that is the way to see that the substance in name and form; it is what is appropriate. However, investigating the reality of oneself, dissolving in the reality of that true substance, becoming one alone is seeing in reality. May you actually know.

Explanatory paraphrase: Whoever worships [it] in whatever form giving [it] whatever name, that is the way to see that [nameless and formless] poruḷ [the real substance, brahman, the ultimate reality or God] in name and form, [because] it is what is appropriate [or what happens or is possible]. However, [by] investigating [or knowing] the reality of oneself, [and by thereby] dissolving [or subsiding] in the reality of that true poruḷ, becoming one [with it] alone is seeing [it] in reality. May you actually know [or be aware].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 40-44: the extended version of verse 9 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — விண்மை
யிரட்டைகண் முப்புடிக ளென்றுமொன்று பற்றி
யிருப்பவா மவ்வொன்றே தென்று — கருத்தினுட்
கண்டாற் கழலுமவை கண்டவ ரேயுண்மை
கண்டார் கலங்காரே காண். […]

                              […] — viṇmai
yiraṭṭaigaṇ muppuḍiga ḷeṉḏṟumoṉḏṟu paṯṟi
yiruppavā mavvoṉḏṟē teṉḏṟu — karuttiṉuṭ
kaṇḍāṯ kaṙalumavai kaṇḍava rēyuṇmai
kaṇḍār kalaṅgārē kāṇ
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: விண்மை இரட்டைகள் முப்புடிகள் என்றும் ஒன்று பற்றி இருப்பவாம். அவ் ஒன்று ஏது என்று கருத்தின் உள் கண்டால், கழலும் அவை. கண்டவரே உண்மை கண்டார்; கலங்காரே. காண்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): viṇmai iraṭṭaigaḷ muppuḍigaḷ eṉḏṟum oṉḏṟu paṯṟi iruppavām. a-vv-oṉḏṟu ēdu eṉḏṟu karuttiṉ-uḷ kaṇḍāl, kaṙalum avai. kaṇḍavarē uṇmai kaṇḍār; kalaṅgārē. kāṇ.

அன்வயம்: விண்மை இரட்டைகள் முப்புடிகள் என்றும் ஒன்று பற்றி இருப்பவாம். அவ் ஒன்று ஏது என்று கருத்தின் உள் கண்டால், அவை கழலும். கண்டவரே உண்மை கண்டார்; கலங்காரே. காண்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): viṇmai iraṭṭaigaḷ muppuḍigaḷ eṉḏṟum oṉḏṟu paṯṟi iruppavām. a-vv-oṉḏṟu ēdu eṉḏṟu karuttiṉ-uḷ kaṇḍāl, avai kaṙalum. kaṇḍavarē uṇmai kaṇḍār; kalaṅgārē. kāṇ.

English translation: Dyads and triads, skyness, exist always holding one thing. If one sees within the mind what that one thing is, they will cease to exist. Only those who have seen have seen the reality. See, they will not be confused.

Explanatory paraphrase: Dyads [pairs of opposites] and triads [the three factors of transitive knowledge or awareness, namely the perceiver, the perceived and the perceiving], [which are unreal like] the blueness of the sky, exist [by] always holding [or depending on] one thing [namely the ego, in whose view alone they seem to exist]. If [by looking keenly at oneself] one sees within the mind what that one thing is, they will cease to exist [because their support and foundation, the ego, will itself cease to exist]. Only those who have seen [this cessation of all dyads and triads along with their root, the ego] have seen the reality. See, they will not be confused.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 44-48: the extended version of verse 10 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] இருள்போன் — மண்டு
மறியாமை விட்டறிவின் றாமறிவு விட்டவ்
வறியாமை யின்றாகு மந்த — வறிவு
மறியா மையுமார்க்கென் றம்முதலாந் தன்னை
யறியு மறிவே யறிவாம். […]

                              […] iruḷpōṉ — maṇḍu
maṟiyāmai viṭṭaṟiviṉ ḏṟāmaṟivu viṭṭav
vaṟiyāmai yiṉḏṟāhu manda — vaṟivu
maṟiyā maiyumārkkeṉ ḏṟammudalān taṉṉai
yaṟiyu maṟivē yaṟivām
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: இருள் போல் மண்டும் அறியாமை விட்டு, அறிவு இன்று ஆம்; அறிவு விட்டு, அவ் வறியாமை இன்று ஆகும். அந்த அறிவும் அறியாமையும் ஆர்க்கு என்று அம் முதல் ஆம் தன்னை அறியும் அறிவே அறிவு ஆம்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): iruḷ pōḷ maṇḍum aṟiyāmai viṭṭu, aṟivu iṉḏṟu ām; aṟivu viṭṭu, a-vv-aṟiyāmai iṉḏṟu āhum. anda aṟivum aṟiyāmaiyum ārkku eṉḏṟu a-m-mudal ām taṉṉai aṟiyum aṟivē aṟivu ām.

English translation: Leaving ignorance, which is dense like darkness, knowledge does not exist; leaving knowledge, that ignorance does not exist. Only the knowledge that knows oneself, who is the first, as to whom are that knowledge and ignorance, is knowledge.

Explanatory paraphrase: Without ignorance [of other things], which is dense [or abundant] like darkness, knowledge [of them] does not exist; without knowledge [of them], that ignorance [of them] does not exist. Only the knowledge [or awareness] that knows [the reality of] oneself [the ego], who is the first [to appear], [by investigating] to whom are that knowledge and ignorance [of other things], is [real] knowledge [or awareness].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation, especially the one in which this kaliveṇbā version is discussed:
2017-12-29: Comment explaining ‘இருள் போல் மண்டும்’ (iruḷ pōḷ maṇḍum), ‘which is dense like darkness’, the kaliveṇbā extension to the first sentence of this verse

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 48-52: the extended version of verse 11 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — அறிப
வறிவுறுந் தன்னை யறியா தயலை
யறிவ தறியாமை யன்றி — யறிவோ
வறிவயற் காதாரத் தன்னை யறிய
வறிவறி யாமை யறுமே. […]

                              […] — aṟiba
vaṟivuṟun taṉṉai yaṟiyā dayalai
yaṟiva daṟiyāmai yaṉḏṟi — yaṟivō
vaṟivayaṟ kādhārat taṉṉai yaṟiya
vaṟivaṟi yāmai yaṟumē
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: அறிப அறிவு உறும் தன்னை அறியாது அயலை அறிவது அறியாமை; அன்றி அறிவோ? அறிவு அயற்கு ஆதார தன்னை அறிய, அறிவு அறியாமை அறுமே.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): aṟiba aṟivu-uṟum taṉṉai aṟiyādu ayalai aṟivadu aṟiyāmai; aṉḏṟi aṟivō? aṟivu ayaṟku ādhāra taṉṉai aṟiya, aṟivu aṟiyāmai aṟumē.

English translation: Not knowing oneself, who knows those that are known, knowing other things is ignorance; besides, is it knowledge? When one knows oneself, the support for knowledge and the other, knowledge and ignorance will definitely cease.

Explanatory paraphrase: Without knowing oneself [the ego], who knows [all] those [things] that are known, knowing other things is ignorance; except [that], is it knowledge? When one knows [the reality of] oneself [the ego], the ādhāra [support, foundation or container] for knowledge and the other [ignorance], knowledge and ignorance [of everything else] will definitely cease [because the reality of the ego is just pure self-awareness, so when one knows oneself as pure self-awareness the ego will no longer seem to exist, and hence all its knowledge and ignorance will cease to exist along with it].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 52-56: the extended version of verse 12 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — அறவே
யறிவறி யாமையு மற்றதறி வாமே
யறியும துண்மையறி வாகா — தறிதற்
கறிவித்தற் கன்னியமின் றாயவிர்வ தாற்றா
னறிவாகும் பாழன் றறிவாய். […]

                              […] — aṟavē
yaṟivaṟi yāmaiyu maṯṟadaṟi vāmē
yaṟiyuma duṇmaiyaṟi vāhā — daṟitaṟ
kaṟivittaṟ kaṉṉiyamiṉ ḏṟāyavirva dāṯṟā
ṉaṟivāhum pāṙaṉ ḏṟaṟivāy
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: அறவே அறிவு அறியாமையும் அற்றது அறிவு ஆமே. அறியும் அது உண்மை அறிவு ஆகாது. அறிதற்கு அறிவித்தற்கு அன்னியம் இன்றாய் அவிர்வதால், தான் அறிவு ஆகும். பாழ் அன்று. அறிவாய்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): aṟavē aṟivu aṟiyāmaiyum aṯṟadu aṟivu āmē. aṟiyum adu uṇmai aṟivu āhādu. aṟidaṟku aṟivittaṟku aṉṉiyam iṉḏṟāy avirvadāl, tāṉ aṟivu āhum. pāṙ aṉḏṟu. aṟivāy.

அன்வயம்: அறிவு அறியாமையும் அறவே அற்றது அறிவு ஆமே. அறியும் அது உண்மை அறிவு ஆகாது. அறிதற்கு அறிவித்தற்கு அன்னியம் இன்றாய் அவிர்வதால், தான் அறிவு ஆகும்; பாழ் அன்று. அறிவாய்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): aṟivu aṟiyāmaiyum aṟavē aṯṟadu aṟivu āmē. aṟiyum adu uṇmai aṟivu āhādu. aṟidaṟku aṟivittaṟku aṉṉiyam iṉḏṟāy avirvadāl, tāṉ aṟivu āhum; pāṙ aṉḏṟu. aṟivāy.

English translation: What is completely devoid of knowledge and ignorance is actually knowledge. That which knows is not real knowledge. Since one shines without another for knowing or for causing to know, oneself is knowledge. One is not void. May you know.

Explanatory paraphrase: What is completely devoid of knowledge and ignorance [about anything other than itself] is actually aṟivu [knowledge or awareness]. That which knows [or is aware of anything other than itself, namely the ego] is not real aṟivu [knowledge or awareness]. Since one [one’s real nature] shines without another for knowing or for causing to know [or causing to be known], oneself is [real] aṟivu [knowledge or awareness]. One is not void [emptiness, desolation, nothingness or non-existence]. May you know [or be aware].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation, especially the two in which this kaliveṇbā version is discussed:
2017-01-28: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu verse 12 and its meaning (this is the first section of an article in which I discuss the meaning of each sentence of this verse in depth: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu verse 12: other than the real awareness that we actually are, there is nothing to know or make known)
2017-01-15: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu verse 12: real awareness is our actual self, which shines without anything else to know or to cause to know

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 56-60: the extended version of verse 13 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — செறிவாய
ஞானமாந் தானேமெய் நானாவா ஞானமஞ்
ஞானமாம் பொய்யாமஞ் ஞானமுமே — ஞானமாந்
தன்னையன்றி யின்றணிக டாம்பலவும் பொய்மெய்யாம்
பொன்னையன்றி யுண்டோ புகல். […]

                              […] — seṟivāya
ñāṉamān tāṉēmey nāṉāvā ñāṉamañ
ñāṉamām poyyāmañ ñāṉamumē — ñāṉamān
taṉṉaiyaṉḏṟi yiṉḏṟaṇika ḍāmpalavum poymeyyām
poṉṉaiyaṉḏṟi yuṇḍō puhal
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: செறிவு ஆய ஞானம் ஆம் தானே மெய். நானா ஆம் ஞானம் அஞ்ஞானம் ஆம். பொய் ஆம் அஞ்ஞானமுமே ஞானம் ஆம் தன்னை அன்றி இன்று. அணிகள் தாம் பலவும் பொய்; மெய் ஆம் பொன்னை அன்றி உண்டோ? புகல்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): seṟivu āya ñāṉam ām tāṉē mey. nāṉā ām ñāṉam aññāṉam ām. poy ām aññāṉamumē ñāṉam ām taṉṉai aṉḏṟi iṉḏṟu. aṇikaḷ tām palavum poy; mey ām poṉṉai aṉḏṟi uṇḍō? puhal.

English translation: Oneself, who is dense awareness, alone is real. Awareness that is manifold is ignorance. Even ignorance, which is unreal, does not exist except as oneself, who is awareness. All the many ornaments are unreal; say, do they exist except as gold, which is real?

Explanatory paraphrase: Oneself, who is dense [abundant, full, firm and clear] jñāna [knowledge or awareness], alone is real. Awareness that is manifold [namely the mind, whose root, the ego, is the awareness that sees the one as many] is ajñāna [ignorance]. Even [that] ignorance, which is unreal, does not exist except as [besides, apart from or as other than] oneself, who is [real] awareness. All the many ornaments are unreal; say, do they exist except as gold, which is real? [In other words, though the ego or mind, which is the false awareness that sees itself as numerous phenomena, is ignorance and unreal, the real substance that appears as it is only oneself, who is true knowledge or pure awareness, so what actually exists is not the ego or mind but only oneself.]

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 60-64: the extended version of verse 14 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              [...] உடனா — னென்னுமத்
தன்மையுண்டேன் முன்னிலைப டர்க்கைக டாமுளவாந்
தன்மையி னுண்மையைத் தானாய்ந்து — தன்மையறின்
முன்னிலைப டர்க்கை முடிவுற்றொன் றாயொளிருந்
தன்மையே தன்னிலைமை தான். [...]

                              […] uḍaṉā — ṉeṉṉumat
taṉmaiyuṇḍēṉ muṉṉilaipa ḍarkkaiga ḍāmuḷavān
taṉmaiyi ṉuṇmaiyait tāṉāyndu — taṉmaiyaṟiṉ
muṉṉilaipa ḍarkkai muḍivuṯṟoṉ ḏṟāyoḷirun
taṉmaiyē taṉṉilaimai tāṉ
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: ‘உடல் நான்’ என்னும் அத் தன்மை உண்டேல், முன்னிலை படர்க்கைகள் தாம் உள ஆம். தன்மையின் உண்மையை தான் ஆய்ந்து தன்மை அறின், முன்னிலை படர்க்கை முடிவு உற்று, ஒன்றாய் ஒளிரும் தன்மையே தன் நிலைமை தான்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ‘uḍal nāṉ’ eṉṉum a-t-taṉmai uṇḍēl, muṉṉilai paḍarkkaigaḷ tām uḷa-v-ām. taṉmaiyiṉ uṇmaiyai tāṉ āyndu taṉmai aṟiṉ, muṉṉilai paḍarkkai muḍivu uṯṟu, oṉḏṟāy oḷirum taṉmaiyē taṉ nilaimai tāṉ.

English translation: If that first person called ‘the body is I’ exists, second and third persons will exist. If, oneself investigating the reality of the first person, the first person ceases to exist, second and third persons coming to an end, the nature that shines as one alone is oneself, the state of oneself.

Explanatory paraphrase: If that first person [the ego] called ‘[this] body is I’ exists, second and third persons [everything else] will exist. If the first person ceases to exist [by] oneself investigating the reality of the first person, second and third persons will come to an end, and [what then remains alone, namely] the nature [selfness, essence or reality] that shines as one [undivided by the appearance of these three persons or ‘places’] alone is oneself, the [real] state [or nature] of oneself.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation, especially the three in which this kaliveṇbā version is discussed:
2017-01-15: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu verse 14: second and third persons do not exist except in the view of the first person, the ‘I’ who is aware of itself as a body
2016-10-17: Comment referring to the kaliveṇbā extension of this verse and explaining that though the body or person we seem to be is actually a second person (an object of our perception), it seems to be the first person, the subject, because our experience now is ‘I am this body, this person called so-and-so’
2011-01-10: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu verse 14: the kaliveṇbā version

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 64-68: the extended version of verse 15 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] நிதமு — மன்னு
நிகழ்வினைப் பற்றி யிறப்பெதிர்வு நிற்ப
நிகழ்கா லவையு நிகழ்வே — நிகழ்வொன்றே
யின்றுண்மை தேரா திறப்பெதிர்வு தேரவுன
லொன்றின்றி யெண்ண வுனல். […]

                              […] nitamu — maṉṉu
nihaṙviṉaip paṯṟi yiṟappedirvu niṟpa
nihaṙkā lavaiyu nihaṙvē — nihaṙvoṉḏṟē
yiṉḏṟuṇmai tērā tiṟappedirvu tēravuṉa
loṉḏṟiṉṟi yeṇṇa vuṉal
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: நிதமும் மன்னும் நிகழ்வினை பற்றி இறப்பு எதிர்வு நிற்ப. நிகழ்கால் அவையும் நிகழ்வே. நிகழ்வு ஒன்றே. இன்று உண்மை தேராது இறப்பு எதிர்வு தேர உனல் ஒன்று இன்றி எண்ண உனல்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): nitamum maṉṉum nihaṙviṉai paṯṟi iṟappu edirvu niṟpa. nihaṙkāl avaiyum nihaṙvē. nihaṙvu oṉḏṟē. iṉḏṟu uṇmai tērādu, iṟappu edirvu tēra uṉal ‘oṉḏṟu’ iṉḏṟi eṇṇa uṉal.

English translation: Past and future stand holding the present, which always endures. While occurring, they too are actually the present. The present is the only one. Not knowing the reality of now, trying to know the past or future is trying to count without one.

Explanatory paraphrase: Past and future stand holding [or depending upon] the present, which always endures [remains or exists]. While occurring, they too are actually the present. [Therefore] the present is the only one [the only time that actually exists] [alternatively this sentence can be interpreted as meaning: the present alone [is all these three times]; the present alone [exists]; or [there is] only the present] [so the implication of all these interpretations is that there are not three times, namely the past, present and future, but only one, namely the present, which alone is what seems to be these three]. [Hence] without knowing the reality of today [the present moment, now], trying to know the past or future is [like] trying to count [calculate or evaluate] without [knowing the value of] one.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 68-72: the extended version of verse 16 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] உணர — நின்றபொரு
ணாமன்றி நாளேது நாடேது நாடுங்கா
னாமுடம்பே னாணாட்டு ணாம்படுவ — நாமுடம்போ
நாமின்றன் றென்றுமொன்று நாடிங்கங் கெங்குமொன்றா
னாமுண்டு நாணாடி னாம். […]

                              […] uṇara — niṉḏṟaporu
ṇāmaṉḏṟi nāḷēdu nāḍēdu nāḍuṅgā
ṉāmuḍambē ṉāṇāṭṭu ṇāmpaḍuva — nāmuḍambō
nāmiṉḏṟaṉ ḏṟeṉḏṟumoṉḏṟu nāḍiṅgaṅ geṅgumoṉḏṟā
ṉāmuṇḍu nāṇāḍi ṉām
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: உணர நின்ற பொருள், நாம் அன்றி நாள் ஏது, நாடு ஏது, நாடும் கால்? நாம் உடம்பேல், நாள் நாட்டுள் நாம் படுவம். நாம் உடம்போ? நாம் இன்று, அன்று, என்றும் ஒன்று; நாடு இங்கு, அங்கு, எங்கும் ஒன்று; ஆல், நாம் உண்டு. நாள் நாடு இல். நாம்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): uṇara niṉḏṟa poruḷ, nām aṉḏṟi nāḷ ēdu, nāḍu ēdu, nāḍum kāl? nām uḍambēl, nāḷ nāṭṭuḷ nām paḍuvam. nām uḍambō? nām iṉḏṟu, aṉḏṟu, eṉḏṟum oṉḏṟu; nāḍu iṅgu, aṅgu, eṅgum oṉḏṟu; āl, nām uṇḍu. nāḷ nāḍu il. nām.

அன்வயம்: நாடும் கால், உணர நின்ற பொருள், நாம் அன்றி நாள் ஏது, நாடு ஏது? நாம் உடம்பேல், நாம் நாள் நாட்டுள் படுவம். நாம் உடம்போ? இன்று, அன்று, என்றும் நாம் ஒன்று; நாடு இங்கு, அங்கு, எங்கும் [நாம்] ஒன்று; ஆல், [நாள் நாடு இல்] நாம், நாம் உண்டு. நாள் நாடு இல்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): nāḍum kāl, uṇara niṉḏṟa poruḷ, nām aṉḏṟi nāḷ ēdu, nāḍu ēdu? nām uḍambēl, nām nāḷ nāṭṭuḷ paḍuvam. nām uḍambō? iṉḏṟu, aṉḏṟu, eṉḏṟum nām oṉḏṟu; nāḍu iṅgu, aṅgu, eṅgum [nām] oṉḏṟu; āl, [nāḷ nāḍu il] nām, nām uṇḍu. nāḷ nāḍu il.

English translation: When we investigate, except we, the substance that stands consciously, where is time, where is place? If we are a body, we will be ensnared in time and place. Are we a body? Since we are the one, now, then and always, the one in place, here, there and everywhere, there is we, we. Time and place do not exist.

Explanatory paraphrase: When we investigate [ourself], except we, the [one real] substance, which stands consciously [or as clear awareness], where is time and where is place? If we are a body, we will be ensnared in time and place. [But] are we a body? Since we are the [same] one [without any change], now, then and always, the [same] one in [each] place, here, there and everywhere, there is [only] we, [the timeless and placeless] we. Time and place do not exist.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 72-76: the extended version of verse 17 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] ஊன — மாமிவ்
வுடனானே தன்னை யுணரார்க் குணர்ந்தார்க்
குடலளவே நான்ற னுணரார்க் — குடலுள்ளே
தன்னுணர்ந்தார்க் கெல்லையறத் தானொளிரு நானிதுவே
யின்னவர்தம் பேதமென வெண்ணுவாய். […]

                              […] ūṉa — māmiv
vuḍaṉāṉē taṉṉai yuṇarārk kuṇarndārk
kuḍalaḷavē nāṉṯṟa ṉuṇarārk — kuḍaluḷḷē
taṉṉuṇarndārk kellaiyaṟat tāṉoḷiru nāṉiduvē
yiṉṉavartam bhēdameṉa veṇṇuvāy
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: ஊனம் ஆம் இவ் உடல் நானே, தன்னை உணரார்க்கு, உணர்ந்தார்க்கு. உடல் அளவே ‘நான்’ தன் உணரார்க்கு; உடல் உள்ளே தன் உணர்ந்தார்க்கு எல்லை அற தான் ஒளிரும் ‘நான்’. இதுவே இன்னவர் தம் பேதம் என எண்ணுவாய்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ūṉam ām i-vv-uḍal nāṉē, taṉṉai uṇarārkku, uṇarndārkku. uḍal aḷavē ‘nāṉ’ taṉ[ṉai] uṇarārkku; uḍal uḷḷē taṉ[ṉai] uṇarndārkku ellai aṟa tāṉ oḷirum ‘nāṉ’. iduvē iṉṉavar tam bhēdam eṉa eṇṇuvāy.

அன்வயம்: தன்னை உணரார்க்கு, உணர்ந்தார்க்கு ஊனம் ஆம் இவ் உடல் நானே. தன் உணரார்க்கு, ‘நான்’ உடல் அளவே; உடல் உள்ளே தன் உணர்ந்தார்க்கு ‘நான்’ தான் எல்லை அற ஒளிரும். இன்னவர் தம் பேதம் இதுவே என எண்ணுவாய்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): taṉṉai uṇarārkku, uṇarndārkku ūṉam ām i-vv-uḍal nāṉē. taṉ uṇarārkku ‘nāṉ’ uḍal aḷavē; uḍal uḷḷē taṉ uṇarndārkku ‘nāṉ’ tāṉ ellai aṟa oḷirum. iṉṉavar tam bhēdam iduvē eṉa eṇṇuvāy.

English translation: For those who do not know themself, for those who have known themself, this body, which is flesh, is actually ‘I’. For those who do not know themself, ‘I’ is only the extent of the body; for those who have known themself within the body, oneself, ‘I’, shines without limit. May you consider that the difference between them is only this.

Explanatory paraphrase: For those who do not know themself [their real nature] and for those who have known themself, this [defective] body, which is [composed of] flesh [like a corpse], is actually ‘I’ [or only ‘I’]. For those who do not know themself, ‘I’ is [limited to] only the extent of the body, [whereas] for those who have known themself within the body, oneself [called] ‘I’ shines without limit [boundary or extent] [as the one infinite whole, which alone exists and which is therefore the sole substance that appears as the body and everything else]. May you consider that the difference between them is only this.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 76-80: the extended version of verse 18 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — முன்னா
முலகுண்மை யாகு முணர்வில்லார்க் குள்ளார்க்
குலகளவா முண்மை யுணரார்க் — குலகினுக்
காதார மாயுருவற் றாருமுணர்ந் தாருண்மை
யீதாகும் பேதமிவர்க் கெண்ணுக. […]

                              […] — muṉṉā
mulahuṇmai yāhu muṇarvillārk kuḷḷārk
kulahaḷavā muṇmai yuṇarārk — kulahiṉuk
kādhāra māyuruvaṯ ṟārumuṇarn dāruṇmai
yīdāhum bhēdamivark keṇṇuha
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: முன் ஆம் உலகு உண்மை ஆகும், உணர்வு இல்லார்க்கு, உள்ளார்க்கு. உலகு அளவு ஆம் உண்மை உணரார்க்கு; உலகினுக்கு ஆதாரமாய் உரு அற்று ஆரும் உணர்ந்தார் உண்மை. ஈது ஆகும் பேதம் இவர்க்கு. எண்ணுக.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): muṉ ām ulahu uṇmai āhum, uṇarvu illārkku, uḷḷārkku. ulahu aḷavu ām uṇmai uṇarārkku; ulahiṉukku ādhāram-āy uru aṯṟu ārum uṇarndār uṇmai. īdu āhum bhēdam ivarkku. eṇṇuha.

அன்வயம்: உணர்வு இல்லார்க்கு, உள்ளார்க்கு முன் ஆம் உலகு உண்மை ஆகும். உணரார்க்கு உண்மை உலகு அளவு ஆம்; உணர்ந்தார் உண்மை உலகினுக்கு ஆதாரமாய் உரு அற்று ஆரும். ஈது இவர்க்கு பேதம் ஆகும். எண்ணுக.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): uṇarvu illārkku, uḷḷārkku muṉ ām ulahu uṇmai āhum. uṇarārkku uṇmai ulahu aḷavu ām; uṇarndār uṇmai ulahiṉukku ādhāram-āy uru aṯṟu ārum. īdu ivarkku bhēdam āhum. eṇṇuha.

English translation: For those who do not have knowledge, for those who have, the world, which is in front, is real. For those who do not know, reality is the extent of the world; for those who have known, reality pervades devoid of form as the support for the world. This is the difference between them. May you consider.

Explanatory paraphrase: For those who do not have knowledge [of their real nature] and for those who have, the world, which is [seen] in front, is real. For those who do not know [their real nature], reality is [limited to] the extent of [the forms that constitute] the world, [whereas] for those who have known [their real nature], reality pervades devoid of form as the ādhāra [support, foundation or container] for [the appearance of the forms that constitute] the world. This is the difference between them. May you consider.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 80-84: the extended version of verse 19 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — பேத
விதிமதி மூல விவேக மிலார்க்கே
விதிமதி வெல்லும் விவாதம் — விதிமதிகட்
கோர்முதலாந் தன்னை யுணர்ந்தா ரவைதணந்தார்
சார்வரோ பின்னுமவை சாற்றுவாய். […]

                              […] — bhēda
vidhimati mūla vivēka milārkkē
vidhimati vellum vivādam — vidhimatigaṭ
kōrmudalān taṉṉai yuṇarndā ravaitaṇandār
sārvarō piṉṉumavai sāṯṟuvāy
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: பேத விதி மதி மூல விவேகம் இலார்க்கே விதி மதி வெல்லும் விவாதம். விதிமதிகட்கு ஓர் முதல் ஆம் தன்னை உணர்ந்தார் அவை தணந்தார்; சார்வரோ பின்னும் அவை? சாற்றுவாய்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): bhēda vidhi mati mūla vivēkam ilārkkē vidhi mati vellum vivādam. vidhi-matigaṭku ōr mudal ām taṉṉai uṇarndār avai taṇandār; sārvarō piṉṉum avai? sāṯṟuvāy.

அன்வயம்: பேத விதி மதி மூல விவேகம் இலார்க்கே விதி மதி வெல்லும் விவாதம். விதிமதிகட்கு ஓர் முதல் ஆம் தன்னை உணர்ந்தார் அவை தணந்தார்; பின்னும் அவை சார்வரோ? சாற்றுவாய்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): bhēda vidhi mati mūla vivēkam ilārkkē vidhi mati vellum vivādam. vidhi-matigaṭku ōr mudal ām taṉṉai uṇarndār avai taṇandār; piṉṉum avai sārvarō? sāṯṟuvāy.

English translation: Only for those who do not have discernment of the root of fate and will, different, is there dispute about which prevails, fate or will. Those who have known themself, who is the one origin for fate and will, have discarded them. May you say, will they thereafter be associated with them?

Explanatory paraphrase: Only for those who do not have bhēda vidhi-mati-mūla-vivēkam [ability to distinguish or discern the root of fate (vidhi) and will (mati), which are different or distinct from each other, namely the ego] is there dispute about which prevails, fate or will. Those who have known [the reality of] themself [the ego], who is the one origin [cause or foundation] for fate and will, have [thereby] discarded them [because the ego as such does not actually exist, since its reality is not what it seems to be but just pure self-awareness, so when one knows oneself as pure self-awareness the appearance of the ego will be dissolved forever, and thus one will have discarded not only the ego but also its fate and will]. May you say, will they thereafter be associated with them?

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 84-88: the extended version of verse 20 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — சார்பவை
காணுந் தனைவிட்டுத் தான்கடவு ளைக்காணல்
காணு மனோமயமாங் காட்சிதனைக் — காணுமவன்
றான்கடவுள் கண்டானாந் தன்முதலைத் தான்முதல்போய்த்
தான்கடவு ளன்றியில தால். […]

                              […] — sārbavai
kāṇun taṉaiviṭṭut tāṉkaḍavu ḷaikkāṇal
kāṇu maṉōmayamāṅ kāṭcitaṉaik — kāṇumavaṉ
ḏṟāṉkaḍavuḷ kaṇḍāṉān taṉmudalait tāṉmudalpōyt
tāṉkaḍavu ḷaṉḏṟiyila dāl
. […]

பதச்சேதம்:: சார்பவை காணும் தனை விட்டு, தான் கடவுளை காணல் காணும் மனோமயம் ஆம் காட்சி. தனை காணும் அவன் தான் கடவுள் கண்டான் ஆம், தன் முதலை, தான் முதல் போய், தான் கடவுள் அன்றி இலதால்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): sārbavai kāṇum taṉai viṭṭu, tāṉ kaḍavuḷai kāṇal kāṇum maṉōmayam ām kāṭci. taṉai kāṇum avaṉ-tāṉ kaḍavuḷ kaṇḍāṉ ām, taṉ mudalai, tāṉ mudal pōy, tāṉ kaḍavuḷ aṉḏṟi iladāl.

அன்வயம்: சார்பவை காணும் தனை விட்டு, தான் கடவுளை காணல் காணும் மனோமயம் ஆம் காட்சி. தான் முதல் போய், தான் கடவுள் அன்றி இலதால், தன் முதலை, தனை காணும் அவன் தான் கடவுள் கண்டான் ஆம்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): sārbavai kāṇum taṉai viṭṭu, tāṉ kaḍavuḷai kāṇal kāṇum maṉōmayam ām kāṭci. tāṉ mudal pōy, tāṉ kaḍavuḷ aṉḏṟi iladāl, taṉ mudalai, taṉai kāṇum avaṉ-tāṉ kaḍavuḷ kaṇḍāṉ ām.

English translation: Leaving oneself, who sees those that appear, oneself seeing God is seeing a mental vision. Only one who sees oneself, the origin of oneself, is one who has seen God, because the origin, oneself, going, oneself is not other than God.

Paraphrased translation: Neglecting [ignoring or not investigating] oneself [the ego], who sees [all] those [things] that appear, oneself seeing God is seeing a mental vision [a mind-constituted image, phenomenon or appearance]. Only one who sees oneself [one’s real nature], the origin [base or foundation] of oneself [one’s ego], is one who has seen God, because oneself [one’s real nature], [which alone is what remains] when oneself [one’s ego], the origin [root or foundation of all other things], goes, is not other than God.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 88-92: the extended version of verse 21 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] உயிராத் — தான்கருதுந்
தன்னைத்தான் காண றலைவன் றனைக்காண
லென்னும்பன் னூலுண்மை யென்னையெனின் — றன்னைத்தான்
காணலெவன் றானொன்றாற் காணவொணா தேற்றலைவற்
காணலெவ னூணாதல் காண். […]

                              […] uyirāt — tāṉkarutun
taṉṉaittāṉ kāṇa ṯalaivaṉ ḏṟaṉaikkāṇa
leṉṉumpaṉ ṉūluṇmai yeṉṉaiyeṉiṉ — ḏṟaṉṉaittāṉ
kāṇalevaṉ ḏṟāṉoṉḏṟāṯ kāṇavoṇā dēṯṟalaivaṯ
kāṇaleva ṉūṇādal kāṇ
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: உயிரா தான் கருதும் ‘தன்னை தான் காணல்’, ‘தலைவன் தனை காணல்’ என்னும் பல் நூல் உண்மை என்னை எனின்: தன்னை தான் காணல் எவன், தான் ஒன்றால்? காண ஒணாதேல், தலைவன் காணல் எவன்? ஊண் ஆதல் காண்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): uyirā tāṉ karudum ‘taṉṉai tāṉ kāṇal’, ‘talaivaṉ taṉai kāṇal’ eṉṉum pal nūl uṇmai eṉṉai eṉiṉ: taṉṉai tāṉ kāṇal evaṉ, tāṉ oṉḏṟāl? kāṇa oṇādēl, talaivaṉ kāṇal evaṉ? ūṇ ādal kāṇ.

அன்வயம்: உயிரா தான் கருதும் ‘தன்னை தான் காணல்’, ‘தலைவன் தனை காணல்’ என்னும் பல் நூல் உண்மை என்னை எனின்: தான் ஒன்றால், தன்னை தான் காணல் எவன்? காண ஒணாதேல், தலைவன் காணல் எவன்? ஊண் ஆதல் காண்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): uyirā tāṉ karudum ‘taṉṉai tāṉ kāṇal’, ‘talaivaṉ taṉai kāṇal’ eṉṉum pal nūl uṇmai eṉṉai eṉiṉ: tāṉ oṉḏṟāl, taṉṉai tāṉ kāṇal evaṉ? kāṇa oṇādēl, talaivaṉ kāṇal evaṉ? ūṇ ādal kāṇ.

English translation: If one asks what is the truth of many texts that say ‘oneself seeing oneself’, whom one considers to be a soul, ‘seeing God’: Since oneself is one, how is oneself to see oneself? If it is not possible to see, how to see God? Becoming food is seeing.

Explanatory paraphrase: If anyone asks what is the truth of many texts that talk of ‘oneself seeing oneself’, whom one considers to be a soul [or living being], and ‘seeing God’ [the reply is]: Since oneself is one, how is oneself to see oneself? If it is not possible [for oneself] to see [oneself], how [is oneself] to see God [who is the real nature of oneself]? Becoming food [to God] is seeing [both oneself and God]. [In other words, the ego being swallowed and consumed entirely by the infinite light of pure self-awareness is alone real seeing.]

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 92-96: the extended version of verse 22 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] எவையுங் — காணு
மதிக்கொளி தந்தம் மதிக்கு ளொளிரு
மதியினை யுள்ளே மடக்கிப் — பதியிற்
பதித்திடுத லன்றிப் பதியை மதியான்
மதித்திடுத லெங்ஙன் மதியாய். […]

                              […] evaiyuṅ — kāṇu
matikkoḷi tandam matikku ḷoḷiru
matiyiṉai yuḷḷē maḍakkip — patiyiṯ
padittiḍuda laṉḏṟip patiyai matiyāṉ
madittiḍuda leṅṅaṉ madiyāy
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: எவையும் காணும் மதிக்கு ஒளி தந்து, அம் மதிக்குள் ஒளிரும் மதியினை உள்ளே மடக்கி பதியில் பதித்திடுதல் அன்றி, பதியை மதியால் மதித்திடுதல் எங்ஙன்? மதியாய்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): evaiyum kāṇum matikku oḷi tandu, am-matikkuḷ oḷirum matiyiṉai uḷḷē maḍakki patiyil padittiḍudal aṉḏṟi, patiyai matiyāl madittiḍudal eṅṅaṉ? madiyāy.

அன்வயம்: எவையும் காணும் மதிக்கு ஒளி தந்து, அம் மதிக்குள் ஒளிரும் பதியில் மதியினை உள்ளே மடக்கி பதித்திடுதல் அன்றி, பதியை மதியால் மதித்திடுதல் எங்ஙன்? மதியாய்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): evaiyum kāṇum matikku oḷi tandu, am-matikkuḷ oḷirum patiyil matiyiṉai uḷḷē maḍakki padittiḍudal aṉḏṟi, patiyai matiyāl madittiḍudal eṅṅaṉ? madiyāy.

English translation: May you consider, except by, turning the mind back within, completely immersing it in God, who shines within that mind giving light to the mind, which sees everything, how to fathom God by the mind?

Explanatory paraphrase: May you consider, except by turning [bending or folding] mati [the mind or intellect] back within [and thereby] completely immersing [embedding or fixing] it in pati [the Lord or God], who shines [as pure awareness] within that mind giving light [of awareness] to the mind, which sees everything, how to fathom [or investigate and know] God by the mind?

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation, especially the one in which this kaliveṇbā version is discussed:
2017-01-15: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu verse 22 (kaliveṇbā version): our actual self gives light to the mind, which sees everything

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 96-100: the extended version of verse 23 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — மதியிலதா
னானென்றித் தேக நவிலா துறக்கத்து
நானின்றென் றாரு நவில்வதிலை — நானொன்
றெழுந்தபி னெல்லா மெழுமிந்த நானெங்
கெழுமென்று நுண்மதியா லெண்ண — நழுவும்.
[…]

                              […] — matiyiladā
ṉāṉeṉḏṟid dēha navilā duṟakkattu
nāṉiṉḏṟeṉ ḏṟāru navilvadilai — nāṉoṉ
ḏṟeṙundapi ṉellā meṙuminda nāṉeṅ
geṙumeṉḏṟu nuṇmatiyā leṇṇa — naṙuvum
.
[…]

பதச்சேதம்: மதியிலதால், ‘நான்’ என்று இத் தேகம் நவிலாது. ‘உறக்கத்தும் நான் இன்று’ என்று ஆரும் நவில்வது இலை. ‘நான்’ ஒன்று எழுந்த பின், எல்லாம் எழும். இந்த ‘நான்’ எங்கு எழும் என்று நுண் மதியால் எண்ண, நழுவும்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): mati-y-iladāl, ‘nāṉ’ eṉḏṟu i-d-dēham navilādu. ‘uṟakkattum nāṉ iṉḏṟu’ eṉḏṟu ārum navilvadu ilai. ‘nāṉ’ oṉḏṟu eṙunda piṉ, ellām eṙum. inda ‘nāṉ’ eṅgu eṙum eṉḏṟu nuṇ matiyāl eṇṇa, naṙuvum.

அன்வயம்: மதியிலதால், இத் தேகம் ‘நான்’ என்று நவிலாது. ‘உறக்கத்தும் நான் இன்று’ என்று ஆரும் நவில்வது இலை. ‘நான்’ ஒன்று எழுந்த பின், எல்லாம் எழும். இந்த ‘நான்’ எங்கு எழும் என்று நுண் மதியால் எண்ண, நழுவும்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): mati-y-iladāl, i-d-dēham ‘nāṉ’ eṉḏṟu navilādu. ‘uṟakkattum nāṉ iṉḏṟu’ eṉḏṟu ārum navilvadu ilai. ‘nāṉ’ oṉḏṟu eṙunda piṉ, ellām eṙum. inda ‘nāṉ’ eṅgu eṙum eṉḏṟu nuṇ matiyāl eṇṇa, naṙuvum.

English translation: Since it is not awareness, this body does not say ‘I’. No one says ‘In sleep I do not exist’. After one thing, ‘I’, rises, everything rises. When one contemplates by a subtle mind where this ‘I’ rises, it slips away.

Explanatory paraphrase: Since it is devoid of awareness, this body does not say ‘I’ [that is, it is not aware of itself as ‘I’]. No one says ‘In sleep I do not exist’ [even though one was then not aware of this or any other body]. [Therefore neither this nor any other body can be what I actually am, but in waking and dream an awareness rises as ‘I am this body’.] After one thing [called] ‘I’ [namely the ego, the awareness that rises as ‘I am this body’] rises, everything rises. When one contemplates [investigates, discerns, determines or ascertains] with nuṇ mati [a subtle, refined, sharp, keen, acute, precise, meticulous and discerning mind or intellect] where this ‘I’ rises, it slips away.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation, especially the four in which this kaliveṇbā version is discussed:
2017-01-15: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu verse 23: everything else arises only after the ego arises, and if we investigate this ego it will disappear (in which the way in which Bhagavan extended the final sentence of this verse in the kaliveṇbā version is explained)
2016-02-28: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu verses 23 and 28: we need a subtle and sharp mind in order to discern what we actually are (in which the way in which Bhagavan extended the final sentence of this verse in the kaliveṇbā version is explained)
2015-05-28: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu verse 23: why is this body not what I actually am? (in which the way in which Bhagavan extended the final sentence of this verse in the kaliveṇbā version is explained and discussed in detail)
2009-06-14: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: an explanatory paraphrase (in which the meaning and implication of the final sentence of this verse as extended in the kaliveṇbā version is discussed)

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 101-104: verse 24 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […]
சடவுடனா னென்னாது சச்சித் துதியா
துடலளவா நானொன் றுதிக்கு — மிடையிலிது
சிச்சடக்கி ரந்திபந்தஞ் சீவனுட்ப மெய்யகந்தை
யிச்சமு சாரமன மெண். […]

                              […]
jaḍavuḍaṉā ṉeṉṉādu saccit tudiyā
duḍalaḷavā nāṉoṉ ḏṟudikku — miḍaiyilitu
ciccaḍakki ranthibandhañ jīvaṉuṭpa meyyahandai
yiccamu sāramaṉa meṇ
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: சட உடல் ‘நான்’ என்னாது; சத்சித் உதியாது; உடல் அளவா ‘நான்’ ஒன்று உதிக்கும் இடையில். இது சித்சடக்கிரந்தி, பந்தம், சீவன், நுட்ப மெய், அகந்தை, இச் சமுசாரம், மனம்; எண்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): jaḍa uḍal ‘nāṉ’ eṉṉādu; sat-cit udiyādu; uḍal aḷavā ‘nāṉ’ oṉḏṟu udikkum iḍaiyil. idu cit-jaḍa-giranthi, bandham, jīvaṉ, nuṭpa mey, ahandai, i-c-samusāram, maṉam; eṇ.

அன்வயம்: சட உடல் ‘நான்’ என்னாது; சத்சித் உதியாது; இடையில் உடல் அளவா ‘நான்’ ஒன்று உதிக்கும். இது சித்சடக்கிரந்தி, பந்தம், சீவன், நுட்ப மெய், அகந்தை, இச் சமுசாரம், மனம்; எண்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): jaḍa uḍal ‘nāṉ’ eṉṉādu; sat-cit udiyādu; iḍaiyil uḍal aḷavā ‘nāṉ’ oṉḏṟu udikkum. idu cit-jaḍa-giranthi, bandham, jīvaṉ, nuṭpa mey, ahandai, i-c-samusāram, maṉam; eṇ.

English translation: The insentient body does not say ‘I’; being-awareness does not rise; in between one thing, ‘I’, rises as the extent of the body. Know that this is the awareness-insentience-knot, bondage, the soul, the subtle body, the ego, this wandering and the mind.

Explanatory paraphrase: The jaḍa [insentient] body does not say ‘I’; sat-cit [being-awareness] does not rise; [but] in between [these two] one thing [called] ‘I’ rises as the extent of the body. Know that this [the spurious adjunct-mixed self-awareness that rises as ‘I am this body’] is cit-jaḍa-granthi [the knot (granthi) formed by the entanglement of awareness (cit) with an insentient (jaḍa) body, binding them together as if they were one], bandha [bondage], jīva [life or soul], the subtle body, ahandai [the ego], this saṁsāra [wandering, revolving, perpetual movement, restless activity, worldly existence or the cycle of birth and death] and manam [the mind].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 104-108: the extended version of verse 25 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] என்னே — விச்சை
யுருப்பற்றி யுண்டா முருப்பற்றி நிற்கு
முருப்பற்றி யுண்டுமிக வோங்கு — முருவிட்
டுருப்பற்றுந் தேடினா லோட்டம் பிடிக்கு
முருவற்ற பேயகந்தை யோர்வாய். […]

                              […] eṉṉē — viccai
yuruppaṯṟi yuṇḍā muruppaṯṟi niṟku
muruppaṯṟi yuṇḍumiha vōṅgu — muruviṭ
ṭuruppaṯṟun tēḍiṉā lōṭṭam piḍikku
muruvaṯṟa pēyahandai yōrvāy
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: என்னே விச்சை! உரு பற்றி உண்டாம்; உரு பற்றி நிற்கும்; உரு பற்றி உண்டு மிக ஓங்கும்; உரு விட்டு, உரு பற்றும்; தேடினால் ஓட்டம் பிடிக்கும், உரு அற்ற பேய் அகந்தை. ஓர்வாய்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): eṉṉē viccai! uru paṯṟi uṇḍām; uru paṯṟi niṟkum; uru paṯṟi uṇḍu miha ōṅgum; uru viṭṭu, uru paṯṟum; tēḍiṉāl ōṭṭam piḍikkum, uru aṯṟa pēy ahandai. ōrvāy.

அன்வயம்: என்னே விச்சை! உரு அற்ற பேய் அகந்தை உரு பற்றி உண்டாம்; உரு பற்றி நிற்கும்; உரு பற்றி உண்டு மிக ஓங்கும்; உரு விட்டு, உரு பற்றும்; தேடினால் ஓட்டம் பிடிக்கும். ஓர்வாய்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): eṉṉē viccai! uru aṯṟa pēy ahandai uru paṯṟi uṇḍām; uru paṯṟi niṟkum; uru paṯṟi uṇḍu miha ōṅgum; uru viṭṭu, uru paṯṟum; tēḍiṉāl ōṭṭam piḍikkum. ōrvāy.

English translation: What a wonder! Grasping form the formless phantom-ego comes into existence; grasping form it stands; grasping and feeding on form it grows abundantly; leaving form, it grasps form. If it seeks, it will take flight. May you investigate.

Explanatory paraphrase: What a wonder! [By] grasping form [that is, by projecting and perceiving the form of a body (composed of five sheaths) as itself] the formless phantom-ego comes into existence [rises into being or is formed]; [by] grasping form [that is, by holding on to that body as itself] it stands [endures, continues or persists]; [by] grasping and feeding on form [that is, by projecting and perceiving other forms or phenomena] it grows [spreads, expands, increases, ascends, rises high or flourishes] abundantly; leaving [one] form [a body that it had projected and perceived as itself in one state], it grasps [another] form [another body that it projects and perceives as itself in its next state]. If it seeks [examines or investigates] [itself], it will take flight [because it has no form of its own, and hence it cannot seem to exist without grasping the forms of other things as itself and as its food or sustenance]. May you investigate [this ego] [or may you know thus].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 108-112: the extended version of verse 26 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — கருவா
மகந்தையுண் டாயி னனைத்துமுண் டாகு
மகந்தையின் றேலின் றனைத்து — மகந்தையே
யாவுமா மாதலால் யாதிதென்று நாடலே
யோவுதல் யாவுமென வோர். [...]

                              […] — karuvā
mahandaiyuṇ ḍāyi ṉaṉaittumuṇ ḍāhu
mahandaiyiṉ ḏṟēliṉ ḏṟaṉaittu — mahandaiyē
yāvumā mādalāl yādideṉḏṟu nādalē
yōvudal yāvumeṉa vōr
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: கரு ஆம் அகந்தை உண்டாயின், அனைத்தும் உண்டாகும்; அகந்தை இன்றேல், இன்று அனைத்தும். அகந்தையே யாவும் ஆம். ஆதலால், யாது இது என்று நாடலே ஓவுதல் யாவும் என ஓர்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): karu ām ahandai uṇḍāyiṉ, aṉaittum uṇḍāhum; ahandai iṉḏṟēl, iṉḏṟu aṉaittum. ahandai-y-ē yāvum ām. ādalāl, yādu idu eṉḏṟu nādal-ē ōvudal yāvum eṉa ōr.

அன்வயம்: கரு ஆம் அகந்தை உண்டாயின், அனைத்தும் உண்டாகும்; அகந்தை இன்றேல், அனைத்தும் இன்று. யாவும் அகந்தையே ஆம். ஆதலால், யாது இது என்று நாடலே யாவும் ஓவுதல் என ஓர்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): karu ām ahandai uṇḍāyiṉ, aṉaittum uṇḍāhum; ahandai iṉḏṟēl, aṉaittum iṉḏṟu. yāvum ahandai-y-ē ām. ādalāl, yādu idu eṉḏṟu nādal-ē yāvum ōvudal eṉa ōr.

English translation: If the ego, which is the embryo, comes into existence, everything comes into existence; if the ego does not exist, everything does not exist. The ego itself is everything. Therefore, know that investigating what this is alone is giving up everything.

Explanatory paraphrase: If the ego, which is the embryo [womb, efficient cause, inner substance or foundation], comes into existence, everything [all phenomena, everything that appears and disappears, everything other than our pure, fundamental, unchanging and immutable self-awareness] comes into existence; if the ego does not exist, everything does not exist [because nothing other than pure self-awareness actually exists, so everything else seems to exist only in the view of the ego, and hence it cannot seem to exist unless the ego seems to exist]. [Therefore] the ego itself is everything [because it is the original seed or embryo, which alone is what expands as everything else]. Therefore, know that investigating what this [the ego] is alone is giving up everything [because the ego will cease to exist if it investigates itself keenly enough, and when it ceases to exist everything else will cease to exist along with it].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation, especially the three in which this kaliveṇbā version is discussed:
2016-12-23: The ego is the creator of everything, because everything seems to exist only in its view, and hence nothing exists independent of it (as implied in this verse, and as emphasised by the relative clause that Bhagavan added in the kaliveṇbā version of it, in which he used the term ‘கரு’ (karu) to indicate that the ego is the efficient cause (nimitta kāraṇa) of everything)
2016-11-27: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu verse 26: the ego is the sole cause for the seeming existence of everything else (in which it is explained that the relative clause Bhagavan added in the kaliveṇbā version of this verse to describe the ego, namely ‘கருவாம்’ (karu-v-ām), means ‘which is the embryo [womb, efficient cause, inner substance or foundation]’ and therefore implies that the ego is the embryo that develops into everything else, the womb from which everything is born, the efficient cause (nimitta kāraṇa) that creates or produces everything, the inner substance of all phenomena, and the foundation on which they all appear)
2011-01-10: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu verse 26: the kaliveṇbā version

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 112-116: the extended version of verse 27 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] முதல்போன் — மேவுமிந்த
நானுதியா துள்ளநிலை நாமதுவா யுள்ளநிலை
நானுதிக்குந் தானமதை நாடாம — னானுதியாத்
தன்னிழப்பைச் சார்வதெவன் சாராமற் றானதுவாந்
தன்னிலையி னிற்பதெவன் சாற்றுதி. […]

                              […] mudalpōṉ — mēvuminda
nāṉudiyā duḷḷanilai nāmaduvā yuḷḷanilai
nāṉudikkun thāṉamadai nāḍāma — ṉāṉudiyāt
taṉṉiṙappaic cārvadevaṉ sārāmaṯ ṟāṉaduvān
taṉṉilaiyi ṉiṟpadevaṉ sāṯṟudi
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: முதல் போல் மேவும் இந்த ‘நான்’ உதியாது உள்ள நிலை ‘நாம் அது’ ஆய் உள்ள நிலை. ‘நான்’ உதிக்கும் தானம் அதை நாடாமல், ‘நான்’ உதியா தன் இழப்பை சார்வது எவன்? சாராமல், ‘தான் அது’ ஆம் தன் நிலையில் நிற்பது எவன்? சாற்றுதி.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): mudal pōl mēvum inda ‘nāṉ’ udiyādu uḷḷa nilai nām adu-v-āy uḷḷa nilai. ‘nāṉ’ udikkum thāṉam-adai nāḍāmal, ‘nāṉ’ udiyā taṉ-ṉ-iṙappai sārvadu evaṉ? sārāmal, tāṉ adu ām taṉ nilaiyil niṟpadu evaṉ? sāṯṟudi.

English translation: The state in which one exists without this ‘I’, which appears as if the first, rising is the state in which we exist as that. Without investigating the place where ‘I’ rises, how to reach the annihilation of oneself, in which ‘I’ does not rise? Without reaching, how to stand in the state of oneself, in which oneself is that? May you say.

Explanatory paraphrase: The state in which one exists without this ‘I’ [the ego], which appears as if the first [the fundamental reality, namely oneself], rising is the state in which we exist as that [brahman, the ultimate reality and infinite whole, the nature of which is pure self-awareness, uncontaminated by the appearance of anything else]. Without investigating the place [namely one’s fundamental self-awareness] where [from which or in which] ‘I’ rises, how to reach [achieve or take refuge in] the annihilation of oneself [the ego], [the state] in which ‘I’ does not rise? [In other words, the only way to annihilate the ego is to investigate oneself, the source from which it rises, because only when one investigates oneself will one see oneself as one actually is, and only when one sees oneself as one actually is will one forever cease mistaking oneself to be the ego, the false rising and subsiding ‘I’.] [And] without reaching [or taking refuge in the annihilation of one’s ego], how to stand [stop, stay or abide] in the [real] state of oneself, in which oneself is that? May you say.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 116-120: the extended version of verse 28 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — முன்ன
ரெழும்பு மகந்தை யெழுமிடத்தை நீரில்
விழுந்த பொருள்காண வேண்டி — முழுகுதல்போற்
கூர்ந்தமதி யாற்பேச்சு மூச்சடக்கிக் கொண்டுள்ளே
யாழ்ந்தறிய வேண்டு மறி. […]

                              […] — muṉṉa
reṙumbu mahandai yeṙumiḍattai nīril
viṙunda poruḷkāṇa vēṇḍi — muṙuhudalpōṯ
kūrndamati yāṯpēccu mūccaḍakkik koṇḍuḷḷē
yāṙndaṟiya vēṇḍu maṟi
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: முன்னர் எழும்பும் அகந்தை எழும் இடத்தை, நீரில் விழுந்த பொருள் காண வேண்டி முழுகுதல் போல், கூர்ந்த மதியால் பேச்சு மூச்சு அடக்கிக் கொண்டு உள்ளே ஆழ்ந்து அறிய வேண்டும். அறி.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): muṉṉar eṙumbum ahandai eṙum iḍattai, nīril viṙunda poruḷ kāṇa vēṇḍi muṙuhudal pōl, kūrnda matiyāl pēccu mūccu aḍakki-k-koṇḍu uḷḷē āṙndu aṟiya vēṇḍum. aṟi.

அன்வயம்: நீரில் விழுந்த பொருள் காண வேண்டி [பேச்சு மூச்சு அடக்கிக் கொண்டு] முழுகுதல் போல், முன்னர் எழும்பும் அகந்தை எழும் இடத்தை கூர்ந்த மதியால் பேச்சு மூச்சு அடக்கிக் கொண்டு உள்ளே ஆழ்ந்து அறிய வேண்டும். அறி.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): nīril viṙunda poruḷ kāṇa vēṇḍi [pēccu mūccu aḍakki-k koṇḍu] muṙuhudal pōl, muṉṉar eṙumbum ahandai eṙum iḍattai kūrnda matiyāl pēccu mūccu aḍakki-k-koṇḍu uḷḷē āṙndu aṟiya vēṇḍum. aṟi.

English translation: Like sinking wanting to see something that has fallen in water, sinking within restraining speech and breath by a sharpened mind it is necessary to know the place where the ego, which rises before, rises. Know.

Explanatory paraphrase: Like sinking [submerging, immersing or plunging] wanting [needing or in order] to see [find or discover] something that has fallen in water, sinking [submerging, immersing, diving, plunging or piercing] within [oneself] restraining speech and breath by kūrnda mati [a sharpened, pointed, keen, acute, penetrating and discerning mind or intellect] it is necessary to know the place [namely one’s real nature, which is pure self-awareness] where [from which or in which] the ego, which rises before [everything else], rises. Know [or be aware].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 120-124: the extended version of verse 29 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] பிணம்போற் — றீர்ந்துடல
நானென்று வாயா னவிலாதுள் ளாழ்மனத்தா
னானென்றெங் குந்துமென நாடுதலே — ஞான நெறி
யாமன்றி யன்றிதுநா னாமதுவென் றுன்னறுணை
யாமதுவி சாரமா மா. […]

                              […] piṇampōṯ — ṟīrnduḍala
nāṉeṉḏṟu vāyā ṉavilāduḷ ḷāṙmaṉattā
ṉāṉeṉḏṟeṅ gundumeṉa nāḍudalē — ñāṉaneṟi
yāmaṉḏṟi yaṉḏṟidunā ṉāmaduveṉ ḏṟuṉṉaṯuṇai
yāmaduvi cāramā mā
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: பிணம் போல் தீர்ந்து உடலம், ‘நான்’ என்று வாயால் நவிலாது, உள் ஆழ் மனத்தால் ‘நான்’ என்று எங்கு உந்தும் என நாடுதலே ஞான நெறி ஆம். அன்றி, ‘அன்று இது, நான் ஆம் அது’ என்று உன்னல் துணை ஆம்; அது விசாரம் ஆமா?

Padacchēdam (word-separation): piṇam pōl tīrndu uḍalam, ‘nāṉ’ eṉḏṟu vāyāl navilādu, uḷ āṙ maṉattāl ‘nāṉ’ eṉḏṟu eṅgu undum eṉa nāḍudal-ē ñāṉa-neṟi ām. aṉḏṟi, ‘aṉḏṟu idu, nāṉ ām adu’ eṉḏṟu uṉṉal tuṇai ām; adu vicāram āmā?

அன்வயம்: உடலம் பிணம் போல் தீர்ந்து, ‘நான்’ என்று வாயால் நவிலாது, உள் ஆழ் மனத்தால் ‘நான்’ என்று எங்கு உந்தும் என நாடுதலே ஞான நெறி ஆம்; அன்றி, ‘நான் இது அன்று, [நான்] அது ஆம்’ என்று உன்னல் துணை ஆம்; அது விசாரம் ஆமா?

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): uḍalam piṇam pōl tīrndu, ‘nāṉ’ eṉḏṟu vāyāl navilādu, uḷ āṙ maṉattāl ‘nāṉ’ eṉḏṟu eṅgu undum eṉa nāḍudal-ē ñāṉa neṟi ām; aṉḏṟi, ‘nāṉ idu aṉḏṟu, [nāṉ] adu ām’ eṉḏṟu uṉṉal tuṇai ām; adu vicāram āmā?

English translation: Leaving the body like a corpse, not saying ‘I’ by mouth, investigating by an inward sinking mind where one rises as ‘I’ alone is the path of knowledge. Instead, thinking ‘not this, I am that’ is an aid; is it investigation?

Explanatory paraphrase: Leaving the body like a corpse [ceasing to be aware of it, as one would be if it were dead], without saying ‘I’ by mouth, investigating by an inward sinking [submerging, immersing, diving, plunging or piercing] mind where one rises as ‘I’ is alone the path of jñāna [the means to experience jñāna, real knowledge or pure awareness, which is one’s true nature]. Instead, thinking ‘[I am] not this [body or mind], I am that [brahman]’ is an aid, [but] is it vicāra [investigation (in the sense of self-investigation)]?

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 124-128: the extended version of verse 30 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] அதனான் — மீமுறையே
நானா ரெனமனமுண் ணாடியுள நண்ணவே
நானா மவன்றலை நாணமுற — நானானாத்
தோன்றுமொன்று தானாகத் தோன்றினுநா னன்றுபொருள்
பூன்றமது தானாம் பொருள். […]

                              […] adaṉāṉ — mīmuṟaiyē
nāṉā reṉamaṉamuṇ ṇāḍiyuḷa naṇṇavē
nāṉā mavaṉḏṟalai nāṇamuṟa — nāṉāṉāt
tōṉḏṟumoṉḏṟu tāṉāhat tōṉḏṟiṉunā ṉaṉḏṟuporuḷ
pūṉḏṟamadu tāṉām poruḷ
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: அதனால் மீ முறையே நான் ஆர் என மனம் உள் நாடி உளம் நண்ணவே, ‘நான்’ ஆம் அவன் தலை நாணம் உற, ‘நான் நான்’ ஆ தோன்றும் ஒன்று தானாக. தோன்றினும், ‘நான்’ அன்று. பொருள் பூன்றம் அது, தான் ஆம் பொருள்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): adaṉāl mī muṟaiyē nāṉ ār eṉa maṉam uḷ nāḍi uḷam naṇṇavē, ‘nāṉ’ ām avaṉ talai nāṇam uṟa, ‘nāṉ nāṉ’ ā tōṉḏṟum oṉḏṟu tāṉāha. tōṉḏṟiṉum, ‘nāṉ’ aṉḏṟu. poruḷ-pūṉḏṟam adu, tāṉ ām poruḷ.

அன்வயம்: அதனால் மீ முறையே நான் ஆர் என மனம் உள் நாடி உளம் நண்ணவே, ‘நான்’ ஆம் அவன் தலை நாணம் உற, ‘நான் நான்’ ஆ ஒன்று தானாக தோன்றும். தோன்றினும், ‘நான்’ அன்று. அது பூன்றப் பொருள், தான் ஆம் பொருள்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): adaṉāl mī muṟaiyē nāṉ ār eṉa maṉam uḷ nāḍi uḷam naṇṇavē, ‘nāṉ’ ām avaṉ talai nāṇam uṟa, ‘nāṉ nāṉ’ ā oṉḏṟu tāṉāha tōṉḏṟum. tōṉḏṟiṉum, ‘nāṉ’ aṉḏṟu. adu pūṉḏṟa-p-poruḷ, tāṉ ām poruḷ.

English translation: Therefore as soon as the mind reaches the heart inwardly investigating who am I in the above manner, when he who is ‘I’ dies, one thing appears spontaneously as ‘I am I’. Though it appears, it is not ‘I’. It is the entire substance, the substance that is oneself.

Explanatory paraphrase: Therefore as soon as the mind reaches the heart [its core and essence, which is pure self-awareness] [by] inwardly investigating who am I in the above manner [or way], when [thereby] he who is ‘I’ [the ego] dies, one thing [or the one] appears spontaneously [or as oneself] as ‘I am I’. Though it appears, it is not ‘I’ [the ego]. It is poruḷ-pūṉḏṟam [the entire substance, whole reality or pūrṇa-vastu, which is eternal and unchanging], the poruḷ [substance or vastu] that is oneself.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 128-132: the extended version of verse 31 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] பொங்கித் — தோன்றவே
தன்னை யழித்தெழுந்த தன்மயா னந்தருக்
கென்னை யுளதொன் றியற்றுதற்குத் — தன்னையலா
தன்னிய மொன்று மறியா ரவர்நிலைமை
யின்னதென் றுன்ன லெவன். […]

                              […] poṅgit — tōṉḏṟavē
taṉṉai yaṙitteṙunda taṉmayā ṉandaruk
keṉṉai yuḷadoṉ ḏṟiyaṯṟudaṟkut — taṉṉaiyalā
taṉṉiya moṉḏṟu maṟiyā ravarnilaimai
yiṉṉadeṉ ḏṟuṉṉa levaṉ
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: பொங்கி தோன்றவே, தன்னை அழித்து எழுந்த தன்மயானந்தருக்கு என்னை உளது ஒன்று இயற்றுதற்கு? தன்னை அலாது அன்னியம் ஒன்றும் அறியார்; அவர் நிலைமை இன்னது என்று உன்னல் எவன்?

Padacchēdam (word-separation): poṅgi tōṉḏṟavē, taṉṉai aṙittu eṙunda taṉmaya-āṉandarukku eṉṉai uḷadu oṉḏṟu iyaṯṟudaṟku? taṉṉai alādu aṉṉiyam oṉḏṟum aṟiyār; avar nilaimai iṉṉadu eṉḏṟu uṉṉal evaṉ?

அன்வயம்: பொங்கி தோன்றவே, தன்னை அழித்து எழுந்த தன்மயானந்தருக்கு இயற்றுதற்கு என்னை ஒன்று உளது? தன்னை அலாது அன்னியம் ஒன்றும் அறியார்; அவர் நிலைமை இன்னது என்று உன்னல் எவன்?

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): poṅgi tōṉḏṟavē, taṉṉai aṙittu eṙunda taṉmaya-āṉandarukku iyaṯṟudaṟku eṉṉai oṉḏṟu uḷadu? taṉṉai alādu aṉṉiyam oṉḏṟum aṟiyār; avar nilaimai iṉṉadu eṉḏṟu uṉṉal evaṉ?

English translation: For those who are happiness composed of that, which rose destroying themself when it appeared surging up, what one exists for doing? They do not know anything other than themself; who can conceive their state as ‘like this’?

Explanatory paraphrase: For those who are [blissfully immersed in and as] tanmayānanda [happiness composed of that, namely brahman, one’s real nature], which rose destroying themself [the ego] when it [the one poruḷ referred to in the previous verse] appeared surging up [as ‘I am I’], what one [action] exists for doing? They do not know [or are not aware of] anything other than themself; [so] who can [or how to] conceive their state as ‘[it is] like this’?

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 132-136: the extended version of verse 32 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] பரமாப் — பன்னு
மதுநீயென் றம்மறைக ளார்திடவுந் தன்னை
யெதுவென்று தான்றேர்ந் திராஅ — ததுநா
னிதுவன்றென் றெண்ணலுர னின்மையினா லென்று
மதுவேதா னாயமர்வ தாலே. […]

                              […] paramāp — paṉṉu
madunīyeṉ ḏṟammaṟaika ḷārttiḍavun taṉṉai
yeduveṉḏṟu tāṉḏṟērn dirāa — dadunā
ṉiduvaṉḏṟeṉ ḏṟeṇṇalura ṉiṉmaiyiṉā leṉḏṟu
maduvētā ṉāyamarva dālē
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: பரமா பன்னும் ‘அது நீ’ என்று அம் மறைகள் ஆர்த்திடவும், தன்னை எது என்று தான் தேர்ந்து இராது, ‘அது நான், இது அன்று’ என்று எண்ணல் உரன் இன்மையினால், என்றும் அதுவே தான் ஆய் அமர்வதாலே.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): param-ā paṉṉum ‘adu nī’ eṉḏṟu a-m-maṟaigaḷ ārttiḍavum, taṉṉai edu eṉḏṟu tāṉ tērndu irādu, ‘adu nāṉ, idu aṉḏṟu’ eṉḏṟu eṇṇal uraṉ iṉmaiyiṉāl, eṉḏṟum aduvē tāṉ-āy amarvadālē.

அன்வயம்: பரமா பன்னும் ‘அது நீ’ என்று அம் மறைகள் ஆர்த்திடவும், அதுவே தான் ஆய் என்றும் அமர்வதால், தன்னை எது என்று தான் தேர்ந்து இராது, ‘அது நான், இது அன்று’ என்று எண்ணல் உரன் இன்மையினாலே.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): param-ā paṉṉum ‘adu nī’ eṉḏṟu a-m-maṟaigaḷ ārttiḍavum, adu-v-ē tāṉ-āy eṉḏṟum amarvadālē, taṉṉai edu eṉḏṟu tāṉ tērndu irādu, ‘adu nāṉ, idu aṉḏṟu’ eṉḏṟu eṇṇal uraṉ iṉmaiyiṉāl.

English translation: When the Vēdas proclaim ‘You are that’, which is declared to be the supreme, instead of oneself knowing oneself as ‘what?’ and being, thinking ‘I am that, not this’ is due to non-existence of strength, because actually that alone is always seated as oneself.

Explanatory paraphrase: When the Vēdas proclaim ‘You are that’, which is declared to be the supreme, instead of oneself knowing oneself [by investigating] what [am I] and [thereby] being [as one is], thinking ‘I am that [brahman], not this [body or mind]’ is due to non-existence [destitution or deficiency] of strength [or lack of clarity of understanding], because actually that [brahman] alone [or that itself] is always seated [calmly] as oneself.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 136-140: the extended version of verse 33 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — அதுவுமலா
தென்னை யறியேனா னென்னை யறிந்தேனா
னென்ன னகைப்புக் கிடனாகு — மென்னை
தனைவிடய மாக்கவிரு தானுண்டோ வொன்றா
யனைவரனு பூதியுண்மை யால். […]

                              […] — aduvumalā
deṉṉai yaṟiyēṉā ṉeṉṉai yaṟindēṉā
ṉeṉṉa ṉahaippuk kiḍaṉāhu — meṉṉai
taṉaiviḍaya mākkaviru tāṉuṇḍō voṉḏṟā
yaṉaivaraṉu bhūtiyuṇmai yāl
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: அதுவும் அலாது, ‘என்னை அறியேன் நான்’, ‘என்னை அறிந்தேன் நான்’ என்னல் நகைப்புக்கு இடன் ஆகும். என்னை? தனை விடயம் ஆக்க இரு தான் உண்டோ? ஒன்று ஆய் அனைவர் அனுபூதி உண்மை ஆல்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): aduvum alādu, ‘eṉṉai aṟiyēṉ nāṉ’, ‘eṉṉai aṟindēṉ nāṉ’ eṉṉal nahaippukku iḍaṉ āhum. eṉṉai? taṉai viḍayam ākka iru tāṉ uṇḍō? oṉḏṟu āy aṉaivar aṉubhūti uṇmai āl.

அன்வயம்: அதுவும் அலாது, ‘நான் என்னை அறியேன்’, ‘நான் என்னை அறிந்தேன்’ என்னல் நகைப்புக்கு இடன் ஆகும். என்னை? தனை விடயம் ஆக்க இரு தான் உண்டோ? அனைவர் அனுபூதி உண்மை ஒன்றாய்; ஆல்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): aduvum alādu, ‘nāṉ eṉṉai aṟiyēṉ’, ‘nāṉ eṉṉai aṟindēṉ’ eṉṉal nahaippukku iḍaṉ āhum. eṉṉai? taṉai viḍayam ākka iru tāṉ uṇḍō? aṉaivar aṉubhūti uṇmai oṉḏṟu āy; āl.

English translation: Besides that, saying ‘I do not know myself’, ‘I have known myself’, is ground for ridicule. Why? To make oneself an object, are there two selves? Because being one is the truth, the experience of everyone.

Explanatory paraphrase: Besides that, saying [either] ‘I do not know myself’ [or] ‘I have known myself’ is ground for ridicule. Why? To make oneself viṣaya [an object, something known as other than oneself, the knower], are there two selves [a knowing self and a known self]? Because being one is the truth, [as is known by] the experience of everyone. [That is, since we always experience ourself as one, we are never not aware of ourself, so ātma-jñāna (self-knowledge or self-awareness) is not something that we are yet to attain but is our very nature, and hence what is called the attainment of ātma-jñāna is actually not a gain of anything but a loss of everything along with its root, the ego, which is merely a false awareness of ourself (an awareness of ourself as something other than what we actually are), and when the ego is lost there is no one left to say ‘I have known myself’, because what remains is only our real nature, which is pure, infinite, eternal and immutable self-awareness.]

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 140-144: the extended version of verse 34 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] ஓர் — நினைவறவே
யென்று மெவர்க்கு மியல்பா யுளபொருளை
யொன்று முளத்து ளுணர்ந்துநிலை — நின்றிடா
துண்டின் றுருவருவென் றொன்றிரண் டன்றென்றே
சண்டையிடன் மாயைச் சழக்கொழிக. […]

                              […] ōr — niṉaivaṟavē
yeṉḏṟu mevarkku miyalbā yuḷaporuḷai
yoṉḏṟu muḷattu ḷuṇarndunilai — niṉḏṟiḍā
duṇḍiṉ ḏṟuruvaruveṉ ḏṟoṉḏṟiraṇ ḍaṉḏṟeṉḏṟē
caṇḍaiyiḍaṉ māyaic caṙakkoṙiha
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: ஓர் நினைவு அறவே என்றும் எவர்க்கும் இயல்பாய் உள பொருளை ஒன்றும் உளத்து உள் உணர்ந்து நிலை நின்றிடாது, ‘உண்டு’, ‘இன்று’, ‘உரு’, ‘அரு’ என்று, ‘ஒன்று’, ‘இரண்டு’, ‘அன்று’ என்றே சண்டையிடல் மாயைச் சழக்கு. ஒழிக.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): ōr niṉaivu aṟavē eṉḏṟum evarkkum iyalbāy uḷa poruḷai oṉḏṟum uḷattu uḷ uṇarndu nilai niṉḏṟiḍādu, ‘uṇḍu’, ‘iṉḏṟu’, ‘uru’, ‘aru’ eṉḏṟu, ‘oṉḏṟu’, ‘iraṇḍu’, ‘aṉḏṟu’ eṉḏṟē caṇḍai-y-iḍal māyai caṙakku. oṙiha.

அன்வயம்: ஓர் நினைவு அறவே என்றும் எவர்க்கும் இயல்பாய் உள பொருளை உள் ஒன்றும் உளத்து [அல்லது, ஒன்றும் உளத்துள்] உணர்ந்து நிலை நின்றிடாது, ‘உண்டு’, ‘இன்று’, ‘உரு’, ‘அரு’ என்று, ‘ஒன்று’, ‘இரண்டு’, ‘அன்று’ என்றே சண்டையிடல் மாயை சழக்கு. ஒழிக.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ōr niṉaivu aṟavē eṉḏṟum evarkkum iyalbāy uḷa poruḷai uḷ oṉḏṟum uḷattu [or: oṉḏṟum uḷattuḷ] uṇarndu nilai niṉḏṟiḍādu, ‘uṇḍu’, ‘iṉḏṟu’, ‘uru’, ‘aru’ eṉḏṟu, ‘oṉḏṟu’, ‘iraṇḍu’, ‘aṉḏṟu’ eṉḏṟē caṇḍai-y-iḍal māyai caṙakku. oṙiha.

English translation: Not standing firmly knowing the substance, which without a single thought always exists for everyone as nature, in the mind that merges within, quarrelling saying ‘It exists’, ‘It does not exist’, ‘Form’, ‘Formless’, ‘One’, ‘Two’, ‘Neither’, is delusion-mischief. May you stop.

Explanatory paraphrase: Instead of standing firmly [as pure, infinite, eternal and immutable self-awareness] knowing poruḷ [the real substance, namely pure self-awareness], which without a single thought always exists for everyone as [their real] nature, in the mind that merges within [or in the heart, where it exists as one], quarrelling [fighting or disputing] saying ‘It exists’, ‘It does not exist’, ‘[It is a] form’, ‘[It is] formless’, ‘[It is] one’, ‘[It is] two’, ‘[It is] neither [one nor two]’, is māyā-mischief [mischief, wickedness or defectiveness born of māyā, delusion or self-ignorance]. May you stop [engaging in such disputes].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 144-148: the extended version of verse 35 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — ஒண்டியுளஞ்
சித்தமா யுள்பொருளைத் தேர்ந்திருத்தல் சித்திபிற
சித்தியெலாஞ் சொப்பனமார் சித்திகளே — நித்திரைவிட்
டோர்ந்தா லவைமெய்யோ வுண்மைநிலை நின்றுபொய்ம்மை
தீர்ந்தார் தியங்குவரோ தேர்ந்திருநீ. […]

                              […] — oṇḍiyulañ
siddhamā yuḷporuḷait tērndiruttal sidddipiṟa
siddhiyelāñ soppaṉamār siddhikaḷē — niddiraiviṭ
ṭōrndā lavaimeyyō vuṇmainilai niṉḏṟupoymmai
tīrndār tiyaṅguvarō tērndirunī
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: ஒண்டி உளம் சித்தமாய் உள் பொருளை தேர்ந்து இருத்தல் சித்தி. பிற சித்தி எலாம் சொப்பனம் ஆர் சித்திகளே; நித்திரை விட்டு ஓர்ந்தால், அவை மெய்யோ? உண்மைநிலை நின்று பொய்ம்மை தீர்ந்தார் தியங்குவரோ? தேர்ந்து இரு நீ.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): oṇḍi ulam siddhamāy uḷ poruḷai tērndu iruttal siddhi. piṟa siddhi elām soppaṉam ār siddhigaḷ-ē; niddirai viṭṭu ōrndāl, avai meyyō? uṇmai nilai niṉḏṟu poymmai tīrndār tiyaṅguvarō? tērndu iru nī.

அன்வயம்: சித்தமாய் உள் பொருளை உளம் ஒண்டி தேர்ந்து இருத்தல் சித்தி. பிற சித்தி எலாம் சொப்பனம் ஆர் சித்திகளே; நித்திரை விட்டு ஓர்ந்தால், அவை மெய்யோ? உண்மை நிலை நின்று பொய்ம்மை தீர்ந்தார் தியங்குவரோ? தேர்ந்து இரு நீ.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): siddhamāy uḷ poruḷai ulam oṇḍi tērndu iruttal siddhi. piṟa siddhi elām soppaṉam ār siddhigaḷ-ē; niddirai viṭṭu ōrndāl, avai meyyō? uṇmai nilai niṉḏṟu poymmai tīrndār tiyaṅguvarō? tērndu iru nī.

English translation: The mind merging, being knowing the substance, which exists as accomplished, is accomplishment. All other accomplishments are just accomplishments achieved in dream; if one wakes up leaving dream, are they real? Will those who, standing in the real state, have left unreality be deluded? You be knowing.

Explanatory paraphrase: [With] the mind merging [within], being [as one actually is] knowing poruḷ [the one real substance, which is oneself], which exists as siddham [what is always accomplished], is [real] siddhi [accomplishment]. All other siddhis [such as the aṣṭa-siddhis, eight kinds of paranormal powers that some people try to achieve by meditation or other yōga practices] are just siddhis achieved [or experienced] in dream; if one wakes up leaving [this] dream, will they be real? Will those who, standing [firmly] in the real state [of pure self-awareness], have left unreality [or illusion, namely the unreal states of waking and dream] be deluded [by such unreal siddhis]? You be [as you are] knowing [the one real substance].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation, especially the one in which this kaliveṇbā version is discussed:
2016-10-25: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu verse 35: spiritual accomplishment is not acquiring supernatural powers but only knowing and being what is real

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 148-152: the extended version of verse 36 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — கூர்ந்துமய
னாமுடலென் றெண்ணினல நாமதுவென் றெண்ணுமது
நாமதுவா நிற்பதற்கு நற்றுணையே — யாமென்று
நாமதுவென் றெண்ணுவதே னான்மனித னென்றெணுமோ
நாமதுவா நிற்குமத னால். […]

                              […] — kūndumaya
ṉāmuḍaleṉ ḏṟeṇṇiṉala nāmaduveṉ ḏṟeṇṇumadu
nāmaduvā niṟpadaṟku naṯṟuṇaiyē — yāmeṉḏṟu
nāmaduveṉ ḏṟeṇṇuvadē ṉāṉmaṉida ṉeṉḏṟeṇumō
nāmaduvā niṟkumada ṉāl
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: கூர்ந்து மயல் நாம் உடல் என்று எண்ணின், ‘அலம், நாம் அது’ என்று எண்ணும் அது நாம் அதுவா நிற்பதற்கு நல் துணையே ஆம். என்றும் ‘நாம் அது’ என்று எண்ணுவது ஏன்? ‘நான் மனிதன்’ என்று எணுமோ? நாம் அதுவா நிற்கும் அதனால்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): kūndu mayal nām uḍal eṉḏṟu eṇṇiṉ, ‘alam, nām adu’ eṉḏṟu eṇṇum adu nām adu-v-ā niṟpadaṟku nal tuṇai-y-ē ām. eṉḏṟum ‘nām adu’ eṉḏṟu eṇṇuvadu ēṉ? ‘nāṉ maṉidaṉ’ eṉḏṟu eṇumō? nām adu-v-ā niṟkum adaṉāl.

அன்வயம்: மயல் கூர்ந்து நாம் உடல் என்று எண்ணின், ‘அலம், நாம் அது’ என்று எண்ணும் அது நாம் அதுவா நிற்பதற்கு நல் துணையே ஆம். நாம் அதுவா நிற்கும் அதனால், என்றும் ‘நாம் அது’ என்று எண்ணுவது ஏன்? ‘நான் மனிதன்’ என்று எணுமோ?

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): mayal kūndu nām uḍal eṉḏṟu eṇṇiṉ, ‘alam, nām adu’ eṉḏṟu eṇṇum adu nām adu-v-ā niṟpadaṟku nal tuṇai-y-ē ām. nām adu-v-ā niṟkum adaṉāl, eṉḏṟum ‘nām adu’ eṉḏṟu eṇṇuvadu ēṉ? ‘nāṉ maṉidaṉ’ eṉḏṟu eṇumō?

English translation: Confusion being excessive, if we think that we are a body, , thinking ‘No, we are that’ will be just a good aid for us to stand as that. Since we stand as that, why always thinking ‘We are that’? Does one think ‘I am a man’?

Explanatory paraphrase: If we think that we are a body [because of our] confusion [or delusion] being excessive, thinking ‘No [we are not this body], we are that [brahman]’ will be just a good aid for [reminding and encouraging] us to stand [firmly] as that. [However] since we [already] stand [abide or constantly exist] as that, why [should we be] always thinking ‘We are that’? Does one think ‘I am a man’ [that is, does one need to always think ‘I am a man’ in order to be aware of oneself as a man]? [Therefore instead of just thinking ‘I am not this body, I am that’, we should look keenly at ourself to see what we actually are, because only when we see what we actually are will we stand firmly as that.]

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 152-156: the extended version of verse 37 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] அறியா — தேமுயலுஞ்
சாதகத்தி லேதுவிதஞ் சாத்தியத்தி லத்துவித
மோதுகின்ற வாதமது முண்மையல — வாதரவாய்த்
தான்றேடுங் காலுந் தனையடைந்த காலத்துந்
தான்றசம னன்றியார் தான். […]

                              […] aṟiyā — dēmuyaluñ
sādhakatti lēduvitañ sāddhiyatti ladduvita
mōdugiṉḏṟa vādamadu muṇmaiyala — vādaravāyt
tāṉḏṟēḍuṅ kālun taṉaiyaḍainta kālattun
tāṉḏṟaśama ṉaṉḏṟiyār tāṉ
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: அறியாதே முயலும் ‘சாதகத்திலே துவிதம், சாத்தியத்தில் அத்துவிதம்’ ஓதுகின்ற வாதம் அதும் உண்மை அல. ஆதரவாய் தான் தேடும் காலும், தனை அடைந்த காலத்தும், தான் தசமன் அன்றி யார் தான்?

Padacchēdam (word-separation): aṟiyādē muyalum ‘sādhakattil-ē duvitam, sāddhiyattil adduvitam’ ōdugiṉḏṟa vādam-adum uṇmai ala. ādaravāy tāṉ tēḍum kālum, taṉai aḍainda kālattum, tāṉ daśamaṉ aṉḏṟi yār tāṉ?

English translation: Even the contention that declares, ‘Duality in spiritual practice’, which one practises only not knowing, ‘non-duality in attainment’, is not true. Both when one is eagerly searching and when one has found oneself, who indeed is one other than the tenth man?

Explanatory paraphrase: Even the contention that declares, ‘Duality [is real] in spiritual practice’, which one practises only [because of] not knowing [one’s real nature], ‘[and] non-duality [becomes real only] in attainment’, is not true [because even when one is seeking to know one’s real nature, what actually exists is only oneself and not anything else]. Both when one is eagerly searching [for the missing tenth man] and when one has found oneself [to be him], who indeed is one other than the tenth man? [Here daśamaṉ, ‘the tenth man’, refers to the supposedly missing man in the analogy of the ten foolish men who, after fording a river, each counted the other nine but forgot to count himself, and therefore concluded that one of them was missing. Just as each of them was actually the tenth man even while they were anxiously searching for him, we are never actually anything other than the one reality that we are seeking to know, so just as all that each of the ten men needed was to count himself, all that we need is to look keenly at ourself, because when we look at ourself keenly enough we will see that we alone exist and are therefore eternally non-dual.]

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 156-160: the extended version of verse 38 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] வித்துப் — போன்ற
வினைமுதனா மாயின் விளைபயன் றுய்ப்போம்
வினைமுதலா ரென்று வினவித் — தனையறியக்
கர்த்தத் துவம்போய்க் கருமமூன் றுங்கழலு
நித்தமா முத்தி நிலையீதே. […]

                              […] vittup — pōṉḏṟa
viṉaimudaṉā māyiṉ viḷaipayaṉ ḏṟuyppōm
viṉaimudalā reṉḏṟu viṉavit — taṉaiyaṟiyak
karttat tuvampōyk karumamūṉ ḏṟuṅkaṙalu
nittamā mutti nilaiyīdē
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: வித்து போன்ற வினைமுதல் நாம் ஆயின், விளை பயன் துய்ப்போம். வினைமுதல் ஆர் என்று வினவி தனை அறிய, கர்த்தத்துவம் போய், கருமம் மூன்றும் கழலும். நித்தமாம் முத்தி நிலை ஈதே.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): vittu pōṉḏṟa viṉaimudal nām āyiṉ, viḷai payaṉ tuyppōm. viṉaimudal ār eṉḏṟu viṉavi taṉai aṟiya, karttattuvam pōy, karumam mūṉḏṟum kaṙalum. nittam-ām mutti nilai īdē.

அன்வயம்: வித்து போன்ற வினைமுதல் நாம் ஆயின், விளை பயன் துய்ப்போம். வினைமுதல் ஆர் என்று வினவி தனை அறிய, கர்த்தத்துவம் போய், கருமம் மூன்றும் கழலும். ஈதே நித்தமாம் முத்தி நிலை.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): vittu pōṉḏṟa viṉaimudal nām āyiṉ, viḷai payaṉ tuyppōm. ‘viṉaimudal ār?’ eṉḏṟu viṉavi taṉai aṟiya, karttattuvam pōy, karumam mūṉḏṟum kaṙalum. īdē nittam-ām mutti nilai.

English translation: If we are the doer of actions, which are like seeds, we will experience the resulting fruit. When one knows oneself by investigating who is the doer of action, doership will depart and all the three actions will slip off. This alone is the state of liberation, which is eternal.

Explanatory paraphrase: If we are the doer of actions, which are like seeds [because they give rise to the vast spreading tree of saṁsāra, the perpetually revolving cycle of births and deaths], we will experience the resulting fruit. [However] when one knows oneself [as one actually is] by investigating who is the doer of action, [the ego, which is what seemed to do actions and to experience their fruit, will thereby be eradicated, and along with it its] kartṛtva [doership] [and its bhōktṛtva, experiencership] will depart and [hence] all [its] three karmas [its āgāmya (actions that it does by its own free will), sañcita (the heap of the fruits of such actions that it is yet to experience) and prārabdha (destiny or fate, which is the fruits that have been allotted for it to experience in its current life] will slip off. This alone is the state of mukti [liberation], which is eternal [being what actually exists even when we seem to be this ego].

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 160-164: the extended version of verse 39 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] — மத்தனாய்ப்
பத்தனா னென்னுமட்டே பந்தமுத்தி சிந்தனைகள்
பத்தனா ரென்றுதன்னைப் பார்க்குங்காற் — சித்தமாய்
நித்தமுத்தன் றானிற்க நிற்காதேற் பந்தசிந்தை
முத்திசிந்தை முன்னிற்கு மோ. […]

                              […] — mattaṉāyp
baddhaṉā ṉeṉṉumaṭṭē bandhamutti cintaṉaigaḷ
baddhaṉā reṉḏṟutaṉṉaip pārkkuṅgāṯ — siddhamāy
nittamuttaṉ ḏṟāṉiṟka niṯkādēṯ bandacintai
mutticintai muṉṉiṟku mō
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: மத்தன் ஆய் ‘பத்தன் நான்’ என்னும் மட்டே, பந்த முத்தி சிந்தனைகள். பத்தன் ஆர் என்று தன்னை பார்க்குங்கால், சித்தமாய் நித்த முத்தன் தான் நிற்க, நிற்காதேல் பந்த சிந்தை, முத்தி சிந்தை முன் நிற்குமோ?

Padacchēdam (word-separation): mattaṉ āy ‘baddhaṉ nāṉ’ eṉṉum maṭṭē, bandha mutti cintaṉaigaḷ. baddhaṉ ār eṉḏṟu taṉṉai pārkkuṅgāl, siddhamāy nitta muttaṉ tāṉ niṟka, niṟkādēl bandha cintai, mutti cintai muṉ niṟkumō?

அன்வயம்: மத்தன் ஆய் ‘நான் பத்தன்’ என்னும் மட்டே, பந்த முத்தி சிந்தனைகள். பத்தன் ஆர் என்று தன்னை பார்க்குங்கால், நித்த முத்தன் தான் சித்தமாய் நிற்க, பந்த சிந்தை நிற்காதேல், முத்தி சிந்தை முன் நிற்குமோ?

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): mattaṉ āy ‘baddhaṉ nāṉ’ eṉṉum maṭṭē, bandha mutti cintaṉaigaḷ. baddhaṉ ār eṉḏṟu taṉṉai pārkkuṅgāl, nitta muttaṉ tāṉ siddhamāy niṟka, bandha cintai niṟkādēl, mutti cintai muṉ niṟkumō?

English translation: Only so long as one says, being a crazy person, ‘I am a person in bondage’, thoughts of bondage and liberation. When one looks at oneself as who is the person in bondage, when oneself, the one who is eternally liberated, remains as accomplished, if thought of bondage will not remain, will thought of liberation henceforth remain?

Explanatory paraphrase: Only so long as one says, being a crazy [or intoxicated] person, ‘I am a person in bondage’ [that is, only so long as one experiences oneself as if one were bound] [will there be] thoughts of bandha [bondage] and mukti [liberation]. When one looks at [observes, examines or scrutinises] oneself [to see] who is the person in bondage, and when [thereby] oneself, the one who is eternally liberated, [alone] remains as siddham [what is firmly established or always accomplished], since thought of bondage will not remain, will thought of liberation henceforth remain?

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation.

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 164-168: the extended version of verse 40 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu:

                              […] மனத்துக் — கொத்தாங்
குருவ மருவ முருவருவ மூன்றா
முறுமுத்தி யென்னி லுரைப்ப — னுருவ
மருவ முருவருவ மாயு மகந்தை
யுருவழிதன் முத்தி யுணர். […]

                              […] maṉattuk — kottāṅ
guruva maruva muruvaruva mūṉḏṟā
muṟumutti yeṉṉi luraippa — ṉuruva
maruva muruvaruva māyu mahandai
yuruvaṙitaṉ mutti yuṇar
. […]

பதச்சேதம்: மனத்துக்கு ஒத்தாங்கு, உருவம், அருவம், உருவருவம், மூன்று ஆம் உறும் முத்தி என்னில், உரைப்பன்: உருவம், அருவம், உருவருவம் ஆயும் அகந்தை உரு அழிதல் முத்தி. உணர்.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): maṉattukku ottāṅgu, uruvam, aruvam, uru-v-aruvam, mūṉḏṟu ām uṟum mutti eṉṉil, uraippaṉ: uruvam, aruvam, uru-v-aruvam āyum ahandai-uru aṙidal mutti. uṇar.

அன்வயம்: மனத்துக்கு ஒத்தாங்கு, உறும் முத்தி உருவம், அருவம், உருவருவம், மூன்று ஆம் என்னில், உரைப்பன்: உருவம், அருவம், உருவருவம் ஆயும் அகந்தை உரு அழிதல் முத்தி. உணர்.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): maṉattukku ottāṅgu, uṟum mutti uruvam, aruvam, uru-v-aruvam, mūṉḏṟu ām eṉṉil, uraippaṉ: uruvam, aruvam, uru-v-aruvam āyum ahandai-uru aṙidal mutti. uṇar.

English translation: If it is said, so as to be appropriate to the mind, that liberation that one will experience is three, form, formless, form-formless, I will say: know that the ego-form, which distinguishes form, formless, form-formless, being destroyed is liberation.

Explanatory paraphrase: If it is said, so as to be appropriate to the [maturity or ripeness of each] mind, that mukti [liberation] that one will experience [or that one will attain, or that will happen] is of three kinds, with form, without form, or either with form or without form [that is, a state in which one can alternate back and forth between being a form or being formless], I will say: know that [only] destruction of the ego-form [the form-bound ego], which distinguishes [these three kinds of liberation], with form, without form, or either with form or without form, is mukti.

Explanations and discussions: For explanations and discussions about the meaning of this verse, see the list of links given after it in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu: Tamil text, transliteration and translation, especially the one in which this kaliveṇbā version is discussed:
2015-12-10: Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu verse 40: annihilating our ego by means of ātma-vicāra is fulfilling the ultimate purpose of sanātana dharma

Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā lines 168-170: the concluding lines of the kaliveṇbā (composed by Sri Muruganar):

                              […] ஈ — தருள்ரமண
னுள்ளது நாற்பது மொன்றுகலி வெண்பாவா
முள்ளது காட்டு மொளி.

                              […] ī — daruḷramaṇa
ṉuḷḷadu nāṟpadu moṉḏṟukali veṇbāvā
muḷḷadu kāṭṭu moḷi
.

பதச்சேதம்: ஈது அருள் ரமணன் உள்ளது நாற்பதும் ஒன்று கலிவெண்பா ஆம் உள்ளது காட்டும் ஒளி.

Padacchēdam (word-separation): īdu aruḷ ramaṇaṉ uḷḷadu nāṟpadum oṉḏṟu kaliveṇbā ām uḷḷadu kāṭṭum oḷi.

அன்வயம்: அருள் ரமணன் உள்ளது நாற்பதும் ஒன்று கலிவெண்பா ஆம் ஈது உள்ளது காட்டும் ஒளி.

Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): aruḷ ramaṇaṉ uḷḷadu nāṟpadum oṉḏṟu kaliveṇbā ām īdu uḷḷadu kāṭṭum oḷi.

English translation: This, in which all the forty on what is of gracious Ramana become one kaliveṇbā, is the light that shows what is.

Explanatory paraphrase: This [the text Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā], in which all the forty [verses] on what is [composed by] [Bhagavan] Ramana, [the embodiment of] grace, become one kaliveṇbā, is the light that shows [or reveals] uḷḷadu [what is or what exists].

15 comments:

Sanjay Lohia said...

Sir (Sri Michael James), I thank you for posting this article, Upadēśa Kaliveṇbā: the extended version of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu. Bhagavan says in verse 10 of Ulladu Marpadu:

Leaving ignorance, knowledge does not exist; leaving knowledge, that ignorance does not exist. Only the knowledge that knows oneself, who is the first, as to whom are that knowledge and ignorance, is knowledge.

In Upadesa Kalivenba he expands this verse as follows:

K: Leaving ignorance, which is dense like darkness, knowledge does not exist; leaving knowledge, that ignorance does not exist. Only the knowledge that knows oneself, who is the first, as to whom are that knowledge and ignorance, is knowledge.

Thus Bhagavan has added the ling words which is dense like darkness in the Kalivenba version. What exactly does this clause mean? Can we interpret the first sentence of this verse as follows:

Without our dense and dark self-ignorance (that means our ego) no knowledge of otherness can arise, and without this knowledge of otherness there can be no dense and dark self-ignorance (ego). With regards.

Michael James said...

Sanjay, in many places in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu and other writings of Bhagavan there is room for interpretation, but not every interpretation is correct. Some interpretations are definitely correct, others are definitely wrong, others are missing the point, while others are not wrong but are nevertheless not the most appropriate ones, so when interpreting his writings we need to consider very carefully in each case what he would have meant in the context.

The interpretation you suggest for the kaliveṇbā version of verse 10 of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu is not entirely wrong (because in verse 13 he says ‘நானாவாம் ஞானம் அஞ்ஞானம் ஆம்’ (nāṉā-v-ām ñāṉam aññāṉam ām), ‘awareness [or knowledge] that is manifold is ignorance’, thereby implying that knowledge of otherness is nothing but ignorance (because it entails self-ignorance), and in verse 12 of Upadēśa Taṉippākkaḷ he says ‘நானாவாய் காண்கின்ற ஞானம் அன்றி இன்று ஆம் அஞ்ஞானம்’ (nāṉā-v-āy kāṇgiṉḏṟa ñāṉam aṉḏṟi iṉḏṟu ām aññāṉam), ‘ignorance, which is nothing other than awareness that sees as many’), but it is not the most appropriate interpretation in this context, because the knowledge and ignorance he refers to in the first two sentences of verse 10, ‘அறியாமை விட்டு, அறிவு இன்று ஆம்; அறிவு விட்டு, அவ் வறியாமை இன்று ஆகும்’ (aṟiyāmai viṭṭu, aṟivu iṉḏṟu ām; aṟivu viṭṭu, a-vv-aṟiyāmai iṉḏṟu āhum), ‘Without ignorance, knowledge does not exist; without knowledge, that ignorance does not exist’, are knowledge and ignorance of things other than oneself, which are a dyad or pair of opposites (about which he wrote in the previous verse).

Since the ignorance he refers to here is ignorance of other things, what he means by the kaliveṇbā extension to the first sentence of verse 10, ‘இருள் போல் மண்டும்’ (iruḷ pōḷ maṇḍum), ‘which is dense like darkness’, is that such ignorance is dense like darkness. The reason why he says this is that the more we know about other things, the more we find that we do not know, so no amount of knowledge of other things can eradicate our ignorance of them. Therefore our ignorance of them is dense like darkness.

Sanjay Lohia said...

Sir, I thank you for this clarification. As you say, ‘when interpreting his [Bhagavan's] writings we need to consider very carefully in each case what he would have meant in the context’. Since Bhagavan spoke about dyads and triads in verse 9 of Ulladu Narpadu, and therefore, as you imply, he was merely continuing with this theme in verse 10.

Verse 9: Dyads and triads, skyness, exist always holding one thing. If one sees within the mind what that one thing is, they will cease to exist. Only those who have seen have seen the reality. See, they will not be confused.

Verse 10: Leaving ignorance, which is dense like darkness, knowledge does not exist; leaving knowledge, that ignorance does not exist. Only the knowledge that knows oneself, who is the first, as to whom are that knowledge and ignorance, is knowledge.

So as you rightly explain, in verse 10 Bhagavan was talking about ‘knowledge and ignorance of things other than oneself, which are a dyad or pair of opposites (about which he wrote in the previous verse)’.

Incidentally, the extra word he uses in verse 9 of the kalivenba version, namely skyness, to describe the dyads and triads is also significant. As you have explained, the term skyness suggests that all dyads and triads are completely illusory and unreal like the blueness of the sky. So these link words enhance the meaning of the original verses of Ulladu Narpadu, and hence these are valuable additions. With regards.

Sanjay Lohia said...

Reflections… based on Michael’s article: Any experience that is temporary is not manonasa and hence not ‘self-realisation’

a) The perceiving element of the mind is only the ego. It is the core of the mind and its only constant element. What the mind essentially is is only the ego.

b) When we seem to rise as this ego, this one infinite awareness seems to be divided as a subject (the perceiving ego) and numerous objects (all the phenomena perceived by it). This division is what Bhagavan describes as nana [manifold, diverse or separate], and he says that it is ignorance (ajnana) and unreal (poy), meaning that it has no substantive existence since it is just a false appearance.

c) From any state of manolaya the ego will sooner or late rise again with all its vishaya-vasanas intact and reinvigorated, with fresh energy derived from ourself, its source.

d) Since vishaya-vasanas are ego’s urges, none of them can survive when the ego is annihilated by atma-saksatkara. Our vishaya-vasanas are the fuel that keep the ego alive.

e) Gain or loss or any other kind of change can only occur in time, and time seems to exist only in the view of the ego. When we find that the ego doesn’t actually exist, we will also find that there never was any such thing as time, and hence that no change of any kind whatsoever has occurred or could ever occur. This is the ultimate truth (paramarthika satya), which is called ajata.


Sanjay Lohia said...

The ego is the embryo…

According to Michael, verses 25 and 26 of Ulladu Narpadu are the very heart or core of Bhagavan’s teachings. If we are able to understand the correct meaning of these two verses, it should be relatively easy to understand the other vital principles of his teachings. The kalivenba version of verse 26 is as follows:

If the ego, which is the embryo, comes into existence, everything comes into existence; if the ego does not exist, everything does not exist. The ego itself is everything. Therefore, know that investigating what this is alone is giving up everything.

Let us consider the meaning of the link words ‘which is the embryo’, which Bhagavan uses to describe the ego. What is an embryo? According to Oxford Online Dictionary it means (among other meanings): ‘the part of a seed which develops into a plant’ or ‘a thing at a rudimentary stage that shows potential for development’.

In the context of the ego, the word ‘embryo’ means the womb, efficient cause, inner substance or foundation. Michael says, ‘Bhagavan implies that it is the embryo that develops into everything else, the womb from which everything is born, the efficient cause that creates or produces everything, the inner substance of all phenomena, and the foundation on which they appear.

Michael also says in one of the articles linked to verse 26, ‘When we investigate and know what the ego really is, we will discover that it is not the finite body-bound consciousness that it now appears to be, but is only the infinite consciousness of pure being, ‘I am’, which knows nothing other than itself. When the body bound ego is thus found to be non-existent, everything else that it appeared to know will also found to be non-existent, and only beginningless, endless and undivided being-consciousness-bliss (anadi ananta akhanda sat-cit-ananda) will remain as the sole reality (as Sri Ramana teaches us in verse 28 of Upadesa Undiyar).

Sanjay Lohia said...

Reflections… based on Michael’s article: Spontaneously and wordlessly applying the clue: ‘to whom? to me; who am I?’

In the sixth paragraph of Nāṉ Yār? (Who am I?) Sri Ramana says:

[...] If other thoughts rise, without trying to complete them it is necessary to investigate to whom they have occurred. However many thoughts rise, what [does it matter]? As soon as each thought appears, if [one] vigilantly investigates to whom this has occurred, it will become clear that [it is] to me. If [one thus] investigates who am I, the mind will return to its birthplace; the thought which had risen will also subside. When [one] practises and practises in this manner, to the mind the power to stand firmly established in its birthplace will increase. [...]

Michael: The essential clue he gives us here is that we can instantly turn our attention back from any thought towards ourself by investigating to whom it has occurred. That is, since every thought or experience is experienced only by ‘I’, no thought or experience can appear without ‘I’, so instead of taking any thought or experience of anything other than ‘I’ to be an obstacle to our self-attentiveness, we can take it to be another reminder that ‘I am’: that is, this thought or experience appears only because ‘I am’.

As Sri Sadhu Om used to say, we should not fight our thoughts by forcibly trying to reject or suppress them, but should instead consider them to be our friends, come to remind us to attend only to the ‘I’ that experiences them. If in this way we take every thought as a reminder that ‘I am’, and if whenever any thought arises we thereby turn our attention back to the ‘I’ that experiences it, what does it matter however many thoughts arise?

(I will continue this in my next comment)

Sanjay Lohia said...

In continuation of my previous comment:

My note: Therefore, whatever experience may arise, we should not get carried away by it, but should instead consider all our experiences as a reminder to turn back within. Who has these experiences? I have them, so who am I? This is the spontaneous and wordless application of the clue: ‘to whom? to me; who am I?’

Thus we should try to go deeper and deeper within ourself until we experience the ever-present and ever-shining pure self-awareness. Our aim is to merge in pure self-awareness so that we become one with it. If this happens all our problems will be over, because the one who has these problems will no longer exist.

So long as we experience anything visesa, we should try to ignore it by turning back within. What does visesa mean in this context? According to Michael, it means anything distinctive, special, new or what we have not always experienced. Any experience which is distinctive, special, new or what we have not always experienced is a creation of our mind, and since our mind is nothing but maya, whatever is experienced by our mind is also maya.

Our real state is nirvisesa (featureless), which obviously means the opposite of visesa. However, our attention is always on the feature-laden experiences, and therefore we almost always ignore our featureless substratum. So the practice is to ignore every feature-laden experience, and we can do so only by looking more and more at ourself, the featureless reality.

Sanjay Lohia said...

A very happy new year

We usually wish each other this time of the year by saying ‘happy new year’ in so many ways. We may say: ‘Have a new year filled with happiness’ or ‘I wish you happiness in the year to come’ or simply ‘happy new year’.

But can anything new (like a new year) bring happiness to us? If we ourself are eternal and unalloyed happiness, why should we look forward to a new year to give us happiness? In fact our looking forward to something is itself misery, because by doing so we are looking at something other than ourself.

Bhagavan says that our real nature is beginningless, infinite and unbroken being-awareness-happiness (anadi ananta akhanda sat-chit-ananda). Therefore, happiness exists in the very core or centre of our being, and it is sign of aviveka (lack of discrimination) if we look for it at other places.

There is no harm in wishing each other a ‘happy new year’, because it is just a harmless social convention. However, as spiritual aspirants we should also know that such statements make no real sense. If I am unhappy now, how can just a change of date make me happy?

Sanjay Lohia said...

Bhagavan says when we are told that we are brahman, what we should think is ‘If I am brahman, what am I?’ Thus we should turn within to investigate this ‘I’.

If you listen to lectures on vedanta, on advaita philosophy, many of them say, ‘It is not sufficient merely to investigate this ‘I’, we also have to investigate brahman’. That means they haven’t understood the statement correctly, because if brahman is ‘I’, investigating ‘I’ is investigating brahman. There is only one thing to investigate.

Bhagavan said that ‘I am that I am’ is the greatest of mahavakyas. It is because it doesn’t permit of other concepts, since it talks only about ‘I’. ‘I’ is ‘I’ – there is no ‘I’ other than ‘I’. There is a logical reason for this. We all say ‘I am this’ – ‘I am this person called Michael’ - ‘I am this body’. The nature of the ego is ‘I am this’. The ego is always identifying itself with something other than itself. When I say, ‘I am this body’, the ‘this’ here is referring to something other than ‘I’.

So logically the only true statement we can make about ourself is ‘I am I’. To say, ‘I am Michael’ has to be false, because ‘Michael’ is something other than ‘I’. Even to say, ‘I am brahman’ has to be false, if we take brahman to be something other than ‘I’. Bhagavan used to say that ‘I am this’ or ‘I am that’ is the nature of our ego. ‘I am I’ is the nature of ourself.

# Slightly modified extract from Michael’s video dated 11th February 2017

Sanjay Lohia said...

The following is the kalivenba version of verse 13 of Ulladu Narpadu:

Oneself, who is dense awareness, alone is real. Awareness that is manifold is ignorance. Even ignorance, which is unreal, does not exist except as oneself, who is awareness. All the many ornaments are unreal; say, do they exist except as gold, which is real?

The word ‘dense’ is not there in the original. Again the word ‘dense’ enhances the intended meaning. As Michael explains in his explanatory paraphrase, dense in this context indicates abundant, full, firm and clear self-awareness.

Thus oneself, who is dense [abundant, full, firm and clear] jñāna [knowledge or awareness], alone is real.

Sanjay Lohia said...

Bhagavan teaches us in verse 38 of kalivenba version of Ulladu Narpadu:

If we are the doer of actions, which are like seeds, we will experience the resulting fruit. When one knows oneself by investigating who is the doer of action, doership will depart and all the three actions will slip off. This alone is the state of liberation, which is eternal.

Bhagavan has added the words ‘which are like seeds’ in this kalivenba version. It is because, as Michael explains, our actions done by our free will give rise to the vast spreading tree of saṁsāra, the perpetually revolving cycle of births and deaths.

Sanjay Lohia said...

Leaving the body like a corpse, not saying ‘I’ by mouth, investigating by an inward sinking mind where one rises as ‘I’ alone is the path of knowledge. Instead, thinking ‘not this, I am that’ is an aid; is it investigation?

Bhagavan has added the words ’leaving the body like a corpse’ in verse 29 of the kalivenba version of Ulladu Narpadu. As Michael has explained, it means ‘ceasing to be aware of the body, as one would be if it were dead’. Thus Bhagavan is teaching us that we should dive very-very deep within ourself, because this is the only way to give up all awareness of our body.

As long as our self-attentiveness is tenuous or shallow, we will be quite aware of our body and all our other thoughts, but if we try to attend to ourself with greater and greater one pointed attention, we will start losing our hold on our body. Ultimately we need to completely give up our body-awareness, and we can do so only if we are aware of ourself and ourself alone. This is our aim.

jacques franck said...

Michael,

It seems that in verse 24 there is no link word as in the other verses

[…]
சடவுடனா னென்னாது சச்சித் துதியா
துடலளவா நானொன் றுதிக்கு — மிடையிலிது
சிச்சடக்கி ரந்திபந்தஞ் சீவனுட்ப மெய்யகந்தை
யிச்சமு சாரமன மெண். […]
[…]
jaḍavuḍaṉā ṉeṉṉādu saccit tudiyā
duḍalaḷavā nāṉoṉ ḏṟudikku — miḍaiyilitu
ciccaḍakki ranthibandhañ jīvaṉuṭpa meyyahandai
yiccamu sāramaṉa meṇ. […]

There is an explanation???

Thanks

Jacques Franck

Michael James said...

Yes, Jacques, verse 24 is the only verse in Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu that Bhagavan did not extend in any way in this kaliveṇbā version. This is because the extension to the last line of verse 23 (line 100 of the kaliveṇbā), namely ‘[எண்]ண நழுவும்’ ([eṇ]ṇa naṙuvum), ‘when one [contemplate]s it slips away’, is all an extension to the last sentence of that verse, and the extension to the last line of verse 24 (line 104 of the kaliveṇbā), namely ‘என்னே விச்சை’ (eṉṉē viccai), ‘what a wonder’, is a separate sentence that refers to what he says in verse 25.

jacques franck said...

Thank you Michael :)